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Volume 5, Number 5—October 1999

Synopsis

Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States

Paul S. MeadComments to Author , Laurence Slutsker, Vance Dietz, Linda F. McCaig, Joseph S. Bresee, Craig Shapiro, Patricia M. Griffin, and Robert V. Tauxe
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 2

Reported and estimateda illnesses, frequency of foodborne transmission, and hospitalization and case-fatality rates for known foodborne pathogens, United States

Disease or Agent Estimated total cases Reported Cases by Surveillance Type
% Foodborne transmission Hospital-
ization rate Case-fatality rate
Active Passive Outbreak
Bacterial
Bacillus cereus 27,360 720 72 100 0.006 0.0000
Botulism, foodborne 58 29 100 0.800 0.0769
Brucella spp. 1,554 111 50 0.550 0.0500
Campylobacter spp 2,453,926 64,577 37,496 146 80 0.102 0.0010
Clostridium perfringens 248,520 6,540 654 100 0.003 0.0005
Escherichia coli O157:H7 73,480 3,674 2,725 500 85 0.295 0.0083
E. coli, non-O157 STEC 36,740 1,837 85 0.295 0.0083
E. coli, enterotoxigenic 79,420 2,090 209 70 0.005 0.0001
E. coli, other diarrheogenic 79,420 2,090 30 0.005 0.0001
Listeria monocytogenes 2,518 1,259 373 99 0.922 0.2000
Salmonella Typhib 824 412 80 0.750 0.0040
Salmonella, nontyphoidal 1,412,498 37,171 37,842 3,640 95 0.221 0.0078
Shigella spp. 448,240 22,412 17,324 1,476 20 0.139 0.0016
Staphylococcus food 185,060 4,870 487 100 0.180 0.0002
poisoning
Streptococcus, foodborne 50,920 1,340 134 100 0.133 0.0000
Vibrio cholerae, toxigenic 54 27 90 0.340 0.0060
V. vulnificus 94 47 50 0.910 0.3900
Vibrio, other 7,880 393 112 65 0.126 0.0250
Yersinia enterocolitica 96,368 2,536 90 0.242 0.0005
Subtotal 5,204,934
Parasitic
Cryptosporidium parvum 300,000 6,630 2,788 10 0.150 0.005
Cyclospora cayetanensis 16,264 428 98 90 0.020 0.0005
Giardia lamblia 2,000,000 107,000 22,907 10 n/a n/a
Toxoplasma gondii 225,000 15,000 50 n/a n/a
Trichinella spiralis 52 26 100 0.081 0.003
Subtotal 2,541,316
Viral
Norwalk-like viruses 23,000,000 40 n/a n/a
Rotavirus 3,900,000 1 n/a n/a
Astrovirus 3,900,000 1 n/a n/a
Hepatitis A 83,391 27,797 5 0.130 0.0030
Subtotal 30,883,391
Grand Total 38,629,641

aNumbers in italics are estimates; others are measured.
b>70% of cases acquired abroad.

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