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Volume 7, Number 7—June 2001

Research

Cholera Outbreak in Southern Tanzania: Risk Factors and Patterns of Transmission

Camilo J. Acosta*†, Claudia M. Galindo*†, John Kimario*, Kesheni Senkoro*, Honorathy Urassa*, Climent Casals†, Manuel Corachán†, N. Eseko‡, Marcel Tanner§, Hassan Mshinda*, Fred Lwilla¶, Jordi Vila†, and Pedro L. Alonso†Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, Ifakara, Tanzania; †Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain; ‡Ministry of Health, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; §Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland; ¶District Medical Officer, Kilombero, Morogoro Region, Tanzania

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Table 1

Univariate analysis results of potential risk factors during the 5 days before onset of illness in cases and matched controls

Cases % Controls exposed % Matched
Risk factors  (No. =180) (No.=360) odds ratio 95% CIa p-value
Social activities
Attended funeral recently 6.2 2.2 2.7 1.1 - 6.8 0.03
Attended party recently 2.8 4.7 0.6 0.2 - 1.7 0.33
Travel in the past 2 weeks 19.0 13.6 1.5 0.9 - 2.5 0.10
Standard of living
Mud housingb 48.0 36.0 1.7 1.2 - 2.5 0.01
Non iron sheet roof 55.6 39.2 2.0 1.4 - 2.8 0.00
No latrine at home 56.6 9.8 11.4 6.3 -20.5 0.00
Simple pit latrinec 91.4 81.2 2.7 1.4 - 5.1 0.001
Water exposure
>10 minutes to water source 26.1 11.4 2.8 1.7 - 4.6 0.00
Unboiled drinking water 86.7 79.2 1.9 1.1 - 3.2 0.02
Unfiltered drinking water 89.4 84.2 1.7 0.9 - 3.0 0.07
River bathing 56.6 9.8 11.4 6.3 -20.5 0.00
Inside tap waterd 18.9 9.4 3.0 1.7 - 5.1 0.00
Other source waterd 18.3 7.5 3.7 2.0 - 6.7 0.00
Food exposures
Dried fish 52.5 7.2 13.0 7.3 -23.3 0.00
Prawns 13.9 5.0 3.1 1.6 - 5.9 0.00
Uncooked vegetables 25.1 20.1 1.3 0.9 - 2.0 0.20
Fruits 32.4 30.4 1.1 0.7 - 1.6 0.60
Religione 41.2 23.1 2.3 1.1 - 3.4 0.00

aCI = confidence interval.
bCompared with brick houses.
cCompared with ventilated improved pit latrines.
dCompared with hand-pumped drinking water.
eMuslims (compared with other religions, including Catholics, Protestants, and others).

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