Get Email Updates
To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address:
Volume 12, Number 7—July 2006
Volume 12, Number 7—July 2006 PDF Version [PDF - 5.58 MB - 139 pages]
Emerging Infectious Determinants of Chronic Diseases
PDF Version [PDF - 145 KB - 7 pages]
S. M. O'Connor et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Infectious agents, often through complex systems, likely determine more chronic diseases than is currently appreciated.
Evidence now confirms that noncommunicable chronic diseases can stem from infectious agents. Furthermore, at least 13 of 39 recently described infectious agents induce chronic syndromes. Identifying the relationships can affect health across populations, creating opportunities to reduce the impact of chronic disease by preventing or treating infection. As the concept is progressively accepted, advances in laboratory technology and epidemiology facilitate the detection of noncultivable, novel, and even recognized microbial origins. A spectrum of diverse pathogens and chronic syndromes emerges, with a range of pathways from exposure to chronic illness or disability. Complex systems of changing human behavioral traits superimposed on human, microbial, and environmental factors often determine risk for exposure and chronic outcome. Yet the strength of causal evidence varies widely, and detecting a microbe does not prove causality. Nevertheless, infectious agents likely determine more cancers, immune-mediated syndromes, neurodevelopmental disorders, and other chronic conditions than currently appreciated.
Global Public Health Surveillance under New International Health Regulations
PDF Version [PDF - 287 KB - 8 pages]
M. G. Baker and D. P. FidlerView SummaryView Abstract
IHR 2005 establishes a global surveillance system for public health emergencies of international concern.
The new International Health Regulations adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2005 (IHR 2005) represents a major development in the use of international law for public health purposes. One of the most important aspects of IHR 2005 is the establishment of a global surveillance system for public health emergencies of international concern. This article assesses the surveillance system in IHR 2005 by applying well-established frameworks for evaluating public health surveillance. The assessment shows that IHR 2005 constitutes a major advance in global surveillance from what has prevailed in the past. Effectively implementing the IHR 2005 surveillance objectives requires surmounting technical, resource, governance, legal, and political obstacles. Although IHR 2005 contains some provisions that directly address these obstacles, active support by the World Health Organization and its member states is required to strengthen national and global surveillance capabilities.
Neisseria meningitidis Sequence Type and Risk for Death, Iceland
PDF Version [PDF - 270 KB - 8 pages]
M. Gottfreðsson et al.View Abstract
Invasive meningococcal infections are hyperendemic in Iceland, a relatively isolated country in the mid-Atlantic. We performed a nationwide study on all viable meningococcal strains (N = 362) from 1977 to 2004. We analyzed the association of patient's age and sex, meningococcal serogroups, and sequence types (STs) with outcomes. Overall, 59 different STs were identified, 19 of which were unique to Iceland. The most common STs were 32 (24.6%), 11 (19.9%), and 10 (10.2%). The unique ST-3492 ranked fourth (7.7%). The most common serogroups were B (56.4%), C (39.8%), and A (2.2%). Age (p<0.001) and infection with a unique ST (p = 0.011) were independently associated with increased death rates, whereas isolation of meningococci from cerebrospinal fluid only was associated with lower death rates (p = 0.046). This study shows evolutionary trends of meningococcal isolates in a relatively isolated community and highlights an association between unique STs and poor outcome.
Tickborne Arbovirus Surveillance in Market Livestock, Nairobi, Kenya
PDF Version [PDF - 123 KB - 7 pages]
R. Sang et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Numerous tickborne viruses, including Dhori virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, were isolated.
To identify tickborne viruses circulating in Kenya and the surrounding region, we conducted surveillance at abattoirs in Nairobi, Kenya. Species of ticks collected included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (56%), Amblyomma gemma (14%), R. appendiculatus (8%), A. variegatum (6%), and others. A total of 56 virus isolates were obtained, 26 from A. gemma, 17 from R. pulchellus, 6 from A. variegatum, and 7 from other species. Virus isolates included Dugbe virus (DUGV), an unknown virus related to DUGV, Thogoto, Bhanja, Kadam, Dhori, Barur, and foot-and-mouth disease (FMDV) viruses. This is the first report of Dhori virus isolation in East Africa and the first known isolation of FMDV associated with tick collection. Our results demonstrate the potential for tickborne dissemination of endemic and emergent viruses and the relevance of A. gemma in the maintenance of tickborne viruses in this region.
Rodent-associated Bartonella Febrile Illness, Southwestern United States
PDF Version [PDF - 237 KB - 6 pages]
J. Iralu et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Patients showed seroconversion to rodent-associated Bartonella antigens, but not to Bartonella pathogenic for humans.
Serum specimens from 114 patients hospitalized with a febrile illness were tested with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Bartonella antigens prepared from 6 species of sigmodontine rodents and 3 known human Bartonella pathogens: B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. elizabethae. Acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from 5 of these patients showed seroconversion with an IFA titer >512 to rodent-associated Bartonella antigens. The highest titer was against antigen derived from the white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula), although this rodent is not necessarily implicated as the source of infection. Three of the 5 who seroconverted showed no cross-reaction to the 3 Bartonella human pathogens. Common clinical characteristics were fever, chills, myalgias, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and transaminasemia. Although antibodies to Bartonella are cross-reactive, high-titer seroconversions to rodent-associated Bartonella antigens in adults with common clinical characteristics should stimulate the search for additional Bartonella human pathogens.
Migratory Passerine Birds as Reservoirs of Lyme Borreliosis in Europe
PDF Version [PDF - 305 KB - 16 pages]
P. Comstedt et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Birds host vector ticks and Borrelia species and vary in effectiveness as reservoirs.
To define the role of birds as reservoirs and disseminators of Borrelia spirochetes, we characterized tick infestation and reservoir competence of migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1,120 immature Ixodes ricinus ticks were removed from 13,260 birds and assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Borrelia, followed by DNA sequencing for species and genotype identification. Distributions of ticks on birds were aggregated, presumably because of varying encounters with ticks along migratory routes. Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were detected in 160 (14%) ticks. Borrelia garinii was the most common species in PCR-positive samples and included genotypes associated with human infections. Infestation prevalence with infected ticks was 5 times greater among ground-foraging birds than other bird species, but the 2 groups were equally competent in transmitting Borrelia. Migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Borrelia species and vary in effectiveness as reservoirs on the basis of their feeding behavior.
Reinfestation Sources for Chagas Disease Vector, Triatoma infestans, Argentina
PDF Version [PDF - 182 KB - 7 pages]
M. C. Cecere et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Treating all communities within 1,500 m of a target community may reduce reinfestation risk.
Reinfestation by Triatoma infestans after insecticide spraying has caused elimination efforts in the dry Chaco region to fail repeatedly. The sources and spatial extent that need to be considered to understand the reinfestation pattern and to plan a comprehensive control program were studied in 2 adjacent rural communities in northwestern Argentina from 1993 to 1997. The effects of external, residual, and primary sources on the reinfestation pattern were evaluated by using geographic information systems, satellite imagery, spatial statistics, and 5-year retrospective data for 1,881 sites. The reinfestation process depended on primary internal sources and on surrounding infested communities. In the dry Chaco, successfully reducing the risk for reinfestation in a community depends on treating all communities and isolated sites within 1,500 m of the target community. In addition, during the surveillance phase, spraying all sites within 500 m of new foci will delay reinfestation.
Rickettsia sibirica Isolation from a Patient and Detection in Ticks, Portugal
PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 6 pages]
R. de Sousa et al.View SummaryView Abstract
First R. sibirica–related strain is detected.
We report the first isolation of Rickettsia sibirica (strain mongolotimonae) from the blood of a patient and detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the rickettsia in a Rhipicephalus pusillus tick collected from a dead mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) in the Alentejo region, Portugal. We describe also the first PCR detection of a new Rickettsia strain that is related to R. sibirica.
Orientia tsutsugamushi in Eschars from Scrub Typhus Patients
PDF Version [PDF - 144 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Liu et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Eschars can be used for genetic characterization of O. tsutsugamushi during the convalescent phase.
To verify the value of eschars for the diagnosis of scrub typhus and to characterize genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi in patients, we examined eschars and blood specimens of 7 patients from Shandong Province, People's Republic of China, for O. tsutsugamushi by polymerase chain reaction targeting the Sta56 gene. All 7 eschars and acute-phase blood samples were positive, while no specific DNA amplicons were obtained from the 7 convalescent-phase blood samples collected after antimicrobial drug therapy. The findings indicate that patients' eschars can be used for detection and genetic characterization of O. tsutsugamushi during the convalescent phase.
Epidemiologic and Molecular Analysis of Human Tularemia, United States, 1964–2004
PDF Version [PDF - 263 KB - 9 pages]
J. Staples et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Distinct subpopulations of F. tularensis differ in their clinical manifestations, geographic distribution, and likely modes of transmission.
Tularemia in the United States is caused by 2 subspecies of Francisella tularensis, subspecies tularensis (type A) and subspecies holarctica (type B). We compared clinical and demographic features of human tularemia cases from 1964 to 2004 from 39 states in which an isolate was recovered and subtyped. Our data indicate that type A and type B infections differ with respect to affected populations, anatomic site of isolation, and geographic distribution. Molecular subtyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis further defined 2 subpopulations of type A (type A-east and type A-west) that differ with respect to geographic distribution, disease outcome, and transmission. Our data suggest that type A-west infections are less severe than either type B or type A-east infections. Through a combined epidemiologic and molecular approach to human cases of tularemia, we provide new insights into the disease for future investigation.
Smallpox during Pregnancy and Maternal Outcomes
PDF Version [PDF - 124 KB - 3 pages]
H. NishiuraView Abstract
A historical study evaluated maternal outcomes in pregnancy complicated by smallpox. The overall case fatality was estimated to be 34.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 31.4–37.1), and the proportion of miscarriage or premature birth was estimated to be 39.9% (95% CI 36.5–43.2). Vaccination before pregnancy reduced the risk for death.
Japanese Spotted Fever, South Korea
PDF Version [PDF - 260 KB - 3 pages]
M. Chung et al.View Abstract
We describe the first case of Japanese spotted fever and the first isolate of spotted fever group rickettsia from a patient in South Korea. The isolated rickettsia from the patient was identified as Rickettsia japonica by analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA, gltA, ompA, ompB, and sca4 genes.
Transmission of New Bovine Prion to Mice
PDF Version [PDF - 303 KB - 4 pages]
T. Baron et al.View Abstract
We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6 mice produces a disease with preservation of PrPres molecular features distinct from BSE.
Follow-up of 2003 Human West Nile Virus Infections, Denver, Colorado
PDF Version [PDF - 67 KB - 3 pages]
J. L. Patnaik et al.View Abstract
Tri-County Health Department and Boulder County Public Health conducted a follow-up study of all nonfatal West Nile virus (WNV) cases reported during 2003 in 4 metropolitan Denver, Colorado, counties. Self-reported patient information was obtained ≈6 months after onset. A total of 656 (81.2%) eligible WNV patients are included in this study.
Triple Reassortant H3N2 Influenza A Viruses, Canada, 2005
PDF Version [PDF - 347 KB - 4 pages]
C. W. Olsen et al.View Abstract
Since January 2005, H3N2 influenza viruses have been isolated from pigs and turkeys throughout Canada and from a swine farmer and pigs on the same farm in Ontario. These are human/classical swine/avian reassortants similar to viruses that emerged in US pigs in 1998 but with a distinct human-lineage neuraminidase gene.
Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Norway and Denmark
PDF Version [PDF - 94 KB - 3 pages]
T. Skarpaas et al.View Abstract
Serum from 2 Norwegians with tickborne encephalitis (TBE) (1 of whom was infected in Denmark) and 810 Norwegian ticks were tested for TBE virus (TBEV) RNA by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed. This is the first genome detection of TBEV in serum from Norwegian patients.
Detection of Infectious Poxvirus Particles
PDF Version [PDF - 348 KB - 3 pages]
A. Nitsche et al.View Abstract
To enable rapid and reliable detection of poxviruses in clinical and environmental specimens, a diagnostic approach was developed to detect <3 PFU of infectious poxvirus particles in <5 hours. This approach involved virus culture combined with real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction detection of 2 viral genes expressed immediately after infection.
European Bat Lyssavirus Type 2 RNA in Myotis daubentonii
PDF Version [PDF - 116 KB - 3 pages]
N. Johnson et al.View Abstract
Organ distribution of European bat lyssavirus type 2 viral RNA in its reservoir host, Myotis daubentonii (Daubenton's bat), was measured with a novel quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay. High levels of genomic RNA were found in the brain and were also detectable in the tongue, bladder, and stomach.
Replicon Typing of Plasmids Encoding Resistance to Newer β-Lactams
PDF Version [PDF - 211 KB - 4 pages]
A. Carattoli et al.View Abstract
Polymerase chain reaction–based replicon typing represents a novel method to describe the dissemination and follow the evolution of resistance plasmids. We used this approach to study 26 epidemiologically unrelated Enterobacteriaceae and demonstrate the dominance of incompatibility (Inc) A/C or Inc N-related plasmids carrying some emerging resistance determinants to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems.
Azithromycin Failure in Mycoplasma genitalium Urethritis
PDF Version [PDF - 199 KB - 4 pages]
C. S. Bradshaw et al.View Abstract
We report significant failure rates (28%, 95% confidence interval 15%–45%) after administering 1 g azithromycin to men with Mycoplasma genitalium–positive nongonococcal urethritis. In vitro evidence supported reduced susceptibility of M. genitalium to macrolides. Moxifloxacin administration resulted in rapid symptom resolution and eradication of infection in all cases. These findings have implications for management of urethritis.
Leptospirosis in Squirrels Imported from United States to Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 104 KB - 3 pages]
T. Masuzawa et al.View Abstract
We diagnosed leptospirosis in 2 patients exposed to southern flying squirrels imported from the United States to Japan. Patients worked with exotic animals in their company. Leptospira isolates from 1 patient and 5 of 10 squirrels at the company were genetically and serologically identical and were identified as Leptospira kirschneri.
Tuberculosis Outbreak in Marijuana Users, Seattle, Washington, 2004
PDF Version [PDF - 181 KB - 4 pages]
J. E. Oeltmann et al.View Abstract
Matching Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were noted among 11 young tuberculosis patients socially linked through illicit drug–related activities. A large proportion of their friends, 14 (64%) of 22, had positive tuberculin skin-test results. The behavior of "hotboxing" (smoking marijuana inside a closed car with friends to repeatedly inhale exhaled smoke) fueled transmission.
60 Years of Progress—CDC and Infectious Diseases
PDF Version [PDF - 84 KB - 2 pages]
T. Popovic and D. E. Snider
Influenzalike Illness Among Homeless Persons
PDF Version [PDF - 36 KB - 2 pages]
S. J. Bucher et al.
Human West Nile Virus Infection, Catalonia, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
D. Bofill et al.
Shigellosis and Cryptosporidiosis, Baltimore, Maryland
PDF Version [PDF - 25 KB - 2 pages]
D. M. Hartley et al.
Human Hantavirus Infection, Brazilian Amazon
PDF Version [PDF - 40 KB - 3 pages]
M. Cordeiro dos Santos et al.
H5N1 Influenza Virus, Domestic Birds, Western Siberia, Russia
PDF Version [PDF - 112 KB - 3 pages]
A. M. Shestopalov et al.
Leishmaniasis among Gold Miners, French Guiana
PDF Version [PDF - 53 KB - 2 pages]
B. Rotureau et al.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance, Ghana
PDF Version [PDF - 56 KB - 3 pages]
E. Owusu-Dabo et al.
Avian Influenza Risk Communication, Thailand
PDF Version [PDF - 44 KB - 2 pages]
M. T. Takeuchi
Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in Staphylococcus aureus
PDF Version [PDF - 50 KB - 2 pages]
D. C. Melles et al.
Small Anellovirus in Hepatitis C Patients and Healthy Controls
PDF Version [PDF - 48 KB - 2 pages]
E. Andreoli et al.
Lyme Borreliosis and Borrelia spielmanii
PDF Version [PDF - 28 KB - 1 page]
V. Maraspin et al.
Feral Cats and Risk for Nipah Virus Transmission
PDF Version [PDF - 120 KB - 2 pages]
J. H. Epstein et al.
Books and Media
Gastroenteritis at a University in Texas: An Epidemiologic Case Study
PDF Version [PDF - 14 KB - 1 page]
P. S. Brachman
Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin
PDF Version [PDF - 154 KB - 1 page]
S. Holzbauer and T. Chiller
About the Cover
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online OnlyPreparedness for Anthrax Epizootics in Wildlife AreasS. Clegg
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online OnlyCritical Issues in Responding to Pandemic InfluenzaJ. W. Buehler et al.
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
Get Email Updates
To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address:
- Page created: December 19, 2011
- Page last updated: December 19, 2011
- Page last reviewed: December 19, 2011
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Office of the Director (OD)