The Relationship between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Europe
Stef L.A.M. Bronzwaer* , Otto Cars†, Udo Buchholz*, Sigvard Mölstad‡, Wim Goettsch*, Irene K. Veldhuijzen*, Jacob L. Kool*, Marc J.W. Sprenger*, John E. Degener§, and participants in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System
Author affiliations: *National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; †Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; ‡The Nepi Foundation, Malmö, Sweden; §Groningen University Hospital, Groningen, the Netherlands;
Figure 2. The logodds of resistance to penicillin among invasive isolates of Streptoccus pneumoniae (PNSP; ln(R/[1-R])) is regressed against outpatient sales of beta-lactam antibiotics in 11 European countries; antimicrobial resistance data are from 1998 to 1999 and antibiotic sales data are from 1997. DDD = defined daily dose; BE = Belgium; DE = Germany; FI = Finland; IE = Ireland; IT = Italy; LU = Luxembourg; NL = the Netherlands; PT = Portugal; ES = Spain; Se = Sweden; UK = United Kingdom.
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