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Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010

Research

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease, Europe, 1996–2006

Shamez N. LadhaniComments to Author , Mary P.E. Slack, Paul T. Heath, Anne von Gottberg, Manosree Chandra, Mary E. Ramsay, and European Union Invasive Bacterial Infection Surveillance participants1
Author affiliations: Health Protection Agency, London, UK (S. Ladhani, M.P.E. Slack, M. Chandra, M.E. Ramsay); National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa (A. von Gottberg); St. George’s University of London, London (P.T. Heath)

Main Article

Table 3

Case-fatality rates for Hib and ncHi, by diagnosis and patient age group, Europe, 1996–2006*

Diagnosis Age group
NR Total
<1 mo 1–5 mo 6–11 mo <1 y 1–4 y 5–14 y 15–44 y 45–64 y >65 y
Hib
Meningitis 1/6 (16.7) 3/93 (3.2) 2/98 (2.0) 6/197 (3.0) 11/282 (3.9) 4/45 (8.9) 0/26 
(0) 1/17 (5.9) 2/12 (16.7) 0/1 
(0) 24/580 (4.1)
Epiglottitis 0/1 
(0) 0/4 
(0) 0/5 
(0) 3/110 (2.7) 1/29 (3.4) 2/45 (4.4) 2/37 (5.4) 0/22 
(0) 8/248 (3.2)
Cellulitis 0/7 
(0) 0/18 
(0) 0/25 
(0) 0/15 
(0) 0/3 
(0) 0/1 
(0) 0/4 
(0) 0/48 
(0)
OM/SA 0/4 
(0) 0/5 
(0) 0/9 
(0) 0/24 
(0) 0/4 
(0) 0/4 
(0) 0/6 
(0) 0/1 
(0) 0/48 
(0)
Pneumonia 0/3 
(0) 0/5 
(0) 0/8 
(0) 0/20 
(0) 0/15 
(0) 1/35 (2.9) 1/36 (2.8) 5/47 (10.6) 1/1 (100) 8/162 (4.9)
Bacteremia 0/11 (0) 2/33 (6.1) 1/30 (3.3) 3/74 (4.1) 6/193 (3.1) 2/73 (2.7) 7/102 (6.9) 4/96 (4.2) 18/134 (13.4) 1/2 (50.0) 41/674 (6.1)
Other 1/1 (100.0) 0/2 (0) 1/3 (33.3) 1/10 (10.0) 0/6 (0) 2/10 (20.0) 0/11 (0) 0/7 (0) 4/47 (8.5)
NR 0/2 (0) 0/12 (0) 0/8 (0) 0/22 (0) 0/30 (0) 0/21 (0) 1/37 (2.7) 1/37 (2.7) 1/47 (2.1) 0/4 (0) 3/198 (1.5)
All cases
1/19 (5.3)
6/154 (3.9)
3/170 (1.8)
10/343 (2.9)
21/684 (3.1)
7/196 (3.6)
13/259 (5.0)
9/241 (3.7)
26/274 (9.5)
2/8 (25.0)
88/2,005 (4.4)
ncHi
Meningitis 0/8 
(0) 1/15 (6.7) 1/19 (5.3) 2/42 (4.8) 4/76 (5.3) 3/37 (8.1) 0/65 
(0) 1/63 (1.6) 2/45 (4.4) 2/4 (50.0) 14/332 (4.2)
Epiglottitis 1/2 (50.0) 1/2 (50.0) 0/2 
(0) 0/1 
(0) 0/5 
(0) 0/5 
(0) 0/3 
(0) 1/18 
(5.6)
Cellulitis 0/1 
(0) 0/1 
(0) 0/4 
(0) 0/5 
(0) 1/4 (25.0) 1/14 
(7.1)
OM/SA 0/2 
(0) 0/1 
(0) 0/2 
(0) 0/2 
(0) 0/4 
(0) 0/11 
(0)
Pneumonia 3/10 (30.0) 0/14 
(0) 1/11 (9.1) 4/35 (11.4) 4/39 (10.3) 2/11 (18.2) 4/34 (11.8) 6/56 (10.7) 40/226 (17.7) 60/401 (15.0)
Bacteremia 22/129 (17.1) 18/53 (34.0) 0/46 
(0) 40/228 (17.5) 14/151 (9.3) 2/74 (2.7) 11/236 (4.7) 22/218 (10.1) 131/759 (17.3) 2/10 (20.0) 222/1,676 (13.2)
Other 2/3 (66.7) 6/8 (75.0) 5/8 (62.5) 13/19 (68.4) 6/21 (28.6) 1/5 (20.0) 0/20 
(0) 0/9 
(0) 4/38 (10.5) 1/2 (50.0) 25/114 (21.9)
NR 1/30 (3.3) 5/20 (25.0) 2/13 (15.4) 8/63 (12.7) 3/42 (7.1) 0/19 
(0) 1/92 (1.1) 7/111 (6.3) 24/275 (8.7) 0/4 
(0) 43/606 (7.1)
All cases 29/182 (15.9) 30/110 (27.3) 9/98
(9.2) 68/390 (17.4) 31/337
(9.2) 8/153
(5.2) 16/454
(3.5) 36/464
(7.8) 202/1354 (14.9) 5/20
(25.0) 366/3,172 (11.5)

*Pediatric cases only for Attiki, Greece (1996–2002); Germany (1998 onward); and Israel (1996 onward). Values are no. deaths/no. cases (case-fatality rate). Hib, Haemophilus influenzae type b; ncHi, noncapsulated H. influenzae; OM/SA, osteomyelitis/septic arthritis; NR, not recorded.

Main Article

1European Union Invasive Bacterial Infection Surveillance participants: Peter McIntyre, Lyn Gilbert, Geoff Hogg (Australia); Reinhild Strauss, Sigrid Heuberger (Austria); Germaine Hanquet, Francoise Crokaert (Belgium); Pavla Krizova, Vera Lebedova (Czech Republic); Kåre Mølbak, Jens Jørgen Christensen (Denmark); Kuulo Kutsar, Unna Joks (Estonia); Elja Herva, Tarja Kaijalainen, Maija Leinonen, Petri Ruutu (Finland); Agnes Lepoutre, Henri Dabernat (France); Anette Siedler, Heinz-J. Schmitt (Germany); Marie Theodoridou, Anastasia Pangalis, Georgina Tzanakaki (Greece); Miklos Fuzi, Katalin Krisztalovics (Hungary); Thorolfur Gudnason, Hjordis Hardardottir (Iceland); Mary Cafferkey, Suzanne Cotter, Darina O'Flanagan (Republic of Ireland); Ron Dagan (Israel); Marina Cerquetti, Marta Ciofi degli Atti (Italy); Irina Lucenko (Latvia); Grazina Rimseliene, Snieguole Dauksiene (Lithuania); Pierette Huberty-Krau, Francois Schneider (Luxembourg); Jackie Maistre Melillo (Malta); Sabine de Greeff, Hester de Melker, Lodewijk Spanjaard (Netherlands); Hans Blystad, E. Arne Hoiby, Øistein Løvoll (Norway); Andrzej Zielinski, Waleria Hryniewicz, Anna Skoczynska, Marcin Kadlubowski (Poland); Laurinda Queirós, Paula Lavado (Portugal); Claire Cameron, Barbara Denham, Fiona Johnston (Scotland); Margareta Slacikova, Elena Novakova (Slovak Republic); Alenka Kraigher, Metka Paragi (Slovenia); Jose Campos, Javier Diez-Domingo (Spain); Rose-Marie Carlsson, Birgitta Henriques Normark (Sweden); Hans-Peter Zimmermann (Switzerland).

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