Serodiagnosis of Primary Infections with Human Parvovirus 4, Finland
Anne Lahtinen, Pia Kivelä, Lea Hedman, Arun Kumar, Anu Kantele, Maija Lappalainen, Kirsi Liitsola, Matti Ristola, Eric Delwart, Colin Sharp, Peter Simmonds, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, and Klaus Hedman
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (A. Lahtinen, L. Hedman, A. Kumar, A. Kantele, M. Söderlund-Venermo, K. Hedman); Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (P. Kivelä, L. Hedman, A. Kantele, M. Lappalainen, M. Ristola, K. Hedman); National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki (K. Liitsola); Blood System Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA (E. Delwart); University of California, San Francisco (E. Delwart); University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, UK (C. Sharp, P. Simmonds)
Figure 2. Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) results, Finland. Red dots, immunoglobulin (Ig) M; ×, IgG. Upper dashed line indicates IgM cutoff value (0.205), and lower dashed line indicates IgG cutoff value (0.141). A) Group 1: 115 university students (1 serum sample/person); none positive for PARV4 IgG, and 1 positive for PARV4 IgM. B) Group 2: 78 HIV-infected injection drug users (151 serum samples [1–7 samples/person]). Prevalences of PARV4 IgG and IgM were 78.2% (61/78) and 5.1% (4/78), respectively. C) Group 3: 200 hepatitis C virus–infected patients (1 sample/person). Prevalences of PARV4 IgG and IgM were 34.5% (69/200) and 1.5% (3/200), respectively.
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