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Volume 13, Number 1—January 2007
Volume 13, Number 1—January 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 13.66 MB - 195 pages]
Epidemics after Natural Disasters
PDF Version [PDF - 53 KB - 5 pages]
J. T. Watson et al.View Abstract
The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings.
Wildlife, Exotic Pets, and Emerging Zoonoses
PDF Version [PDF - 187 KB - 6 pages]
B. B. Chomel et al.View Abstract
Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic; wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir. Wildlife can also be a source for reemergence of previously controlled zoonoses. Although the discovery of such zoonoses is often related to better diagnostic tools, the leading causes of their emergence are human behavior and modifications to natural habitats (expansion of human populations and their encroachment on wildlife habitat), changes in agricultural practices, and globalization of trade. However, other factors include wildlife trade and translocation, live animal and bushmeat markets, consumption of exotic foods, development of ecotourism, access to petting zoos, and ownership of exotic pets. To reduce risk for emerging zoonoses, the public should be educated about the risks associated with wildlife, bushmeat, and exotic pet trades; and proper surveillance systems should be implemented.
Prevalence of G2P and G12P Rotavirus, Bangladesh
PDF Version [PDF - 201 KB - 7 pages]
M. Rahman et al.View Abstract
Approximately 20,000 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea visiting an urban and a rural hospital in Bangladesh during January 2001–May 2006 were tested for group A rotavirus antigen, and 4,712 (24.0%) were positive. G and P genotyping was performed on a subset of 10% of the positive samples (n = 471). During the 2001–2005 rotavirus seasons, G1P (36.4%) and G9P (27.7%) were the dominant strains, but G2 and G12P were present in 15.4% and 3.1% of the rotavirus-positive patients, respectively. During the 2005–06 rotavirus season, G2P (43.2%) appeared as the most prevalent strain, and G12P became a more prevalent strain (11.1%) during this season. Because recently licensed rotavirus vaccines are specific for only P, these vaccines may not perform well in settings where non-P types are prevalent.
Elimination of Arctic Variant Rabies in Red Foxes, Metropolitan Toronto
PDF Version [PDF - 179 KB - 3 pages]
R. C. Rosatte et al.View Abstract
To control the arctic variant of rabies virus in red foxes, 332,257 bait doses containing live, attenuated Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth rabies vaccine were distributed in greater metropolitan Toronto during 1989–1999. Human and pet contact with bait was minimal, and no adverse reactions to the vaccine were noted. Significantly fewer rabid foxes were found during the 17 years after fox baiting (5 cases during 1990–2006) than in the 17 years before (96 cases during 1973–1989). The last report of a rabid fox in metropolitan Toronto was in 1996 (reporting period through September 2006), which confirms that distributing oral rabies vaccine bait is a feasible tactic for the control of rabies in foxes in urban environments.
Model for Assessing Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Strategies
PDF Version [PDF - 652 KB - 14 pages]
E. H. Elbasha et al.View Abstract
We present a transmission dynamic model that can assess the epidemiologic consequences and cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies of administering a prophylactic quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in a setting of organized cervical cancer screening in the United States. Compared with current practice, vaccinating girls before the age of 12 years would reduce the incidence of genital warts (83%) and cervical cancer (78%) due to HPV 6/11/16/18. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of augmenting this strategy with a temporary catch-up program for 12- to 24-year olds was US $4,666 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Relative to other commonly accepted healthcare programs, vaccinating girls and women appears cost-effective. Including men and boys in the program was the most effective strategy, reducing the incidence of genital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical cancer by 97%, 91%, and 91%, respectively. The ICER of this strategy was $45,056 per QALY.
Spread of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia, Canada, and Detection in the Pacific Northwest, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 432 KB - 9 pages]
L. MacDougall et al.View Abstract
Cryptococcus gattii, emergent on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 1999, was detected during 2003–2005 in 3 persons and 8 animals that did not travel to Vancouver Island during the incubation period; positive environmental samples were detected in areas outside Vancouver Island. All clinical and environmental isolates found in BC were genotypically consistent with Vancouver Island strains. In addition, local acquisition was detected in 3 cats in Washington and 2 persons in Oregon. The molecular profiles of Oregon isolates differed from those found in BC and Washington. Although some microclimates of the Pacific Northwest are similar to those on Vancouver Island, C. gattii concentrations in off-island environments were typically lower, and human cases without Vancouver Island contact have not continued to occur. This suggests that C. gattii may not be permanently colonized in off-island locations.
Cryptococcus gattii Dispersal Mechanisms, British Columbia, Canada
PDF Version [PDF - 297 KB - 7 pages]
S. E. Kidd et al.View Abstract
Recent Cryptococcus gattii infections in humans and animals without travel history to Vancouver Island, as well as environmental isolations of the organism in other areas of the Pacific Northwest, led to an investigation of potential dispersal mechanisms. Longitudinal analysis of C. gattii presence in trees and soil showed patterns of permanent, intermittent, and transient colonization, reflecting C. gattii population dynamics once the pathogen is introduced to a new site. Systematic sampling showed C. gattii was associated with high-traffic locations. In addition, C. gattii was isolated from the wheel wells of vehicles on Vancouver Island and the mainland and on footwear, consistent with anthropogenic dispersal of the organism. Increased levels of airborne C. gattii were detected during forestry and municipal activities such as wood chipping, the byproducts of which are frequently used in park landscaping. C. gattii dispersal by these mechanisms may be a useful model for other emerging pathogens.
Similar Biochemical Signatures and Prion Protein Genotypes in Atypical Scrapie and Nor98 Cases, France and Norway
PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 8 pages]
J. Arsac et al.View Abstract
Isolates of atypical scrapie recently identified in sheep and goats in France were compared with Nor98 isolates reported in Norway. Western blot methods for characterization of the protease-resistant prion protein showed that all these isolates shared a unique biochemical signature: 5 groups of bands, including a characteristic band of apparent low molecular weight (11 kDa). This pattern could originate from the presence of 3 different protease cleavage products, including the 11 kDa most likely cleaved at both N- and C-sides of the protein. Genetic data, which strongly suggested the higher susceptibility of AHQ and AF141RQ animals in French cases, resembled earlier data from Nor98 scrapie.
Primary Pneumocystis Infection in Infants Hospitalized with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection
PDF Version [PDF - 242 KB - 7 pages]
H. H. Larsen et al.View Abstract
Acquisition of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection early in life has been confirmed by serologic studies. However, no evidence of clinical illness correlated with the primary infection has been found in immunocompetent children. We analyzed 458 nasopharyngeal aspirates from 422 patients hospitalized with 431 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) by using a real-time PCR assay. In 68 episodes in 67 infants, P. jirovecii was identified. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of a positive signal compared with the first quartile of age (7–49 days) was 47.4 (11.0–203), 8.7 (1.9–39.7), and 0.6 (0.1–6.7) for infants in the second (50–112 days), third (113–265 days), and fourth (268–4,430 days) age quartiles, respectively. Infants with an episode of upper RTI (URTI) were 2.0 (1.05–3.82) times more likely to harbor P. jirovecii than infants with a lower RTI. P. jirovecii may manifest itself as a self-limiting URTI in infants, predominantly those 1.5–4 months of age.
Panmicrobial Oligonucleotide Array for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases
PDF Version [PDF - 373 KB - 9 pages]
G. Palacios et al.View Abstract
To facilitate rapid, unbiased, differential diagnosis of infectious diseases, we designed GreeneChipPm, a panmicrobial microarray comprising 29,455 sixty-mer oligonucleotide probes for vertebrate viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Methods for nucleic acid preparation, random primed PCR amplification, and labeling were optimized to allow the sensitivity required for application with nucleic acid extracted from clinical materials and cultured isolates. Analysis of nasopharyngeal aspirates, blood, urine, and tissue from persons with various infectious diseases confirmed the presence of viruses and bacteria identified by other methods, and implicated Plasmodium falciparum in an unexplained fatal case of hemorrhagic feverlike disease during the Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Angola in 2004–2005.
Correlation between Subtypes of Cryptosporidium parvum in Humans and Risk
PDF Version [PDF - 267 KB - 7 pages]
P. R. Hunter et al.View Abstract
The 2 main species of Cryptosporidium that infect humans are Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum. Here, multilocus fragment analysis of 3 microsatellite loci (ML1, ML2, and gp60) was used to subtype strains from sporadic cases of cryptosporidiosis in Wales and northwest England. Of 72 strains of C. parvum, 63 were typeable at all 3 loci, forming 31 subtypes. These strains formed 3 broad clusters, representing 74.6%, 20.6%, and 4.8% of typeable strains. Of 118 C. hominis strains, 106 were typeable at all 3 loci, forming 9 subtypes; however, 90% belonged to the same subtype. Analysis with epidemiologic data found an association between strains from case-patients who reported contact with farm animals and individual C. parvum microsatellite alleles. The strongest association was with ML1; all strains from case-patients that reported farm animal contact had the same allele (ML1–242). Microsatellite typing of C. parvum provides valuable additional information on the epidemiology of this pathogen.
Blood Transfusion and Spread of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
PDF Version [PDF - 507 KB - 8 pages]
K. Dietz et al.View Abstract
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) may be transmissible by blood. To prevent secondary transmission through blood components, several countries have started to exclude as donors persons who have received a blood transfusion. We investigated the effectiveness of this measure by using a dynamic age-structured model. It is the first such model based on epidemiologic data: 1) blood donor activities, 2) a case-control study on CJD, 3) age distribution of recipients, and 4) death of recipients of blood transfusions. The model predicts that an infection like vCJD, which has been introduced into the population by the alimentary route, could not become endemic by transfusion alone and that <1% of cases would be avoided by excluding from blood donation those persons who have received a transfusion.
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter Infection Mortality Rate and Length of Hospitalization
PDF Version [PDF - 164 KB - 7 pages]
R. H. Sunenshine et al.View Abstract
Acinetobacter infections have increased and gained attention because of the organism’s prolonged environmental survival and propensity to develop antimicrobial drug resistance. The effect of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter infection on clinical outcomes has not been reported. A retrospective, matched cohort investigation was performed at 2 Baltimore hospitals to examine outcomes of patients with MDR Acinetobacter infection compared with patients with susceptible Acinetobacter infections and patients without Acinetobacter infections. Multivariable analysis controlling for severity of illness and underlying disease identified an independent association between patients with MDR Acinetobacter infection (n = 96) and increased hospital and intensive care unit length of stay compared with 91 patients with susceptible Acinetobacter infection (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–5.2 and OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0–4.3] respectively) and 89 uninfected patients (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2–5.4 and OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.5–11.6] respectively). Increased hospitalization associated with MDR Acinetobacter infection emphasizes the need for infection control strategies to prevent cross-transmission in healthcare settings.
Clusters of Hantavirus Infection, Southern Argentina
PDF Version [PDF - 275 KB - 7 pages]
M. E. Lázaro et al.View Abstract
Person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus was first confirmed during a 1996 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina, where Andes virus is endemic. To identify other episodes of secondary transmission, we reviewed reports of 51 hantavirus infection cases from this region (November 1993–June 2005). Nine clusters involving 20 cases (39.2%) were found. Two patients, who had symptoms 3 weeks after they shared risks for rodent exposure, were considered a cluster. The other 8 clusters each began with an index case, which was almost always fatal, followed 19–40 days later by the illness of >1 person who had close and prolonged contact with the index case-patient. Person-to-person transmission was considered the probable source of these 8 clusters. The probability of initiating secondary cases was 41% for patients who died versus 4% for those who survived (p = 0.005). Interpersonal transmission of Andes virus infection should be considered even when rodent exposure cannot be definitively excluded.
Emergence of Arctic-like Rabies Lineage in India
PDF Version [PDF - 164 KB - 6 pages]
S. A. Nadin-Davis et al.View Abstract
A collection of 37 rabies-infected samples, 10 human saliva and 27 animal brain, were recovered during 2001–2004 from the cities of Bangalore and Hyderabad in southern India and from Kasauli, a mountainous region in Himachal Pradesh, northern India. Phylogenetic analysis of partial N gene nucleotide sequences of these 37 specimens and 1 archival specimen identified 2 groups, divided according to their geographic (north or south) origins. Comparison of selected Indian viruses with representative rabies viruses recovered worldwide showed a close association of all Indian isolates with the circumpolar Arctic rabies lineage distributed throughout northern latitudes of North America and Europe and other viruses recovered from several Asian countries.
Tickborne Relapsing Fever Diagnosis Obscured by Malaria, Togo
PDF Version [PDF - 217 KB - 7 pages]
A. Nordstrand et al.View Abstract
Given the prevalence of relapsing fever (RF) in Senegal, this disease may cause illness and death in other areas of West Africa. We performed a cross-sectional, clinic-based study to investigate the presence of RF in Togo during 2002–2004. Blood samples from patients with fever were examined for RF spirochetes by microscopy, PCR, and DNA sequencing of amplicons and for antibodies to the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase antigen. Although no spirochetes were seen in blood smears, ≈10% of the patients were positive by PCR and ≈13% were seropositive for spirochetes. DNA sequencing demonstrated that Borrelia crocidurae and B. duttonii were present. Most patients were treated for malaria whether or not plasmodia were observed. Thus, many RF patients originally had a misdiagnosis of malaria, which resulted in ineffective treatment. The inability of microscopic analysis to detect spirochetes compared with PCR demonstrates the need for tests with greater sensitivity.
Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates, 2004–2005 Mumps Outbreak, England
PDF Version [PDF - 118 KB - 6 pages]
C. Cohen et al.View SummaryView Abstract
As vaccinated children approach adolescence, immunity wanes, which may contribute to outbreaks.
The United Kingdom and United States have recently experienced large outbreaks of mumps, which raises concerns about vaccine effectiveness. The effectiveness of the mumps component of the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine was estimated using the screening method. In England from January 2004 through March 2005, 312 cases of mumps were reported in children eligible to have received 2 doses of MMR vaccine. Of these children, 52 (16.7%) had received 1 dose of MMR vaccine, and 97 (31.1%) had received 2 doses. Vaccine effectiveness was 88% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83%–91%) for 1 dose and 95% (95% CI 93%–96%) for 2 doses. The effectiveness of 1 dose declined from 96% (95% CI 81%–99%) in 2-year-olds to 66% (95% CI 30%–83%) in 11- to 12-year-olds, and the effectiveness of 2 doses declined from 99% (95% CI 97%–99.5%) in 5- to 6-year-olds to 86% (95% CI 74%–93%) in 11- to 12-year-olds (p<0.001 for 1 or 2 doses). Waning immunity may contribute to mumps outbreaks in older vaccinated populations.
Clinical Diagnosis and Geographic Distribution of Leptospirosis, Thailand
PDF Version [PDF - 84 KB - 3 pages]
V. Wuthiekanun et al.View Abstract
We defined the positive predictive accuracy of a hospital-based clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis in 9 provinces across Thailand. Of 700 suspected cases, 143 (20%) were confirmed by laboratory testing. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis varied from 0% to 50% between the provinces and was highest during the rainy season. Most confirmed cases occurred in the north and northeast regions of the country.
Indigenous Case of Disseminated Histoplasmosis, Taiwan
PDF Version [PDF - 160 KB - 3 pages]
C. Lai et al.View Abstract
We report the first indigenous case of disseminated histoplasmosis in Taiwan diagnosed by histopathology of bone marrow, microbiologic morphology, and PCR assay of the isolated fungus. This case suggests that histoplasmosis should be 1 of the differential diagnoses of opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients in Taiwan.
Interaction Between Humans and Poultry, Rural Cambodia
PDF Version [PDF - 101 KB - 3 pages]
S. Ly et al.View Abstract
Because avian influenza H5N1 infection risks are associated with exposure to infected poultry, we conducted a knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey of poultry-handling behavior among villagers in rural Cambodia. Despite widespread knowledge of avian influenza and personal protection measures, most rural Cambodians still have a high level of at-risk poultry handling.
Sapovirus in Water, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 260 KB - 3 pages]
G. S. Hansman et al.View Abstract
Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters.
Rabies Encephalitis in Malaria-Endemic Area, Malawi, Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 125 KB - 4 pages]
M. Mallewa et al.View Abstract
In a malaria-endemic area of Africa, rabies was an important cause of fatal central nervous system infection, responsible for 14 (10.5%) of 133 cases. Four patients had unusual clinical manifestations, and rabies was only diagnosed postmortem. Three (11.5%) of 26 fatal cases were originally attributed to cerebral malaria.
Death Rates from Malaria Epidemics, Burundi and Ethiopia
PDF Version [PDF - 193 KB - 4 pages]
J. Guthmann et al.View Abstract
Death rates exceeded emergency thresholds at 4 sites during epidemics of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burundi (2000–2001) and in Ethiopia (2003–2004). Deaths likely from malaria ranged from 1,000 to 8,900, depending on site, and accounted for 52% to 78% of total deaths. Earlier detection of malaria and better case management are needed.
Reemergence of Endemic Chikungunya, Malaysia
PDF Version [PDF - 141 KB - 3 pages]
S. AbuBakar et al.View Abstract
Chikungunya virus infection recently reemerged in Malaysia after 7 years of nondetection. Genomic sequences of recovered isolates were highly similar to those of Malaysian isolates from the 1998 outbreak. The reemergence of the infection is not part of the epidemics in other Indian Ocean countries but raises the possibility that chikungunya virus is endemic in Malaysia.
Human Subcutaneous Dirofilariasis, Russia
PDF Version [PDF - 187 KB - 3 pages]
L. H. Kramer et al.View Abstract
We report 14 cases of human subcutaneous dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens, diagnosed from February 2003 through July 2004, in patients from Rostov-on-Don, Russia. Serologic analysis showed evidence of high risk of exposure to D. repens. Surveillance studies on prevalence and prevention effectiveness of canine infection are needed to control this emerging zoonosis.
Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ornithodoros savignyi Ticks
PDF Version [PDF - 76 KB - 3 pages]
R. N. Charrel et al.View Abstract
Evidence for the tickborne nature of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) is indirect because AHFV has not been detected in arthropods. One Ornithodoros savignyi tick from Saudi Arabia contained AHFV RNA. This is the first direct evidence that AHFV is a tickborne flavivirus and confirms the association between human AHFV cases and tickbite history.
Major Outbreak of Hepatitis A Associated with Orange Juice among Tourists, Egypt, 2004
PDF Version [PDF - 83 KB - 3 pages]
C. Frank et al.View Abstract
In 2004, a major outbreak of hepatitis A among tourists returning from Egypt involved 351 case-patients from 9 European countries who were infected with a single strain (genotype 1b). The case-control study identified orange juice as the most likely infection vehicle. Vaccination against hepatitis A virus is strongly recommended before travel to disease-endemic areas.
Henipavirus and Tioman Virus Antibodies in Pteropodid Bats, Madagascar
PDF Version [PDF - 94 KB - 3 pages]
C. Iehlé et al.View Abstract
Specimens were obtained from the 3 Malagasy fruit bats, Pteropus rufus, Eidolon dupreanum, and Rousettus madagascariensis. Antibodies against Nipah, Hendra, and Tioman viruses were detected by immunoassay in 23 and by serum neutralization tests in 3 of 427 serum samples, which suggests that related viruses have circulated in Madagascar.
Ophthalmic Surgery in Prion Diseases
PDF Version [PDF - 101 KB - 2 pages]
T. Hamaguchi et al.View Abstract
Eleven (1.8%) of 597 patients underwent ophthalmic surgery within 1 month before the onset of prion disease or after the onset. All ophthalmologists reused surgical instruments that had been incompletely sterilized to eliminate infectious prion protein. Ophthalmologists should be aware of prion diseases as a possible cause of visual symptoms and use disposable instruments whenever possible.
Human Bocavirus Infection, People’s Republic of China
PDF Version [PDF - 204 KB - 4 pages]
X. Qu et al.View Abstract
A newly identified parvovirus, human bocavirus (HBoV), was found in 21 (8.3%) of 252 nasopharyngeal aspirates from hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infection in Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China. Viral loads were 104 to 1010 copies/mL. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene showed a single genetic lineage of HBoV worldwide.
Gastroenteritis Caused by Norovirus GGII.4, the Netherlands, 1994–2005
PDF Version [PDF - 102 KB - 3 pages]
J. J. Siebenga et al.View Abstract
From 1994 through 2005, gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus generally increased in the Netherlands, with 3 epidemic seasons associated with new GGII.4 strains. Increased percentages of GGII.4 strains during these epidemics, followed by a sharp decrease in their absolute and relative numbers, suggest development of immunity.
Salmon Aquaculture and Transmission of the Fish Tapeworm
PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 3 pages]
F. C. Cabello
Thermal Death Point of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs
PDF Version [PDF - 43 KB - 2 pages]
S. C. Shafir et al.
Questioning Aerosol Transmission of Influenza
PDF Version [PDF - 82 KB - 2 pages]
C. Lemieux et al.
Parvoviruses PARV4 and PARV5 and Hepatitis C Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 55 KB - 2 pages]
J. F. Fryer et al.
Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 82 KB - 3 pages]
A. Mondini et al.
Cryptococcus gattii Risk for Tourists Visiting Vancouver Island, Canada
PDF Version [PDF - 59 KB - 2 pages]
J. Lindberg et al.
Human Bocavirus in Febrile Children, the Netherlands
PDF Version [PDF - 81 KB - 3 pages]
M. Monteny et al.
Dengue Virus Serotype 3, Karachi, Pakistan
PDF Version [PDF - 10 KB - 2 pages]
B. Jamil et al.
Clostridium difficile in Discharged Inpatients, Germany
PDF Version [PDF - 74 KB - 2 pages]
R. Vonberg et al.
Books and Media
Disease Ecology: Community Structure and Pathogen Dynamics
PDF Version [PDF - 42 KB - 1 page]
A. T. Peterson
About the Cover
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online Only9th Annual Conference on New and Re-emerging Infectious DiseasesB. A. Wilson and U. Kitron
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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- Page created: January 22, 2013
- Page last updated: January 22, 2013
- Page last reviewed: January 22, 2013
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