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Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013

Research

Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase– and AmpC-Producing Enterobacteria in Healthy Broiler Chickens, Germany

Felix Reich, Viktoria Atanassova, and Günter KleinComments to Author 
Author affiliations: University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany

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Figure

Phenotype distribution and dendrogram of 78 enterobacteria isolates from broiler chickens at the slaughterhouse, Germany, 2010. The dendrogram was generated by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and Pearson correlation; trees were collapsed at a cutoff value of 80%. CEP, cefepime; FEP/CLA, cefepime/clavulanic acid; CTX, cefotaxime; COX, cefoxitin; CPP, cefpodoxime; CTX/CLA, cefpodoxime/clavulanic acid; CAZ, ceftazidime; CAZ/CLA, ceftazidime/clavulanic acid; ATM, aztreonam; TZP

Figure. . . Phenotype distribution and dendrogram of 78 enterobacteria isolates from broiler chickens at the slaughterhouse, Germany, 2010. The dendrogram was generated by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and Pearson correlation; trees were collapsed at a cutoff value of 80%. CEP, cefepime; FEP/CLA, cefepime/clavulanic acid; CTX, cefotaxime; COX, cefoxitin; CPP, cefpodoxime; CTX/CLA, cefpodoxime/clavulanic acid; CAZ, ceftazidime; CAZ/CLA, ceftazidime/clavulanic acid; ATM, aztreonam; TZP, piperacilin/tazobactam; CIP, ciprofloxacin; NAL, nalidixic acid; CHL, chloramphenico; TET, tetracycline; TMP/SXT, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; MER, meropenem; GEN, gentamicin; STR, streptomycin; TEM, CTX-M, and SHV are extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) types. Light gray, non–wild-type according to ESBL; ECOFF, epidemiologic cutoff value (16); dark gray, clinically resistant (12,15); *fc, cecal content; cc, carcass after chilling; †E.c., Escherichia coli; P.m., Proteus mirabilis; En.c., Enterobacter cloacae; ‡AmpC-test (13); gray, positive test; ESBL confirmation test with cloxacillin containing agar; A–G: clades; I–XIV, clusters.

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