Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Europe
Miklós Gyuranecz1, Dawn N. Birdsell1, Wolf Splettstoesser, Erik Seibold, Stephen M. Beckstrom-Sternberg, László Makrai, László Fodor, Massimo Fabbi, Nadia Vicari, Anders Johansson, Joseph D. Busch, Amy J. Vogler, Paul Keim, and David M. Wagner
Author affiliations: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary (M. Gyuranecz); Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA (D.N. Birdsell, J.D. Busch, A.J. Vogler, P. Keim, D.M. Wagner); Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany (W. Splettstoesser, E. Seibold); Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (S.M. Beckstrom-Sternberg, P. Keim); Szent István University, Budapest (L. Makrai, L. Fodor); Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombradia e dell’Emilia Romagna, Pavia, Italy (M. Fabbi, N. Vicari); Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden (A. Johansson)
Figure 1. Existing phylogeny of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica. A) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–based phylogeny of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica derived from previous studies (5,6,8). Terminal subgroups representing sequenced strains are shown as stars, and intervening nodes representing collapsed branches are indicated by circles. Subclades within group B.13 are depicted in red. Isolates from Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Romania (n = 45) were assigned to existing subclades (black arrows) by using existing canonical SNP assays (5,8). B) Maximum parsimony phylogeny constructed by using SNPs discovered from 6 F. tularensis whole-genome sequences, including 5 strains from group B.13 and an outgroup strain, OSU18 (not shown). This phylogeny was rooted by using OSU18, and bootstrap values were based on 1,000 simulations by using a heuristic search. The newly sequenced Hungarian strain (Tul07/2007) is highlighted in gray.
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