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Volume 19, Number 1—January 2013

Research

Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Routine Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Children, England and Wales

Shamez N. LadhaniComments to Author , Mary P.E. Slack, Nick J. Andrews, Pauline A. Waight, Ray Borrow, and Elizabeth Miller
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Health Protection Services Colindale, London, UK (S.N. Ladhani, M.P.E. Slack, N.J Andrews, P.A Waight, E. Miller); Health Protection Agency, Manchester, UK (R. Borrow)

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Table 2

Comorbidities in children with invasive pneumococcal disease, England and Wales, September 4, 2006–March 31, 2010

Comorbidity Age group, mo, no. (%)
Total, n = 1,332
3–11, n = 507 12–23, n = 446 24–59, n = 379
Total
66 (13.0)
54 (12.1)
78 (20.6)
198 (14.9)
Malignancy/immunosuppression 6 (9.1) 12 (22.2) 38 (48.7) 56 (28.3)

Hematologic malignancy

0 1 23 24

Solid-organ malignancy

3 6 7 16

Transplant*

1 1 3 5

Primary immunodeficiency

2 4 3 9

HIV infection


0
0
2
2
Congenital heart disease 22 (33.3) 7 (13.0) 7 (9.0) 36 (18.2)
Down syndrome†
9 (13.6)
5 (9.3)
9 (11.5)
23 (11.6)
Respiratory disease 10 (15.2) 11 (20.4) 6 (7.7) 27 (13.6)

Chronic lung disease

5 5 4 14

Congenital anomaly

5 5 1 11

Severe asthma on oral steroids


0
1
1
2
Gastrointestinal disease 7 (10.6) 4 (7.4) 2 (2.6) 13 (6.6)

Biliary atresia

5 0 1 6

Long-term total parenteral nutrition
 dependency‡


2
4
1
7
Neurologic disease 7 (10.6) 7 (13.0) 7 (9.0) 21 (10.6)

Cerebral insult/palsy

4 1 4 9

Congenital anomaly

2 4 2 8

Cochlear implant

0 1 1 2

Ventricular-peritoneal shunt


1
1
0
2
Sickle cell disease
2 (3.0)
3 (5.6)
6 (7.7)
11 (5.6)
Renal disease 3 (4.5) 5 (9.3) 3 (3.8) 11 (5.6)

Congenital anomaly

3 1 1 5

Metabolic renal condition

0 1 0 1

Nephrotic syndrome

0 2 2 4

Chronic renal failure

0 1 0 1

*Transplant of the heart (2), liver (1), bone marrow (1), and kidney (1),
†Congenital heart disease also was reported in 6/9, 4/5, and 7/9 children with Down syndrome in the 3 age groups, respectively.
‡Four with postnecrotizing enterocolitis with surgical resection of bowel, 2 with protein-losing enteropathy, and 1 with malabsorption syndrome.

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