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Volume 16, Number 5—May 2010

Research

Historical Distribution and Molecular Diversity of Bacillus anthracis, Kazakhstan

Alim M. Aikembayev1, Larissa Lukhnova, Gulnara Temiraliyeva, Tatyana Meka-Mechenko, Yerlan Pazylov, Sarkis Zakaryan, Georgiy Denissov, W. Ryan Easterday, Matthew N. Van Ert2, Paul Keim, Stephen C. Francesconi, Jason K. Blackburn3, Martin Hugh-JonesComments to Author , and Ted Hadfield
Author affiliations: Kazakhstan Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases, Almaty, Kazakhstan (A.M. Aikembayev, L. Lukhnova, G. Temiraliyeva, T. Meka-Mechenko, Y. Pazylov, S. Zakaryan, G. Denissov); Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA (W.R. Easterday, P. Keim); Midwest Research Institute, Palm Bay, Florida, USA (M.N. Van Ert, T. Hadfield); The Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (P. Keim); Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA (S.C. Francesconi); California State University, Fullerton, California, USA (J.K. Blackburn); Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA (M. Hugh-Jones);

Main Article

Table 2

Anthrax outbreaks, number of animal deaths per outbreak by species affected, and miscellaneous anthrax-positive samples, Kazakhstan, 1937–2005

Animal species No. outbreaks/ samples Deaths/ outbreak* Total no. deaths
Sheep 1,735 0–851 16,080
Cattle 1,678 0–84 3825
Equine 304 0–28 634
Swine 192 0–78 832
Camel 5 1–2 7
Mink 3 28–37 95
Goat 1 1 1
Fox 1 1 1
Dog 2 1 2
Arctic fox 2 5 6
Unidentified
6

15
Miscellaneous anthrax-positive samples†
Soil samples 17
Wool 1

*0 indicates animals that recovered from infection.
Bacillus anthracis spores were recovered, but there were no infections.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Republican Sanitary Epidemiologic Station, Almaty, Kasakhstan.

2Current affiliation: VEN Consulting, LLC, Melbourne, Florida, USA.

3Current affiliation: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

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