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Volume 19, Number 1—January 2013

Research

Infections with Spore-forming Bacteria in Persons Who Inject Drugs, 2000–2009

Norah E. PalmateerComments to Author , Vivian D. Hope, Kirsty Roy, Andrea Marongiu, Joanne M. White, Kathie A. Grant, Colin N. Ramsay, David J. Goldberg, and Fortune Ncube
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Health Protection Scotland, Glasgow, Scotland, UK (N.E. Palmateer, K. Roy, C.N. Ramsay, D.J. Goldberg); Health Protection Agency, London, UK (V.D. Hope, A. Marongiu, J.M. White, K.A. Grant, F. Ncube); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (V.D. Hope)

Main Article

Table 1

Cases of infection with spore-forming bacteria and rates of infection among PWID, by health region, England and Scotland, 2000–2009*

Health region No. PWID† No. cases (rate/1,000 PWID)
Total no. cases (rate/1,000 PWID, 95% CI)
Botulism Tetanus Clostridium novyi infection Anthrax
England 137,141 139 (1.01) 28 (0.20) 32 (0.23) 0 199 (1.45, 1.22–1.65)

East of England

9,418 17 (1.81) 0 2 (0.21) 0 19 (2.02, 1.45–3.04)

East Midlands

11,796 15 (1.27) 4 (0.34) 1 (0.08) 0 20 (1.70, 1.48–1.91)

London

17,909 28 (1.56) 4 (0.22) 2 (0.11) 0 34 (1.90, 1.42–2.10)

North East

8,959 6 (0.67) 1 (0.11) 0 0 7 (0.78, 0.66–0.99)

North West

22,089 14 (0.63) 7 (0.32) 16 (0.72) 0 37 (1.68, 1.47–1.97)

South East

13,778 9 (0.65) 3 (0.22) 5 (0.36) 0 17 (1.23, 0.95–1.41)

South West

17,444 23 (1.32) 3 (0.17) 1 (0.06) 0 27 (1.55, 1.38–1.69)

West Midlands

14,734 4 (0.27) 5 (0.34) 1 (0.07) 0 10 (0.68, 0.59–0.74)

Yorkshire and the Humber


21,014
23 (1.09)
1 (0.05)
4 (0.19)
0
28 (1.33, 1.23–1.41)
Scotland‡ 23,933 18 (0.75) 5 (0.21) 60 (2.51)§ 13 (0.54) 96 (4.01, 3.43–4.29)

Ayrshire and Arran

2,373 0 0 0 0 0

Borders

201 0 0 0 0 0

Dumfries and Galloway

486 0 1 (2.06) 0 0 1 (2.06, 1.49–2.70)

Fife

1,270 2 (1.57) 0 2 (1.57) 1 (0.79) 5 (3.94, 3.27–4.64)

Forth Valley

786 1 (1.27) 0 0 0 1 (1.27, 1.04–1.52)

Grampian

3,056 6 (1.96) 2 (0.65) 3 (0.98) 0 11 (3.60, 2.83–4.48)

Greater Glasgow and Clyde

8,862 8 (0.90) 1 (0.11) 50 (5.64) 9 (1.02) 68 (7.67, 5.74–9.17)

Highland

734 0 0 0 0 0

Lanarkshire

1,649 0 0 2 (1.21) 2 (1.21) 4 (2.43, 1.92–4.46)

Lothian

3,262 0 1 (0.31) 0 0 1 (0.31, 0.23–0.40)

Tayside

1,254 1 (0.80) 0 0 1 (0.80) 2 (1.59, 1.26–1.97)

*PWID, persons who inject drugs.
†References 13,14.
‡Regions of mainland Scotland only.
§Region not known for 3 of the 60 case-patients who had C. novyi infection.

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