Use of Avian Bornavirus Isolates to Induce Proventricular Dilatation Disease in Conures
Patricia Gray, Sharman Hoppes, Paulette Suchodolski, Negin Mirhosseini, Susan Payne, Itamar Villanueva, H.L Shivaprasad, Kirsi S. Honkavuori, Thomas Briese, Sanjay M. Reddy, and Ian Tizard
Author affiliations: Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA (P. Gray, S. Hoppes, P. Suchodolski, N. Mirhosseini, S. Payne, I. Villanueva, S.M. Reddy, I. Tizard); California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Fresno, California, USA (H.L. Shivaprasad); Columbia University, New York, New York, USA (K.S. Honkavuori, T. Briese)
Figure 2. A) Avian bornavirus (ABV)–infected duck embryonic fibroblast (DEF) cell culture 6 days after injection with hindbrain tissues from an African gray parrot with confirmed proventricular dilatation disease (AG5) and staining by an indirect immunofluorescence assay for ABV N-protein. Speckled immunofluorescence is typical of bornavirus infection. Original magnification ×40. B) DEFs 3 days after injection with forebrain from a yellow-collared macaw with confirmed proventricular dilatation disease (M24). Nuclear and cytoplasmic fluorescence in DEFs stained by immunofluorescence assay for ABV N-protein. Original magnification ×40.
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