Volume 17, Number 1—January 2011
Volume 17, Number 1—January 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 5.09 MB - 171 pages]
Medscape CME Activity
Public Health Implications of Cysticercosis Acquired in the United States PDF Version [PDF - 88 KB - 6 pages]F. Sorvillo et al.View Abstract
Cysticercosis has emerged as a cause of severe neurologic disease in the United States that primarily affects immigrants from Latin America. Moreover, the relevance of cysticercosis as a public health problem has been highlighted by local transmission. We searched the biomedical literature for reports documenting cases of cysticercosis acquired in the United States. A total of 78 cases, principally neurocysticercosis, were reported from 12 states during 1954–2005. A confirmed or presumptive source of infection was identified among household members or close personal contacts of 16 (21%) case-patients. Several factors, including the severe, potentially fatal, nature of cysticercosis; its fecal–oral route of transmission; the considerable economic effect; the availability of a sensitive and specific serologic test for infection by adult Taenia solium tapeworms; and the demonstrated ability to find a probable source of infection among contacts, all provide a compelling rationale for implementation of public health control efforts.
Foodborne Illness Acquired in the United States—Major Pathogens
PDF Version [PDF - 174 KB - 9 pages]
E. Scallan et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Each year, 31 pathogens caused 9.4 million episodes of foodborne illness, resulting in 55,961 hospitalizations and 1,351 deaths.
Estimates of foodborne illness can be used to direct food safety policy and interventions. We used data from active and passive surveillance and other sources to estimate that each year 31 major pathogens acquired in the United States caused 9.4 million episodes of foodborne illness (90% credible interval [CrI] 6.6–12.7 million), 55,961 hospitalizations (90% CrI 39,534–75,741), and 1,351 deaths (90% CrI 712–2,268). Most (58%) illnesses were caused by norovirus, followed by nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. (11%), Clostridium perfringens (10%), and Campylobacter spp. (9%). Leading causes of hospitalization were nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. (35%), norovirus (26%), Campylobacter spp. (15%), and Toxoplasma gondii (8%). Leading causes of death were nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. (28%), T. gondii (24%), Listeria monocytogenes (19%), and norovirus (11%). These estimates cannot be compared with prior (1999) estimates to assess trends because different methods were used. Additional data and more refined methods can improve future estimates.
Foodborne Illness Acquired in the United States—Unspecified Agents
PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 7 pages]
E. Scallan et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Each year, unspecified agents caused an estimated 38.4 million episodes of illness, resulting in 71,878 hospitalizations and 1,686 deaths.
Each year, 31 major known pathogens acquired in the United States caused an estimated 9.4 million episodes of foodborne illness. Additional episodes of illness were caused by unspecified agents, including known agents with insufficient data to estimate agent-specific illness, known agents not yet recognized as causing foodborne illness, substances known to be in food but of unproven pathogenicity, and unknown agents. To estimate these additional illnesses, we used data from surveys, hospital records, and death certificates to estimate illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths from acute gastroenteritis and subtracted illnesses caused by known gastroenteritis pathogens. If the proportions acquired by domestic foodborne transmission were similar to those for known gastroenteritis pathogens, then an estimated 38.4 million (90% credible interval [CrI] 19.8–61.2 million) episodes of domestically acquired foodborne illness were caused by unspecified agents, resulting in 71,878 hospitalizations (90% CrI 9,924–157,340) and 1,686 deaths (90% CrI 369–3,338).
Completeness of Communicable Disease Reporting, North Carolina, USA, 1995–1997 and 2000–2006
PDF Version [PDF - 181 KB - 7 pages]
E. E. Sickbert-Bennett et al.View Abstract
Despite widespread use of communicable disease surveillance data to inform public health intervention and control measures, the reporting completeness of the notifiable disease surveillance system remains incompletely assessed. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive study of reporting completeness with an analysis of 53 diseases reported by 8 health care systems across North Carolina, USA, during 1995–1997 and 2000–2006. All patients who were assigned an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, diagnosis code for a state-required reportable communicable disease were matched to surveillance records. We used logistic regression techniques to estimate reporting completeness by disease, year, and health care system. The completeness of reporting varied among the health care systems from 2% to 30% and improved over time. Disease-specific reporting completeness proportions ranged from 0% to 82%, but were generally low even for diseases with great public health importance and opportunity for interventions.
Medscape CME Activity
Hepatitis E Virus Infection without Reactivation in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients, France PDF Version [PDF - 207 KB - 8 pages]F. Legrand-Abravanel et al.View Abstract
Infections with hepatitis E virus (HEV) in solid-organ transplant recipients can lead to chronic hepatitis. However, the incidence of de novo HEV infections after transplantation and risk for reactivation in patients with antibodies against HEV before transplantation are unknown. Pretransplant prevalence of these antibodies in 700 solid-organ transplant recipients at Toulouse University Hospital in France was 14.1%. We found no HEV reactivation among patients with antibodies against HEV at the first annual checkup or by measuring liver enzyme activities and HEV RNA. In contrast, we found 34 locally acquired HEV infections among patients with no antibodies against HEV, 47% of whom had a chronic infection, resulting in an incidence of 3.2/100 person-years. Independent risk factors for HEV infection were an age <52 years at transplantation and receiving a liver transplant. Effective prophylactic measures that include those for potential zoonotic infections should reduce the risk for HEV transmission in this population.
Concurrent Conditions and Human Listeriosis, England, 1999–2009
PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 6 pages]
P. Mook et al.View Abstract
The epidemiology of listeriosis in England and Wales changed during 2001–2008; more patients >60 years of age had bacteremia than in previous years. To investigate these changes, we calculated risk for listeriosis by concurrent condition for non–pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases reported to the national surveillance system in England during 1999–2009. Conditions occurring with L. monocytogenes infection were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, and compared with appropriate hospital episode statistics inpatient denominator data to calculate incidence rates/million consultations. Malignancies (especially of the blood), kidney disease, liver disease, diabetes, alcoholism, and age >60 years were associated with an increased risk for listeriosis. Physicians should consider a diagnosis of listeriosis when treating patients who have concurrent conditions. Providing cancer patients, who accounted for one third of cases, with food safety information might help limit additional cases.
Genotyping Rotavirus RNA from Archived Rotavirus-Positive Rapid Test Strips
PDF Version [PDF - 195 KB - 5 pages]
L. M. Shulman et al.View Abstract
Genotyping circulating rotaviruses before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine is useful for evaluating vaccine-associated changes in genotype distribution. We determined frequency of rotavirus genotypes among 61 rotavirus-positive children hospitalized in Israel during the 2005–06 rotavirus season. Accurate molecular epidemiologic data were recovered from affinity-concentrated rotavirus immobilized in rotavirus-positive bands from air-dried, diagnostic rotavirus rapid test strips (dipstick) stored at room temperature from 1 week to 5 years. G genotypes were identical for 21 paired dipsticks and suspensions, whereas dipsticks or suspensions detected an additional G genotype in 2 samples. RNA sequences from 7 pairs were identical. Phylogenetic analysis suggested previously unreported G2 sublineages and G9 lineages. The ease with which dipsticks can be stored at local facilities and transported to central reference laboratories can reverse increasing difficulties in obtaining geographically representative stool samples and expand surveillance to regions lacking adequate laboratory facilities.
Seroprevalence of African Swine Fever in Senegal, 2006
PDF Version [PDF - 173 KB - 6 pages]
E. M. Etter et al.View Abstract
In Senegal, during 2002–2007, 11 outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) were reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Despite this, little was known of the epidemiology of ASF in the country. To determine the prevalence of ASF in Senegal in 2006, we tested serum specimens collected from a sample of pigs in the 3 main pig-farming regions for antibodies to ASF virus using an ELISA. Of 747 serum samples examined, 126 were positive for ASF, suggesting a prevalence of 16.9%. The estimated prevalences within each of the regions (Fatick, Kolda, and Ziguinchor) were 13.3%, 7.8%, and 22.1%, respectively, with statistical evidence to suggest that the prevalence in Ziguinchor was higher than in Fatick or Kolda. This regional difference is considered in relation to different farming systems and illegal trade with neighboring countries where the infection is endemic.
Molecular Typing of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies of Small Ruminants, France, 2002–2009
PDF Version [PDF - 326 KB - 9 pages]
J. Vulin et al.View Abstract
The agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may be infecting small ruminants, which could have serious implications for human health. To distinguish BSE from scrapie and to examine the molecular characteristics of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres), we used a specifically designed Western blot method to test isolates from 648 sheep and 53 goats. During 2002–2009, classical non-Nor98 transmissible spongiform encephalopathy had been confirmed among ≈1.7 million small ruminants in France. Five sheep and 2 goats that showed a PrPres pattern consistent with BSE, or with the CH1641 experimental scrapie source, were identified. Later, bioassays confirmed infection by the BSE agent in 1 of the 2 goats. Western blot testing of the 6 other isolates showed an additional C-terminally cleaved PrPres product, with an unglycosylated band at ≈14 kDa, similar to that found in the CH1641 experimental scrapie isolate and different from the BSE isolate.
Endurance, Refuge, and Reemergence of Dengue Virus Type 2, Puerto Rico, 1986–2007
PDF Version [PDF - 744 KB - 8 pages]
K. L. McElroy et al.View Abstract
To study the evolution of dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2 in Puerto Rico, we examined the genetic composition and diversity of 160 DENV-2 genomes obtained through 22 consecutive years of sampling. A clade replacement took place in 1994–1997 during a period of high incidence of autochthonous DENV-2 and frequent, short-lived reintroductions of foreign DENV-2. This unique clade replacement was complete just before DENV-3 emerged. By temporally and geographically defining DENV-2 lineages, we describe a refuge of this virus through 4 years of low genome diversity. Our analyses may explain the long-term endurance of DENV-2 despite great epidemiologic changes in disease incidence and serotype distribution.
Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Wild Rodents in Winter, Finland, 2008–2009
E. Tonteri et al.View Abstract
Rodents might maintain tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in nature through latent persistent infections. During 2 subsequent winters, 2008 and 2009, in Finland, we detected RNA of European and Siberian subtypes of TBEV in Microtus agrestis and Myodes glareolus voles, respectively. Persistence in rodent reservoirs may contribute to virus overwintering.
Serologic Status for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Taiwan
D. T. Huang et al.View Abstract
We studied preexisting immunity to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in persons in Taiwan. A total of 18 (36%) of 50 elderly adults in Taiwan born before 1935 had protective antibodies against currently circulating pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Seasonal influenza vaccines induced antibodies that did not protect against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.
Serodiagnosis of Primary Infections with Human Parvovirus 4, Finland
PDF Version [PDF - 371 KB - 4 pages]
A. Lahtinen et al.View Abstract
To determine the prevalence of parvovirus 4 infection and its clinical and sociodemographic correlations in Finland, we used virus-like particle–based serodiagnostic procedures (immunoglobulin [Ig] G, IgM, and IgG avidity) and PCR. We found 2 persons with parvovirus 4 primary infection who had mild or asymptomatic clinical features among hepatitis C virus–infected injection drug users.
Identification of Rickettsial Infections by Using Cutaneous Swab Specimens and PCR
PDF Version [PDF - 336 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Bechah et al.View Abstract
To determine the usefulness of noninvasive cutaneous swab specimens for detecting rickettsiae, we tested skin eschars from 6 guinea pigs and from 9 humans. Specimens from eschars in guinea pigs were positive for rickettsiae as long as lesions were present. Optimal storage temperature for specimens was 4°C for 3 days.
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak at Camp for Children with Hematologic and Oncologic Conditions
PDF Version [PDF - 174 KB - 3 pages]
C. Morrison et al.View Abstract
An outbreak of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 occurred among campers and staff at a summer camp attended by children with hematologic and oncologic conditions. The overall attack rate was 36% and was highest among children and adolescents (43%), persons with cancer (48%), and persons with sickle cell disease (82%).
Reducing Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworm Larvae in Raccoon Latrines
PDF Version [PDF - 358 KB - 4 pages]
K. Page et al.View Abstract
Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms, a parasite of raccoons, can infect humans, sometimes fatally. Parasite eggs can remain viable in raccoon latrines for years. To develop a management technique for parasite eggs, we tested anthelmintic baiting. The prevalence of eggs decreased at latrines, and larval infections decreased among intermediate hosts, indicating that baiting is effective.
Serotype Distribution and Drug Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Palestinian Territories
PDF Version [PDF - 238 KB - 3 pages]
R. Kattan et al.View Abstract
To determine antimicrobial drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes, we analyzed isolates from blood cultures of sick children residing in the West Bank before initiation of pneumococcal vaccination. Of 120 serotypes isolated, 50.8%, 73.3%, and 80.8% of the bacteremia cases could have been prevented by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Serotype 14 was the most drug-resistant serotype isolated.
CTX-M–producing Non-Typhi Salmonella spp. Isolated from Humans, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 218 KB - 3 pages]
M. Sjölund-Karlsson et al.View Abstract
CTX-M–type β-lactamases are increasing among US Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Of 2,165 non-Typhi Salmonella isolates submitted in 2007 to the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, 100 (4.6%) displayed elevated MICs (>2 mg/L) of ceftriaxone or ceftiofur. Three isolates (serotypes Typhimurium, Concord, and I 4,5,12:i:–) contained blaCTX-M-5, blaCTX-M-15, and blaCTX-M-55/57, respectively.
Emergence of Rickettsia africae, Oceania
PDF Version [PDF - 273 KB - 3 pages]
C. Eldin et al.View Abstract
We detected Rickettsia africae, the agent of African tick-bite fever (ATBF), by amplification of fragments of gltA, ompA, and ompB genes from 3 specimens of Amblyomma loculosum ticks collected from humans and birds in New Caledonia. Clinicians who treat persons in this region should be on alert for ATBF.
New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, Canada
PDF Version [PDF - 240 KB - 4 pages]
M. R. Mulvey et al.View Abstract
Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates harboring New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) were isolated from a patient who had returned to Canada from India. The NDM-1 gene was found on closely related incompatibility group A/C type plasmids. The occurrence of NDM-1 in North America is a major public health concern.
Seasonal Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Early Pregnancy and Second Trimester Fetal Demise
PDF Version [PDF - 321 KB - 3 pages]
R. W. Lieberman et al.View Abstract
A second trimester fetal demise followed influenza-like illness in early pregnancy. Influenza A virus (H1N1) was identified in maternal and fetal tissue, confirming transplacental passage. These findings suggested a causal relationship between early exposure and fetal demise. Management of future influenza outbreaks should include evaluation of products of conception associated with fetal loss.
Possible Interruption of Measles Virus Transmission, Uganda, 2006–2009
PDF Version [PDF - 386 KB - 4 pages]
F. N. Baliraine et al.View Abstract
To determine what measles virus genotype(s) circulated in Uganda after strategic interventions aimed at controlling/eliminating measles, we examined samples obtained during 2006–2009 and found only genotype B3.1, which had not been previously detected. Kenya was the likely source, but other countries cannot be excluded.
Babesiosis in Immunocompetent Patients, Europe
PDF Version [PDF - 229 KB - 3 pages]
M. Martinot et al.View Abstract
We report 2 cases of babesiosis in immunocompetent patients in France. A severe influenza-like disease developed in both patients 2 weeks after they had been bitten by ticks. Diagnosis was obtained from blood smears, and Babesia divergens was identified by PCR in 1 case. Babesiosis in Europe occurs in healthy patients, not only in splenectomized patients.
Echinostoma revolutum Infection in Children, Pursat Province, Cambodia
PDF Version [PDF - 258 KB - 3 pages]
W. Sohn et al.View Abstract
To determine the prevalence of helminthic infections in Pursat Province, Cambodia, we tested fecal specimens from 471 children, 10–14 years of age, in June 2007. The prevalence of infection with echinostome flukes ranged from 7.5% to 22.4% in 4 schools surveyed. Adult worms were identified as Echinostoma revolutum.
Streptococcus pneumoniae in Urinary Tracts of Children with Chronic Kidney Disease
PDF Version [PDF - 190 KB - 3 pages]
I. Burckhardt and S. ZimmermannView Abstract
Streptococcus pneumoniae is not commonly considered an agent of urinary tract infections. We report 3 children with urinary tract abnormalities who had high numbers of S. pneumoniae in their urine (>104 CFU/mL) and varying clinical symptoms.
Foreign Travel and Decreased Ciprofloxacin Susceptibility in Salmonella enterica Infections
PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 3 pages]
M. Al-Mashhadani et al.View Abstract
To determine antimicrobial drug resistance patterns, we characterized nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica strains isolated in Liverpool, UK, January 2003 through December 2009. Decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was found in 103 (20.9%) of 492 isolates. The lower susceptibility was associated with ciprofloxacin treatment failures and with particular serovars and phage types often acquired during foreign travel.
Emergence of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase, Austria
PDF Version [PDF - 179 KB - 2 pages]
G. Zarfel et al.
Carbapenemases in Enterobacteria, Hong Kong, China, 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 207 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Chu et al.
Change in Age Pattern of Persons with Dengue, Northeastern Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 177 KB - 3 pages]
L. P. Cavalcanti et al.
Apophysomyces variabilis Infections in Humans
PDF Version [PDF - 177 KB - 2 pages]
J. Guarro et al.
Fatal Vibrio vulnificus Infection Associated with Eating Raw Oysters, New Caledonia
PDF Version [PDF - 183 KB - 2 pages]
C. Cazorla et al.
Empyema caused by MRSA ST398 with Atypical Resistance Profile, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 187 KB - 3 pages]
C. Lozano et al.
Intensive Care Unit Admission for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Reunion Island, 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 2 pages]
B. Gaüzère et al.
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Northeastern Greece
PDF Version [PDF - 233 KB - 3 pages]
A. Papa et al.
Class D OXA-48 Carbapenemase in Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteria, Senegal
PDF Version [PDF - 192 KB - 2 pages]
O. Moquet et al.
Identification of Legionella feeleii Cellulitis
PDF Version [PDF - 208 KB - 2 pages]
S. Loridant et al.
Sparganosis, Henan Province, Central China
PDF Version [PDF - 193 KB - 2 pages]
J. Cui et al.
Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 213 KB - 2 pages]
M. Ohnishi et al.
Role of National Travel Health Network and Centre Website during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 177 KB - 2 pages]
N. L. Boddington et al.
Zoonotic Cryptosporidiosis from Petting Farms, England and Wales, 1992–2009
PDF Version [PDF - 193 KB - 2 pages]
F. J. Gormley et al.
Buruli Ulcer Prevalence and Altitude, Benin
PDF Version [PDF - 159 KB - 2 pages]
G. E. Sopoh et al.
Vibrio cholerae O1 in 2 Coastal Villages, Papua New Guinea
PDF Version [PDF - 186 KB - 3 pages]
A. Rosewell et al.
Clostridium sphenoides Bloodstream Infection in Man
PDF Version [PDF - 290 KB - 4 pages]
T. Kelesidis and S. Tsiodras
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About the Cover
- Page created: December 20, 2011
- Page last updated: December 20, 2011
- Page last reviewed: May 29, 2012
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
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