Skip directly to local search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home

Volume 9, Number 12—December 2003

Research

Global Distribution of Rubella Virus Genotypes

Du-Ping Zheng*1, Teryl K. Frey*Comments to Author , Joseph Icenogle†, Shigetaka Katow†‡, Emily S. Abernathy*†, Ki-Joon Song§, Wen-Bo Xu¶, Vitaly Yarulin#, R.G. Desjatskova#, Yair Aboudy**, Gisela Enders††, and Margaret Croxson‡‡
Author affiliations: *Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ‡National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; §Korea University, Seoul, Korea; ¶Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; #Institute of Viral Preparations, Moscow, Russia; **Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; ††Institute for Virology, Infectiology and Epidemiology, Stuttgart, Germany; ‡‡Auckland Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand

Main Article

Figure 1

Phylogenetic trees. Unrooted tree was made by the maximum likelihood method in the Tree-Puzzle 5.0 program (25,000 puzzling steps for the tree in A; 10,000 puzzling steps for the tree in B) using the complete E1 gene sequence (1179 nt). Bootstrapping values (out of 100) for each node are given. The tree in A was constructed with half of the rubella genotype I (RGI) and all of the RGII sequences (to allow the reader to read the RGI virus designations); the tree in B is a blowup of the RGI node fr

Figure 1. Phylogenetic trees. Unrooted tree was made by the maximum likelihood method in the Tree-Puzzle 5.0 program (25,000 puzzling steps for the tree in A; 10,000 puzzling steps for the tree in B) using the complete E1 gene sequence (1179 nt). Bootstrapping values (out of 100) for each node are given. The tree in A was constructed with half of the rubella genotype I (RGI) and all of the RGII sequences (to allow the reader to read the RGI virus designations); the tree in B is a blowup of the RGI node from a tree constructed with all of the sequences. In B, sequences used in the previous study (8) are designated by an (*), and sequences of viruses isolated before 1980 are in black. Branches are color-coded as follows: RGI Intercontinental (International) 1961–1986 and 1964–1981, black; RGI Europe 1972–1991, gold; RGI Europe 1986–1994 and Europe 1991–1998, green; RGI China, 1999, gold; RGI USA, 1990–2000, light blue; and branch containing sub-branches from Japan 1987–1991, Intercontinental (International) 1997–2000, Japan, Korea 1994–1996, New Zealand, 1991, and Japan-Philippines, 1997, dark blue. Of these, the black Intercontinental (International), green Europe, light-blue USA, and dark-blue branches were recognized in the previous study (the light-blue branch as US-Japan and the dark-blue branch as Japan-Hong Kong).

Main Article

1Current address: Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Top of Page

 

Past Issues

Select a Past Issue:

Art in Science - Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases
Now available for order



CDC 24/7 – Saving Lives, Protecting People, Saving Money. Learn More About How CDC Works For You…

USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO