Serodiagnosis of Primary Infections with Human Parvovirus 4, Finland
Anne Lahtinen, Pia Kivelä, Lea Hedman, Arun Kumar, Anu Kantele, Maija Lappalainen, Kirsi Liitsola, Matti Ristola, Eric Delwart, Colin Sharp, Peter Simmonds, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, and Klaus Hedman
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (A. Lahtinen, L. Hedman, A. Kumar, A. Kantele, M. Söderlund-Venermo, K. Hedman); Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (P. Kivelä, L. Hedman, A. Kantele, M. Lappalainen, M. Ristola, K. Hedman); National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki (K. Liitsola); Blood System Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA (E. Delwart); University of California, San Francisco (E. Delwart); University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, UK (C. Sharp, P. Simmonds)
Figure 1. Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) virus-like particle (VLP) expression and immunoreactivity, Finland. A) Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of PARV4-like particles in Spodoptera frugiperda armyworm (Sf)9 cells (lane 1), purified VLPs (lane 2), and uninfected Sf9 cells (lane 3). B) Western blotting with PARV4 immunoglobulin (Ig) G–positive serum (lanes 1, 3, and 4) or PARV4 IgG–negative serum (lane 2). Lanes 1 and 2, purified VLPs as antigen; lane 3, Sf9 cells expressing VLPs; lane 4, Sf9 cells expressing glutathione-S-transferase control antigen; lanes M, molecular mass marker. Arrows in panels A and B indicate the PARV4 capsid protein. C) Electron micrograph of purified VLPs. Scale bar = 200 nm.
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