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Volume 18, Number 12—December 2012


Diagnostic Assays for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

Jessica VanhomwegenComments to Author , Maria João Alves, Tatjana Avšič Županc, Silvia Bino, Sadegh Chinikar, Helen Karlberg, Gülay Korukluoğlu, Miša Korva, Masoud Mardani, Ali Mirazimi, Mehrdad Mousavi, Anna Papa, Ana Saksida, Batool Sharifi-Mood, Persofoni Sidira, Katerina Tsergouli, Roman Wölfel, Hervé Zeller, and Philippe Dubois
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (J. Vanhomwegen, P. Dubois); European Centre for Disease Control, Stockholm, Sweden (J. Vanhomwegen, H. Zeller); National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal (M.J. Alves); Faculty of Medicine, Ljubljana, Slovenia (T. Avšič Županc, M. Korva, A. Saksida); Institute of Public Health, Tirana, Albania (S. Bino); Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran (S. Chinikar); Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden (H. Karlberg, A. Mirazimi, M. Mousavi); Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara, Turkey (G. Korukluoğlu); Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (M. Mardani, B. Sharifi-Mood); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece (A. Papa, P. Sidira, K. Tsergouli); and Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany (R. Wölfel)

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Table 5

Operational characteristics of selected CCHF diagnostic assays*

Operational characteristic Mean score
ELISA† Crimean-Congo Fever Mosaic 2 IFA‡ RealStar CCHFV RT-PCR Kit 1.2§ CCHF2006 1.5 LCD Kit (26)

Maintenance of equipment required

0.8 0.3 0.3 0.3

Training for equipment required

0.8 0.7 0.3 0.5

Additional equipment required

0.8 1.0 0.5 0.8

Clarity of instructions¶

1.0 0.7 1.0 1.0

Technical training required¶

0.8 0.3 0.3 0.3

Technical complexity#

2.0 1.7 1.5 1.3

Training required for result interpretation¶

1.0 0.7 0.8 0.8

Ease of interpretation of results#

1.5 1.3 1.5 1.5
Total score 8.5/10 6.7/10 6.0/10 6.3/10

*CCHF, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; IFA, immunofluorescent assay; CCHFV, CCHF virus; RT-PCR, reverse transcription PCR; LCD, low-cost, low-density.
†Vector-Best, Novosibirsk, Russia.
‡Euroimmun, Luebeck, Germany.
§Altona-Diagnostics, Hamburg, Germany.
¶A score of 1 was attributed when instructions were sufficiently clear or when no specific training, no additional equipment, or no regular equipment maintenance were necessary.
#Score was attributed according to the degree of simplicity of the technique or interpretation: 2 if it was considered easy, 1 if it was considered acceptable, and 0 if it was considered difficult.

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