The Relationship between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Europe
Stef L.A.M. Bronzwaer* , Otto Cars†, Udo Buchholz*, Sigvard Mölstad‡, Wim Goettsch*, Irene K. Veldhuijzen*, Jacob L. Kool*, Marc J.W. Sprenger*, John E. Degener§, and participants in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System
Author affiliations: *National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; †Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; ‡The Nepi Foundation, Malmö, Sweden; §Groningen University Hospital, Groningen, the Netherlands;
Figure 3. The logodds of resistance of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin (PNSP; ln(R/(1-R))) is regressed against nonadherence rates to antibiotic therapy in four European countries. Nonadherence rates are from 1993; PNSP data are from 1998-99. UK = United Kingdom; BE = Belgium; IT = Italy; ES = Spain.
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