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Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010

Research

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease, Europe, 1996–2006

Shamez N. LadhaniComments to Author , Mary P.E. Slack, Paul T. Heath, Anne von Gottberg, Manosree Chandra, Mary E. Ramsay, and European Union Invasive Bacterial Infection Surveillance participants1
Author affiliations: Health Protection Agency, London, UK (S. Ladhani, M.P.E. Slack, M. Chandra, M.E. Ramsay); National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa (A. von Gottberg); St. George’s University of London, London (P.T. Heath)

Main Article

Table 4

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and outcome of invasive non–type b Haemophilus influenzae infections, by serotype and age group, Europe, 1996–2006*

Data Hia, n = 26 Hic, n = 9 Hid, n = 12 Hie, n = 143 Hif, n = 500 Total, N = 690
Diagnosis, no. (%) cases
Bacteremia 5 (19.2) 1 (11.1) 0 44 (30.8) 157 (31.4) 207 (30.0)
Pneumonia 3 (11.5) 3 (33.3) 2 (16.7) 28 (19.6) 91 (18.2) 127 (18.4)
Meningitis 6 (23.1) 2 (22.2) 4 (33.3) 22 (15.4) 86 (17.2) 120 (17.4)
Other 6 (23.1) 0 (0) 1 (8.3) 30 (21.0) 87 (17.4) 124 (18.0)
Unknown 6 (23.1) 3 (33.3) 5 (41.7) 19 (13.3) 79 (15.8) 112 (16.2)
Total 26 (100.0) 9 (100.0) 12 (100.0) 143 (100.0) 500 (100.0) 690 (100.0)
Median age at disease onset, y (IQR)
2.1
(0.8–43.7)
52.0
(1.9–53.3)
36.5
(14.4–47.0)
65.3
(34.0–8.3)
61.0
(12.7–75.2)
60.7
(15.4–75.1)
Incidence/million cases (total no. cases) by age group, y
<5 0.12 (17) 0.02 (3) 0 0.10 (14) 0.78 (106) 1.02 (140)
5–64 0.00 (4) 0.00 (5) 0.01 (10) 0.04 (57) 0.12 (171) 0.17 (247)
>65 0.02 (5) 0.00 (1) 0.01 (2) 0.25 (72) 0.77 (221) 1.04 (301)
All age groups
0.01 (26)
0.00 (9)
0.01 (12)
0.08 (143)
0.26 (500)†
0.36 (690)†
No. cases (%) by age group, y
<5 17 (65.4) 3 (33.3) 0 14 (9.8) 106 (21.2) 140 (20.3)
5–64 4 (15.4) 5 (55.6) 10 (83.3) 57 (39.9) 171 (34.2) 247 (35.8)
>65 5 (19.2) 1 (11.1) 2 (16.7) 72 (50.3) 221 (44.2) 301 (43.6)
All age groups
26 (100.0)
9 (100.0)
12 (100.0)
143 (100.0)
500 (100.0)†
690 (100.0)†
No. (%) deaths by age group, y
<5 3 (17.6) 0 0 3 (2.8) 6 (4.3)
5–64 0 1 (20.0) 0 6 (10.5) 11 (6.4) 18 (7.3)
>65 0 0 0 17 (23.6) 22 (10.0) 39 (13.0)
All age groups 3 (11.5) 1 (11.1) 0 23 (16.1) 36 (7.2)† 63 (9.1)†
Median age at death, y (IQR) 0.50
(0.47–2.3) 55.0‡ 70.0
(63.8–88.9) 72.3
(55.9–83.4) 70.5
(51.7–83.7)

*Hia, H. influenzae type a; Hic, H. influenzae type c; Hid, H. influenzae type d; Hie, H. influenzae type e; Hif, H. influenzae type f; IQR, interquartile range.
†Ages were not known for 2 persons with Hif infection.
‡Only 1 death was caused by this serotype.

Main Article

1European Union Invasive Bacterial Infection Surveillance participants: Peter McIntyre, Lyn Gilbert, Geoff Hogg (Australia); Reinhild Strauss, Sigrid Heuberger (Austria); Germaine Hanquet, Francoise Crokaert (Belgium); Pavla Krizova, Vera Lebedova (Czech Republic); Kåre Mølbak, Jens Jørgen Christensen (Denmark); Kuulo Kutsar, Unna Joks (Estonia); Elja Herva, Tarja Kaijalainen, Maija Leinonen, Petri Ruutu (Finland); Agnes Lepoutre, Henri Dabernat (France); Anette Siedler, Heinz-J. Schmitt (Germany); Marie Theodoridou, Anastasia Pangalis, Georgina Tzanakaki (Greece); Miklos Fuzi, Katalin Krisztalovics (Hungary); Thorolfur Gudnason, Hjordis Hardardottir (Iceland); Mary Cafferkey, Suzanne Cotter, Darina O'Flanagan (Republic of Ireland); Ron Dagan (Israel); Marina Cerquetti, Marta Ciofi degli Atti (Italy); Irina Lucenko (Latvia); Grazina Rimseliene, Snieguole Dauksiene (Lithuania); Pierette Huberty-Krau, Francois Schneider (Luxembourg); Jackie Maistre Melillo (Malta); Sabine de Greeff, Hester de Melker, Lodewijk Spanjaard (Netherlands); Hans Blystad, E. Arne Hoiby, Øistein Løvoll (Norway); Andrzej Zielinski, Waleria Hryniewicz, Anna Skoczynska, Marcin Kadlubowski (Poland); Laurinda Queirós, Paula Lavado (Portugal); Claire Cameron, Barbara Denham, Fiona Johnston (Scotland); Margareta Slacikova, Elena Novakova (Slovak Republic); Alenka Kraigher, Metka Paragi (Slovenia); Jose Campos, Javier Diez-Domingo (Spain); Rose-Marie Carlsson, Birgitta Henriques Normark (Sweden); Hans-Peter Zimmermann (Switzerland).

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