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Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009

Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009   PDF Version [PDF - 6.00 MB - 187 pages]

Perspective

  • Reemerging Rabies and Lack of Systemic Surveillance in People’s Republic of China PDF Version [PDF - 497 KB - 6 pages]
    X. Wu et al.
        View Abstract

    Rabies is a reemerging disease in China. The high incidence of rabies leads to numerous concerns: a potential carrier-dog phenomenon, undocumented transmission of rabies virus from wildlife to dogs, counterfeit vaccines, vaccine mismatching, and seroconversion testing in patients after their completion of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). These concerns are all scientifically arguable given a modern understanding of rabies. Rabies reemerges periodically in China because of high dog population density and low vaccination coverage in dogs. Mass vaccination campaigns rather than depopulation of dogs should be a long-term goal for rabies control. Seroconversion testing after vaccination is not necessary in either humans or animals. Human PEP should be initiated on the basis of diagnosis of biting animals. Reliable national systemic surveillance of rabies-related human deaths and of animal rabies prevalence is urgently needed. A laboratory diagnosis–based epidemiologic surveillance system can provide substantial information about disease transmission and effective prevention strategies.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wu X, Hu R, Zhang Y, Dong G, Rupprecht CE. Reemerging Rabies and Lack of Systemic Surveillance in People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1159-1164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081426
    AMA Wu X, Hu R, Zhang Y, et al. Reemerging Rabies and Lack of Systemic Surveillance in People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1159-1164. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081426.
    APA Wu, X., Hu, R., Zhang, Y., Dong, G., & Rupprecht, C. E. (2009). Reemerging Rabies and Lack of Systemic Surveillance in People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1159-1164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081426.
  • Use of Revised International Health Regulations during Influenza A (H1N1) Epidemic, 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 401 KB - 6 pages]
    R. Katz
        View Abstract

    Strong international health agreements and good planning created a structure and common procedure for nations involved in detection and evaluation of the emergence of influenza A (H1N1). This report describes a timeline of events that led to the determination of the epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern, following the agreed-upon procedures of the International Health Regulations. These events illustrate the need for sound international health agreements and should be a call to action for all nations to implement these agreements to the best of their abilities.

        Cite This Article
    EID Katz R. Use of Revised International Health Regulations during Influenza A (H1N1) Epidemic, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1165-1170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090665
    AMA Katz R. Use of Revised International Health Regulations during Influenza A (H1N1) Epidemic, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1165-1170. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090665.
    APA Katz, R. (2009). Use of Revised International Health Regulations during Influenza A (H1N1) Epidemic, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1165-1170. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090665.
  • Response to Imported Case of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 472 KB - 5 pages]
    A. Timen et al.
        View Abstract

    On July 10, 2008, Marburg hemorrhagic fever was confirmed in a Dutch patient who had vacationed recently in Uganda. Exposure most likely occurred in the Python Cave (Maramagambo Forest), which harbors bat species that elsewhere in Africa have been found positive for Marburg virus. A multidisciplinary response team was convened to perform a structured risk assessment, perform risk classification of contacts, issue guidelines for follow-up, provide information, and monitor the crisis response. In total, 130 contacts were identified (66 classified as high risk and 64 as low risk) and monitored for 21 days after their last possible exposure. The case raised questions specific to international travel, postexposure prophylaxis for Marburg virus, and laboratory testing of contacts with fever. We present lessons learned and results of the follow-up serosurvey of contacts and focus on factors that prevented overreaction during an event with a high public health impact.

        Cite This Article
    EID Timen A, Koopmans M, Vossen AC, van Doornum GJ, Günther S, van den Berkmortel F, et al. Response to Imported Case of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1171-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090015
    AMA Timen A, Koopmans M, Vossen AC, et al. Response to Imported Case of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1171-1175. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090015.
    APA Timen, A., Koopmans, M., Vossen, A. C., van Doornum, G. J., Günther, S., van den Berkmortel, F....Coutinho, R. A. (2009). Response to Imported Case of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1171-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090015.

Synopses

  • Tactics and Economics of Wildlife Oral Rabies Vaccination, Canada and the United States PDF Version [PDF - 759 KB - 9 pages]
    R. T. Sterner et al.
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    Progressive elimination of rabies in wildlife has been a general strategy in Canada and the United States; common campaign tactics are trap–vaccinate–release (TVR), point infection control (PIC), and oral rabies vaccination (ORV). TVR and PIC are labor intensive and the most expensive tactics per unit area (≈$616/km2 [in 2008 Can$, converted from the reported $450/km2 in 1991 Can$] and ≈$612/km2 [$500/km2 in 1999 Can$], respectively), but these tactics have proven crucial to elimination of raccoon rabies in Canada and to maintenance of ORV zones for preventing the spread of raccoon rabies in the United States. Economic assessments have shown that during rabies epizootics, costs of human postexposure prophylaxis, pet vaccination, public health, and animal control spike. Modeling studies, involving diverse assumptions, have shown that ORV programs can be cost-efficient and yield benefit:cost ratios >1.0.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sterner RT, Meltzer MI, Shwiff SA, Slate D. Tactics and Economics of Wildlife Oral Rabies Vaccination, Canada and the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1176-1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081061
    AMA Sterner RT, Meltzer MI, Shwiff SA, et al. Tactics and Economics of Wildlife Oral Rabies Vaccination, Canada and the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1176-1184. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081061.
    APA Sterner, R. T., Meltzer, M. I., Shwiff, S. A., & Slate, D. (2009). Tactics and Economics of Wildlife Oral Rabies Vaccination, Canada and the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1176-1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081061.
  • Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest Region of the United States PDF Version [PDF - 586 KB - 7 pages]
    K. Datta et al.
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    Cryptococcus gattii has emerged as a human and animal pathogen in the Pacific Northwest. First recognized on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, it now involves mainland British Columbia, and Washington and Oregon in the United States. In Canada, the incidence of disease has been one of the highest worldwide. In the United States, lack of cryptococcal species identification and case surveillance limit our knowledge of C. gattii epidemiology. Infections in the Pacific Northwest are caused by multiple genotypes, but the major strain is genetically novel and may have emerged recently in association with unique mating or environmental changes. C. gattii disease affects immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons, causing substantial illness and death. Successful management requires an aggressive medical and surgical approach and consideration of potentially variable antifungal drug susceptibilities. We summarize the study results of a group of investigators and review current knowledge with the goal of increasing awareness and highlighting areas where further knowledge is required.

        Cite This Article
    EID Datta K, Bartlett KH, Baer R, Byrnes E, Galanis E, Heitman J, et al. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest Region of the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1185-1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081384
    AMA Datta K, Bartlett KH, Baer R, et al. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest Region of the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1185-1191. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081384.
    APA Datta, K., Bartlett, K. H., Baer, R., Byrnes, E., Galanis, E., Heitman, J....Marr, K. A. (2009). Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest Region of the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1185-1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081384.

Research

  • Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies in Southern People’s Republic of China PDF Version [PDF - 511 KB - 7 pages]
    X. Tao et al.
        View Abstract

    In recent years, the number of human rabies cases in the People’s Republic of China has increased during severe epidemics in 3 southern provinces (Guizhou, Guangxi, and Hunan). To analyze the causes of the high incidence of human rabies in this region, during 2005–2007, we collected 2,887 brain specimens from apparently healthy domestic dogs used for meat consumption in restaurants, 4 specimens from suspected rabid dogs, and 3 from humans with rabies in the 3 provinces. Partial nucleoprotein gene sequences were obtained from rabies-positive specimens. Phylogenetic relationships and distribution of viruses were determined. We infer that the spread of rabies viruses from high-incidence regions, particularly by long-distance movement or transprovincial translocation of dogs caused by human-related activities, may be 1 cause of the recent massive human rabies epidemics in southern China.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tao X, Tang Q, Li H, Mo Z, Zhang H, Wang D, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies in Southern People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1192-1198. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081551
    AMA Tao X, Tang Q, Li H, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies in Southern People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1192-1198. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081551.
    APA Tao, X., Tang, Q., Li, H., Mo, Z., Zhang, H., Wang, D....Liang, G. (2009). Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies in Southern People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1192-1198. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081551.
  • Serologic Evidence of Frequent Human Infection with WU and KI Polyomaviruses PDF Version [PDF - 664 KB - 7 pages]
    N. L. Nguyen et al.
        View Abstract

    WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) and KI polyomavirus (KIPyV) are novel human polyomaviruses. They were originally identified in human respiratory secretions, but the extent of human infection caused by these viruses has not been described to date. To determine the seroepidemiology of WUPyV and KIpyIV, we used an ELISA to screen serum samples from 419 patients at the St. Louis Children’s Hospital and Barnes-Jewish Hospital during 2007–2008. The age-stratified deidentified samples were examined for antibodies to the major capsid proteins of WUPyV and KIPyV. Seropositivity for each virus was similar; antibody levels were high in the youngest age group (<6 months), decreased to a nadir in the next age group (6 to <12 months), and then steadily increased with subsequent age groups, eventually reaching a plateau of ≈80% for WUPyV and ≈70% for KIPyV. These results demonstrate that both KIPyV and WUPyV cause widespread infection in the human population.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nguyen NL, Le B, Wang D. Serologic Evidence of Frequent Human Infection with WU and KI Polyomaviruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1199-1205. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090270
    AMA Nguyen NL, Le B, Wang D. Serologic Evidence of Frequent Human Infection with WU and KI Polyomaviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1199-1205. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090270.
    APA Nguyen, N. L., Le, B., & Wang, D. (2009). Serologic Evidence of Frequent Human Infection with WU and KI Polyomaviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1199-1205. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090270.
  • Bordetella pertussis Strains with Increased Toxin Production Associated with Pertussis Resurgence PDF Version [PDF - 688 KB - 8 pages]
    F. R. Mooi et al.
        View Abstract

    Before childhood vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, pertussis was a major cause of infant death worldwide. Widespread vaccination of children succeeded in reducing illness and death. In the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis was observed in a number of countries with highly vaccinated populations, and pertussis has become the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease in industrialized countries. We present evidence that in the Netherlands the dramatic increase in pertussis is temporally associated with the emergence of Bordetella pertussis strains carrying a novel allele for the pertussis toxin promoter, which confers increased pertussis toxin (Ptx) production. Epidemiologic data suggest that these strains are more virulent in humans. We discuss changes in the ecology of B. pertussis that may have driven this adaptation. Our results underline the importance of Ptx in transmission, suggest that vaccination may select for increased virulence, and indicate ways to control pertussis more effectively.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mooi FR, van Loo IH, van Gent M, He Q, Bart MJ, Heuvelman KJ, et al. Bordetella pertussis Strains with Increased Toxin Production Associated with Pertussis Resurgence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1206-1213. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081511
    AMA Mooi FR, van Loo IH, van Gent M, et al. Bordetella pertussis Strains with Increased Toxin Production Associated with Pertussis Resurgence. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1206-1213. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081511.
    APA Mooi, F. R., van Loo, I. H., van Gent, M., He, Q., Bart, M. J., Heuvelman, K. J....Mertsola, J. (2009). Bordetella pertussis Strains with Increased Toxin Production Associated with Pertussis Resurgence. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1206-1213. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081511.
  • Transgenic Mice Expressing Porcine Prion Protein Resistant to Classical Scrapie but Susceptible to Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Atypical Scrapie PDF Version [PDF - 496 KB - 8 pages]
    J. Espinosa et al.
        View Abstract

    How susceptible pigs are to infection with sheep prions is unknown. We show, through transmission experiments in transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein (PrP), that the susceptibility of this mouse model to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be enhanced after its passage in ARQ sheep, indicating that the pathogenicity of the BSE agent is modified after passage in sheep. Transgenic mice expressing porcine PrP were, nevertheless, completely resistant to infection with a broad panel of classical scrapie isolates from different sheep PrP genotypes and with different biochemical characteristics. The atypical (Nor98 like) isolate (SC-PS152) was the only scrapie isolate capable of transmission in these mice, although with a marked transmission barrier. Unexpectedly, the atypical scrapie agent appeared to undergo a strain phenotype shift upon transmission to porcine-PrP transgenic mice and acquired new strain properties, suggesting that atypical scrapie agent may exhibit different phenotypes depending on the host cellular PrP or other genetic factors.

        Cite This Article
    EID Espinosa J, Herva M, Andréoletti O, Padilla D, Lacroux C, Cassard H, et al. Transgenic Mice Expressing Porcine Prion Protein Resistant to Classical Scrapie but Susceptible to Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Atypical Scrapie. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1214-1221. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081218
    AMA Espinosa J, Herva M, Andréoletti O, et al. Transgenic Mice Expressing Porcine Prion Protein Resistant to Classical Scrapie but Susceptible to Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Atypical Scrapie. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1214-1221. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081218.
    APA Espinosa, J., Herva, M., Andréoletti, O., Padilla, D., Lacroux, C., Cassard, H....Torres, J. (2009). Transgenic Mice Expressing Porcine Prion Protein Resistant to Classical Scrapie but Susceptible to Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Atypical Scrapie. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1214-1221. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081218.
  • Slave Trade and Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes and Subgenotypes in Haiti and Africa PDF Version [PDF - 565 KB - 7 pages]
    I. E. Andernach et al.
    View Summary

    The spread of genotype E in Africa occurred after the end of the transatlantic slave trade.

        View Abstract

    In Haiti, >90% of the population descended from African slaves. Of 7,147 Haitian pregnant women sampled, 44% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections were caused by genotype A1, which today is found mainly in eastern Africa. Twenty percent belong to a rare subgenotype, A5, which has been found only in the former Bight of Benin, a former primary slave trading post. Haitian A subgenotypes appear to have separated early from the African subgenotypes; the most prevalent genotype and subgenotype in West Africa today (E and A3, respectively) are rare in Haiti. This difference indicates that the dominant subgenotypes in Africa emerged in the general population only after the slave trade and explains the low genetic diversity of genotype E. The high prevalence of HBV genotype E in much of Africa further suggests that HBV hyperendemicity is a recent phenomenon, probably resulting from extensive use of unsafe needles.

        Cite This Article
    EID Andernach IE, Nolte C, Pape JW, Muller CP. Slave Trade and Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes and Subgenotypes in Haiti and Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1222-1228. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081642
    AMA Andernach IE, Nolte C, Pape JW, et al. Slave Trade and Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes and Subgenotypes in Haiti and Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1222-1228. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081642.
    APA Andernach, I. E., Nolte, C., Pape, J. W., & Muller, C. P. (2009). Slave Trade and Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes and Subgenotypes in Haiti and Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1222-1228. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081642.
  • Recurrent Zoonotic Transmission of Nipah Virus into Humans, Bangladesh, 2001–2007 PDF Version [PDF - 563 KB - 7 pages]
    S. P. Luby et al.
        View Abstract

    Human Nipah outbreaks recur in a specific region and time of year in Bangladesh. Fruit bats are the reservoir host for Nipah virus. We identified 23 introductions of Nipah virus into human populations in central and northwestern Bangladesh from 2001 through 2007. Ten introductions affected multiple persons (median 10). Illness onset occurred from December through May but not every year. We identified 122 cases of human Nipah infection. The mean age of case-patients was 27 years; 87 (71%) died. In 62 (51%) Nipah virus–infected patients, illness developed 5–15 days after close contact with another Nipah case-patient. Nine (7%) Nipah case-patients transmitted virus to others. Nipah case-patients who had difficulty breathing were more likely than those without respiratory difficulty to transmit Nipah (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.03). Although a small minority of infected patients transmit Nipah virus, more than half of identified cases result from person-to-person transmission. Interventions to prevent virus transmission from bats to humans and from person to person are needed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Luby SP, Hossain M, Gurley ES, Ahmed B, Banu S, Khan S, et al. Recurrent Zoonotic Transmission of Nipah Virus into Humans, Bangladesh, 2001–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1229-1235. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081237
    AMA Luby SP, Hossain M, Gurley ES, et al. Recurrent Zoonotic Transmission of Nipah Virus into Humans, Bangladesh, 2001–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1229-1235. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081237.
    APA Luby, S. P., Hossain, M., Gurley, E. S., Ahmed, B., Banu, S., Khan, S....Rahman, M. (2009). Recurrent Zoonotic Transmission of Nipah Virus into Humans, Bangladesh, 2001–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1229-1235. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081237.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    National Outbreak of Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated with Use of a Contact Lens Solution, United States PDF Version [PDF - 633 KB - 7 pages]
    J. R. Verani et al.
        View Abstract

    An outbreak of Acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare, potentially blinding, corneal infection, was detected in the United States in 2007; cases had been increasing since 2004. A case–control study was conducted to investigate the outbreak. We interviewed 105 case-patients from 30 states and 184 controls matched geographically and by contact lens use. Available contact lenses, cases, solutions, and corneal specimens from case-patients were cultured and tested by molecular methods. In multivariate analyses, case-patients had significantly greater odds of having used Advanced Medical Optics Complete Moisture Plus (AMOCMP) solution (odds ratio 16.9, 95% confidence interval 4.8–59.5). AMOCMP manufacturing lot information was available for 22 case-patients, but none of the lots were identical. Three unopened bottles of AMOCMP tested negative for Acanthamoeba spp. Our findings suggest that the solution was not intrinsically contaminated and that its anti-Acanthamoeba efficacy was insufficient. Premarket standardized testing of contact lens solutions for activity against Acanthamoeba spp. is warranted.

        Cite This Article
    EID Verani JR, Lorick SA, Yoder JS, Beach MJ, Braden CR, Roberts JM, et al. National Outbreak of Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated with Use of a Contact Lens Solution, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1236-1242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090225
    AMA Verani JR, Lorick SA, Yoder JS, et al. National Outbreak of Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated with Use of a Contact Lens Solution, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1236-1242. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090225.
    APA Verani, J. R., Lorick, S. A., Yoder, J. S., Beach, M. J., Braden, C. R., Roberts, J. M....Roy, S. L. (2009). National Outbreak of Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated with Use of a Contact Lens Solution, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1236-1242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090225.
  • Entomologic and Virologic Investigation of Chikungunya, Singapore PDF Version [PDF - 570 KB - 7 pages]
    L. Ng et al.
        View Abstract

    Local transmission of chikungunya, a debilitating mosquito-borne viral disease, was first reported in Singapore in January 2008. After 3 months of absence, locally acquired Chikungunya cases resurfaced in May 2008, causing an outbreak that resulted in a total of 231 cases by September 2008. The circulating viruses were related to East, Central, and South African genotypes that emerged in the Indian Ocean region in 2005. The first local outbreak was due to a wild-type virus (alanine at codon 226 of the envelope 1 gene) and occurred in an area where Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were the primary vector. Strains isolated during subsequent outbreaks showed alanine to valine substitution (A226V) and largely spread in areas predominated by Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. These findings led to a revision of the current vector control strategy in Singapore. This report highlights the use of entomologic and virologic data to assist in the control of chikungunya in disease-endemic areas.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ng L, Tan L, Tan C, Tan SS, Hapuarachchi HC, Pok K, et al. Entomologic and Virologic Investigation of Chikungunya, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1243-1249. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081486
    AMA Ng L, Tan L, Tan C, et al. Entomologic and Virologic Investigation of Chikungunya, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1243-1249. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081486.
    APA Ng, L., Tan, L., Tan, C., Tan, S. S., Hapuarachchi, H. C., Pok, K....Khoo, S. (2009). Entomologic and Virologic Investigation of Chikungunya, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1243-1249. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081486.
  • Reproducibility of Serologic Assays for Influenza Virus A (H5N1) PDF Version [PDF - 580 KB - 10 pages]
    I. Stephenson et al.
        View Abstract

    Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neutralization are used to evaluate vaccines against influenza virus A (H5N1); however, poor standardization leads to interlaboratory variation of results. A candidate antibody standard (07/150) was prepared from pooled plasma of persons given clade 1 A/Vietnam/1194/2004 vaccine. To test human and sheep antiserum, 15 laboratories used HI and neutralization and reassortant A/Vietnam/1194/2004, A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (clade 2.2), and A/Anhui/1/2005 (clade 2.3.4) viruses. Interlaboratory variation was observed for both assays, but when titers were expressed relative to 07/150, overall percentage geometric coefficient of variation for A/Vietnam/1194/2004 was reduced from 125% to 61% for HI and from 183% to 81% for neutralization. Lack of reduced variability to clade 2 antigens suggested the need for clade-specific standards. Sheep antiserum as a standard did not reliably reduce variability. The World Health Organization has established 07/150 as an international standard for antibody to clade 1 subtype H5 and has an assigned potency of 1,000 IU/ampoule.

        Cite This Article
    EID Stephenson I, Heath A, Major D, Newman RW, Hoschler K, Junzi W, et al. Reproducibility of Serologic Assays for Influenza Virus A (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1250-1259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081754
    AMA Stephenson I, Heath A, Major D, et al. Reproducibility of Serologic Assays for Influenza Virus A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1250-1259. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081754.
    APA Stephenson, I., Heath, A., Major, D., Newman, R. W., Hoschler, K., Junzi, W....Wood, J. M. (2009). Reproducibility of Serologic Assays for Influenza Virus A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1250-1259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081754.
  • Increase in Pneumococcus Macrolide Resistance, United States PDF Version [PDF - 440 KB - 5 pages]
    S. G. Jenkins and D. J. Farrell
    View Summary

    During year 6 of the study, the incidence rate rose from ≈30% to 35.3%.

        View Abstract

    During year 6 (2005–2006) of the Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin surveillance study, 6,747 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were collected at 119 centers. The susceptibility of these isolates to macrolides was compared with data from previous years. Macrolide resistance increased significantly in year 6 (35.3%) from the stable rate of ≈30% for the previous 3 years (p<0.0001). Macrolide resistance increased in all regions of the United States and for all patient age groups. Rates were highest in the south and for children 0–2 years of age. Lower-level efflux [mef(A)]–mediated macrolide resistance decreased in prevalence to ≈50%, and highly resistant [erm(B) + mef(A)] strains increased to 25%. Telithromycin and levofloxacin susceptibility rates were >99% and >98%, respectively, irrespective of genotype. Pneumococcal macrolide resistance in the United States showed its first significant increase since 2000. High-level macrolide resistance is also increasing.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jenkins SG, Farrell DJ. Increase in Pneumococcus Macrolide Resistance, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1260-1264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081187
    AMA Jenkins SG, Farrell DJ. Increase in Pneumococcus Macrolide Resistance, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1260-1264. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081187.
    APA Jenkins, S. G., & Farrell, D. J. (2009). Increase in Pneumococcus Macrolide Resistance, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1260-1264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081187.
  • Dengue 1 Virus and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, French Polynesia, 2001 PDF Version [PDF - 584 KB - 6 pages]
    B. Hubert and S. B. Halstead
    View Summary

    Severe disease was more likely after an infection sequence of DENV-2 followed by DENV-1.

        View Abstract

    An epidemic of dengue 1 virus (DENV-1) occurred in French Polynesia in 2001, 4 years after a DENV-2 epidemic that ended in 1997. Surveillance data from hospitalized case-patients showed that case-patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) exhibited a bimodal age distribution with 1 peak among infants 6–10 months of age and a second peak at 4–11 years of age. The relative risk of DHF developing in children born before rather than after the DENV-2 epidemic was 186 (95% confidence interval 26–1,324). Among children born toward the end of the DENV-2 epidemic, a strong temporal association was found between the month of birth and the risk of being hospitalized for DHF. This study documents epidemic pathogenicity associated with the sequence of DENV-2 infection followed by DENV-1 infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hubert B, Halstead SB. Dengue 1 Virus and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, French Polynesia, 2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1265-1270. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081500
    AMA Hubert B, Halstead SB. Dengue 1 Virus and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, French Polynesia, 2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1265-1270. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081500.
    APA Hubert, B., & Halstead, S. B. (2009). Dengue 1 Virus and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, French Polynesia, 2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1265-1270. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081500.

Policy Review

  • Strategy to Enhance Influenza Surveillance Worldwide PDF Version [PDF - 569 KB - 8 pages]
    J. R. Ortiz et al.
        View Abstract

    The emergence of a novel strain of influenza virus A (H1N1) in April 2009 focused attention on influenza surveillance capabilities worldwide. In consultations before the 2009 outbreak of influenza subtype H1N1, the World Health Organization had concluded that the world was unprepared to respond to an influenza pandemic, due in part to inadequate global surveillance and response capacity. We describe a sentinel surveillance system that could enhance the quality of influenza epidemiologic and laboratory data and strengthen a country’s capacity for seasonal, novel, and pandemic influenza detection and prevention. Such a system would 1) provide data for a better understanding of the epidemiology and extent of seasonal influenza, 2) provide a platform for the study of other acute febrile respiratory illnesses, 3) provide virus isolates for the development of vaccines, 4) inform local pandemic planning and vaccine policy, 5) monitor influenza epidemics and pandemics, and 6) provide infrastructure for an early warning system for outbreaks of new virus subtypes.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ortiz JR, Sotomayor V, Uez OC, Oliva O, Bettels D, McCarron M, et al. Strategy to Enhance Influenza Surveillance Worldwide. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1271-1278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081422
    AMA Ortiz JR, Sotomayor V, Uez OC, et al. Strategy to Enhance Influenza Surveillance Worldwide. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1271-1278. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081422.
    APA Ortiz, J. R., Sotomayor, V., Uez, O. C., Oliva, O., Bettels, D., McCarron, M....Mounts, A. W. (2009). Strategy to Enhance Influenza Surveillance Worldwide. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1271-1278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081422.

Dispatches

  • Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Elderly, Minnesota, USA, 2003–2007 PDF Version [PDF - 399 KB - 3 pages]
    N. J. Kothari et al.
        View Abstract

    In Minnesota, incidence of invasive group B streptococcal disease was 3 times greater in older adults in long-term care facilities than in older adults in community settings (67.7/100,000 vs. 21.4/100,000) during 2003–2007. The overall case-fatality rate was 6.8%, and concurrent conditions were common among both groups.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kothari NJ, Morin CA, Glennen A, Jackson D, Harper J, Schrag SJ, et al. Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Elderly, Minnesota, USA, 2003–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1279-1281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081381
    AMA Kothari NJ, Morin CA, Glennen A, et al. Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Elderly, Minnesota, USA, 2003–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1279-1281. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081381.
    APA Kothari, N. J., Morin, C. A., Glennen, A., Jackson, D., Harper, J., Schrag, S. J....Lynfield, R. (2009). Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Elderly, Minnesota, USA, 2003–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1279-1281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081381.
  • Epidemiologic Study of Vibrio vulnificus Infections by Using Variable Number Tandem Repeats PDF Version [PDF - 598 KB - 4 pages]
    Y. Y. Broza et al.
        View Abstract

    A 3-year environmental and clinical Vibrio vulnificus survey using simple-sequence repeats typing shows that V. vulnificus biotype 3 constitutes ≈21% of the bacterium population in tested aquaculture ponds as opposed to ≈86% of clinical cases. Simple-sequence repeats proved to be a useful epidemiologic tool, providing information on the environmental source of the pathogen.

        Cite This Article
    EID Broza YY, Danin-Poleg Y, Lerner L, Valinsky L, Broza M, Kashi Y, et al. Epidemiologic Study of Vibrio vulnificus Infections by Using Variable Number Tandem Repeats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1282-1285. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.080839
    AMA Broza YY, Danin-Poleg Y, Lerner L, et al. Epidemiologic Study of Vibrio vulnificus Infections by Using Variable Number Tandem Repeats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1282-1285. doi:10.3201/eid1508.080839.
    APA Broza, Y. Y., Danin-Poleg, Y., Lerner, L., Valinsky, L., Broza, M., & Kashi, Y. (2009). Epidemiologic Study of Vibrio vulnificus Infections by Using Variable Number Tandem Repeats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1282-1285. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.080839.
  • Challenges of Investigating Community Outbreaks of Cyclosporiasis, British Columbia, Canada PDF Version [PDF - 399 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Shah et al.
        View Abstract

    Investigations of community outbreaks of cyclosporiasis are challenged by case-patients’ poor recall of exposure resulting from lags in detection and the stealthy nature of food vehicles. We combined multiple techniques, including early consultation with food regulators, traceback of suspected items, and grocery store loyalty card records, to identify a single vehicle for a cyclosporiasis outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, in 2007.

        Cite This Article
    EID Shah L, MacDougall L, Ellis A, Ong C, Shyng S, LeBlanc L, et al. Challenges of Investigating Community Outbreaks of Cyclosporiasis, British Columbia, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1286-1288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081585
    AMA Shah L, MacDougall L, Ellis A, et al. Challenges of Investigating Community Outbreaks of Cyclosporiasis, British Columbia, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1286-1288. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081585.
    APA Shah, L., MacDougall, L., Ellis, A., Ong, C., Shyng, S., & LeBlanc, L. (2009). Challenges of Investigating Community Outbreaks of Cyclosporiasis, British Columbia, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1286-1288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081585.
  • Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, New Mexico, USA, 2004–2007 PDF Version [PDF - 357 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Lathrop et al.
        View Abstract

    Sporadic infection with Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in New Mexico increased from 0.9 cases per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5–1.36) in 2004 to 1.7 (95% CI 1.14–2.26) in 2007. Non-O157 STEC was more common in nonwhite residents, children <5 years of age, and urban residents.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lathrop S, Edge K, Bareta J. Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, New Mexico, USA, 2004–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1289-1291. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081616
    AMA Lathrop S, Edge K, Bareta J. Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, New Mexico, USA, 2004–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1289-1291. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081616.
    APA Lathrop, S., Edge, K., & Bareta, J. (2009). Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli, New Mexico, USA, 2004–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1289-1291. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081616.
  • Chronic Invasive Aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus viridinutans PDF Version [PDF - 407 KB - 3 pages]
    D. C. Vinh et al.
        View Abstract

    Aspergillus viridinutans, a mold phenotypically resembling A. fumigatus, was identified by gene sequence analyses from 2 patients. Disease was distinct from typical aspergillosis, being chronic and spreading in a contiguous manner across anatomical planes. We emphasize the recognition of fumigati-mimetic molds as agents of chronic or refractory aspergillosis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vinh DC, Shea YR, Jones PA, Freeman AF, Zelazny AM, Holland SM, et al. Chronic Invasive Aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus viridinutans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1292-1294. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090251
    AMA Vinh DC, Shea YR, Jones PA, et al. Chronic Invasive Aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus viridinutans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1292-1294. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090251.
    APA Vinh, D. C., Shea, Y. R., Jones, P. A., Freeman, A. F., Zelazny, A. M., & Holland, S. M. (2009). Chronic Invasive Aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus viridinutans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1292-1294. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090251.
  • Legionella pneumophila in Rainwater on Roads PDF Version [PDF - 467 KB - 3 pages]
    R. Sakamoto et al.
        View Abstract

    During rain, transient puddles form on roads, and this water is splashed into the air by moving vehicles. To determine whether this water contains Legionellapneumophila, we collected samples from roads. We found that L. pneumophila are abundant in these puddles, especially during warm weather.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sakamoto R, Ohno A, Nakahara T, Satomura K, Iwanaga S, Kouyama Y, et al. Legionella pneumophila in Rainwater on Roads. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1295-1297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090317
    AMA Sakamoto R, Ohno A, Nakahara T, et al. Legionella pneumophila in Rainwater on Roads. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1295-1297. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090317.
    APA Sakamoto, R., Ohno, A., Nakahara, T., Satomura, K., Iwanaga, S., Kouyama, Y....Yamaguchi, K. (2009). Legionella pneumophila in Rainwater on Roads. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1295-1297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090317.
  • West Nile Virus from Blood Donors, Vertebrates, and Mosquitoes, Puerto Rico, 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 418 KB - 3 pages]
    E. A. Hunsperger et al.
        View Abstract

    West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from a human blood donor, a dead falcon, and mosquitoes in Puerto Rico in 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4 isolates suggests a recent introduction of lineage I WNV that is closely related to WNV currently circulating in North America.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hunsperger EA, McElroy KL, Bessoff K, Colón C, Barrera R, Muñoz-Jordán JL, et al. West Nile Virus from Blood Donors, Vertebrates, and Mosquitoes, Puerto Rico, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1298-1300. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090333
    AMA Hunsperger EA, McElroy KL, Bessoff K, et al. West Nile Virus from Blood Donors, Vertebrates, and Mosquitoes, Puerto Rico, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1298-1300. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090333.
    APA Hunsperger, E. A., McElroy, K. L., Bessoff, K., Colón, C., Barrera, R., & Muñoz-Jordán, J. L. (2009). West Nile Virus from Blood Donors, Vertebrates, and Mosquitoes, Puerto Rico, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1298-1300. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090333.
  • Lobomycosis in Man and Lobomycosis-like Disease in Bottlenose Dolphin, Venezuela PDF Version [PDF - 499 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Bermudez et al.
        View Abstract

    We report 1 case of lobomycosis caused by Lacazia loboi in a fisherman and 1 case of lobomycosis-like disease in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) along the coast of Venezuela. These findings suggest that the marine environment is a likely habitat for L. loboi and a reservoir for infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bermudez L, Van Bressem M, Reyes-Jaimes O, Sayegh AJ, Paniz-Mondolfi AE. Lobomycosis in Man and Lobomycosis-like Disease in Bottlenose Dolphin, Venezuela. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1301-1303. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090347
    AMA Bermudez L, Van Bressem M, Reyes-Jaimes O, et al. Lobomycosis in Man and Lobomycosis-like Disease in Bottlenose Dolphin, Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1301-1303. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090347.
    APA Bermudez, L., Van Bressem, M., Reyes-Jaimes, O., Sayegh, A. J., & Paniz-Mondolfi, A. E. (2009). Lobomycosis in Man and Lobomycosis-like Disease in Bottlenose Dolphin, Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1301-1303. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090347.
  • Predictors of Death after Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Infection PDF Version [PDF - 441 KB - 4 pages]
    T. L. Lamagni et al.
        View Abstract

    An evaluation of the relative importance of host and pathogen factors on the survival rate of patients with invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infection found a number of clinical and demographic factors to be associated with risk for death. Some evidence suggested a seasonal pattern to patient survival rate.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lamagni TL, Neal S, Keshishian C, Powell D, Potz N, Pebody RG, et al. Predictors of Death after Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1304-1307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090264
    AMA Lamagni TL, Neal S, Keshishian C, et al. Predictors of Death after Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1304-1307. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090264.
    APA Lamagni, T. L., Neal, S., Keshishian, C., Powell, D., Potz, N., Pebody, R. G....Efstratiou, A. (2009). Predictors of Death after Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1304-1307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090264.
  • Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 365 KB - 3 pages]
    G. Salmón-Mulanovich et al.
        View Abstract

    After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru.

        Cite This Article
    EID Salmón-Mulanovich G, Vásquez A, Albújar C, Guevara C, Laguna-Torres A, Salazar M, et al. Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1308-1311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081522
    AMA Salmón-Mulanovich G, Vásquez A, Albújar C, et al. Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1308-1311. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081522.
    APA Salmón-Mulanovich, G., Vásquez, A., Albújar, C., Guevara, C., Laguna-Torres, A., Salazar, M....Montgomery, J. M. (2009). Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1308-1311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081522.
  • Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1), Detected through Routine Surveillance, in Child, Bangladesh PDF Version [PDF - 410 KB - 3 pages]
    W. A. Brooks et al.
        View Abstract

    We identified avian influenza virus A (H5N1) infection in a child in Bangladesh in 2008 by routine influenza surveillance. The virus was of the same clade and phylogenetic subgroup as that circulating among poultry during the period. This case illustrates the value of routine surveillance for detection of novel influenza virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Brooks WA, Alamgir A, Sultana R, Islam M, Rahman M, Fry AM, et al. Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1), Detected through Routine Surveillance, in Child, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1311-1313. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090283
    AMA Brooks WA, Alamgir A, Sultana R, et al. Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1), Detected through Routine Surveillance, in Child, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1311-1313. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090283.
    APA Brooks, W. A., Alamgir, A., Sultana, R., Islam, M., Rahman, M., Fry, A. M....Rahman, M. (2009). Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1), Detected through Routine Surveillance, in Child, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1311-1313. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090283.

Commentaries

  • In Memoriam: George Martin Baer (1936–2009) PDF Version [PDF - 347 KB - 1 page]
    B. W. Mahy
            Cite This Article
    EID Mahy BW. In Memoriam: George Martin Baer (1936–2009). Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1335. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090897
    AMA Mahy BW. In Memoriam: George Martin Baer (1936–2009). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1335. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090897.
    APA Mahy, B. W. (2009). In Memoriam: George Martin Baer (1936–2009). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1335. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090897.

Letters

  • Pigs as Source for Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans PDF Version [PDF - 349 KB - 2 pages]
    R. Schuhegger et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Schuhegger R, Schoerner C, Dlugaiczyk J, Lichtenfeld I, Trouillier A, Zeller-Peronnet V, et al. Pigs as Source for Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1314-1315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081568
    AMA Schuhegger R, Schoerner C, Dlugaiczyk J, et al. Pigs as Source for Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1314-1315. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081568.
    APA Schuhegger, R., Schoerner, C., Dlugaiczyk, J., Lichtenfeld, I., Trouillier, A., Zeller-Peronnet, V....Sing, A. (2009). Pigs as Source for Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1314-1315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081568.
  • Campylobacter jejuni HS:23 and Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Bangladesh PDF Version [PDF - 380 KB - 3 pages]
    Z. Islam et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Islam Z, van Belkum A, Cody AJ, Tabor H, Jacobs BC, Talukder KA, et al. Campylobacter jejuni HS:23 and Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1315-1317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090120
    AMA Islam Z, van Belkum A, Cody AJ, et al. Campylobacter jejuni HS:23 and Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1315-1317. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090120.
    APA Islam, Z., van Belkum, A., Cody, A. J., Tabor, H., Jacobs, B. C., Talukder, K. A....Endtz, H. P. (2009). Campylobacter jejuni HS:23 and Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1315-1317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090120.
  • Enzootic Sparganosis in Guangdong, People’s Republic of China PDF Version [PDF - 342 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Li et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Li M, Lin H, Xie W, Gao M, Huang Z, Wu J, et al. Enzootic Sparganosis in Guangdong, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1317-1318. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090099
    AMA Li M, Lin H, Xie W, et al. Enzootic Sparganosis in Guangdong, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1317-1318. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090099.
    APA Li, M., Lin, H., Xie, W., Gao, M., Huang, Z., Wu, J....Zhu, X. (2009). Enzootic Sparganosis in Guangdong, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1317-1318. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090099.
  • Human Rhinovirus Group C in Hospitalized Children, Singapore PDF Version [PDF - 416 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Tan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Tan B, Loo L, Lim EA, Seah SL, Lin RT, Tee NW, et al. Human Rhinovirus Group C in Hospitalized Children, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1318-1320. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090321
    AMA Tan B, Loo L, Lim EA, et al. Human Rhinovirus Group C in Hospitalized Children, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1318-1320. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090321.
    APA Tan, B., Loo, L., Lim, E. A., Seah, S. L., Lin, R. T., Tee, N. W....Sugrue, R. J. (2009). Human Rhinovirus Group C in Hospitalized Children, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1318-1320. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090321.
  • Nondominant Hemisphere Encephalitis in Patient with Signs of Viral Meningitis, New York, USA PDF Version [PDF - 372 KB - 2 pages]
    D. S. Asnis and N. Niazi
            Cite This Article
    EID Asnis DS, Niazi N. Nondominant Hemisphere Encephalitis in Patient with Signs of Viral Meningitis, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1320-1321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090466
    AMA Asnis DS, Niazi N. Nondominant Hemisphere Encephalitis in Patient with Signs of Viral Meningitis, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1320-1321. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090466.
    APA Asnis, D. S., & Niazi, N. (2009). Nondominant Hemisphere Encephalitis in Patient with Signs of Viral Meningitis, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1320-1321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090466.
  • Tick-Borne Rickettsiosis in Traveler Returning from Honduras PDF Version [PDF - 403 KB - 3 pages]
    L. H. Chen and M. E. Wilson
            Cite This Article
    EID Chen LH, Wilson ME. Tick-Borne Rickettsiosis in Traveler Returning from Honduras. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1321-1323. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090172
    AMA Chen LH, Wilson ME. Tick-Borne Rickettsiosis in Traveler Returning from Honduras. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1321-1323. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090172.
    APA Chen, L. H., & Wilson, M. E. (2009). Tick-Borne Rickettsiosis in Traveler Returning from Honduras. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1321-1323. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090172.
  • KI and WU Polyomaviruses in Patients Infected with HIV-1, Italy PDF Version [PDF - 401 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Babakir-Mina et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Babakir-Mina M, Ciccozzi M, Trento E, Perno CF, Ciotti M. KI and WU Polyomaviruses in Patients Infected with HIV-1, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1323-1325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090424
    AMA Babakir-Mina M, Ciccozzi M, Trento E, et al. KI and WU Polyomaviruses in Patients Infected with HIV-1, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1323-1325. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090424.
    APA Babakir-Mina, M., Ciccozzi, M., Trento, E., Perno, C. F., & Ciotti, M. (2009). KI and WU Polyomaviruses in Patients Infected with HIV-1, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1323-1325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090424.
  • Extreme Drug Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Infections in Intensive Care Units, South Korea
    Y. K. Park et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Park YK, Lee K, Cheong HS, Chung D, Song J, Ko KS, et al. Extreme Drug Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Infections in Intensive Care Units, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1325-1327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.080772
    AMA Park YK, Lee K, Cheong HS, et al. Extreme Drug Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Infections in Intensive Care Units, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1325-1327. doi:10.3201/eid1508.080772.
    APA Park, Y. K., Lee, K., Cheong, H. S., Chung, D., Song, J., & Ko, K. S. (2009). Extreme Drug Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Infections in Intensive Care Units, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1325-1327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.080772.
  • More Diseases Tracked by Using Google Trends PDF Version [PDF - 360 KB - 2 pages]
    C. Pelat et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pelat C, Turbelin C, Bar-Hen A, Flahault A, Valleron A. More Diseases Tracked by Using Google Trends. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1327-1328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090299
    AMA Pelat C, Turbelin C, Bar-Hen A, et al. More Diseases Tracked by Using Google Trends. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1327-1328. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090299.
    APA Pelat, C., Turbelin, C., Bar-Hen, A., Flahault, A., & Valleron, A. (2009). More Diseases Tracked by Using Google Trends. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1327-1328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090299.
  • Human-to-Dog Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus PDF Version [PDF - 426 KB - 3 pages]
    B. E. Rutland et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Rutland BE, Weese J, Bolin C, Au J, Malani AN. Human-to-Dog Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1328-1330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081635
    AMA Rutland BE, Weese J, Bolin C, et al. Human-to-Dog Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1328-1330. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081635.
    APA Rutland, B. E., Weese, J., Bolin, C., Au, J., & Malani, A. N. (2009). Human-to-Dog Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1328-1330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.081635.
  • Potential Malaria Reemergence, Northeastern Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 342 KB - 2 pages]
    T. Petney et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Petney T, Sithithaworn P, Satrawaha R, Grundy-Warr C, Andrews R, Wang Y, et al. Potential Malaria Reemergence, Northeastern Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1330-1331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090240
    AMA Petney T, Sithithaworn P, Satrawaha R, et al. Potential Malaria Reemergence, Northeastern Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1330-1331. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090240.
    APA Petney, T., Sithithaworn, P., Satrawaha, R., Grundy-Warr, C., Andrews, R., Wang, Y....Feng, C. (2009). Potential Malaria Reemergence, Northeastern Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1330-1331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090240.
  • Fatal Borreliosis in Bat Caused by Relapsing Fever Spirochete, United Kingdom PDF Version [PDF - 438 KB - 3 pages]
    N. J. Evans et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Evans NJ, Bown K, Timofte D, Simpson VR, Birtles RJ. Fatal Borreliosis in Bat Caused by Relapsing Fever Spirochete, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1331-1333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090475
    AMA Evans NJ, Bown K, Timofte D, et al. Fatal Borreliosis in Bat Caused by Relapsing Fever Spirochete, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1331-1333. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090475.
    APA Evans, N. J., Bown, K., Timofte, D., Simpson, V. R., & Birtles, R. J. (2009). Fatal Borreliosis in Bat Caused by Relapsing Fever Spirochete, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1331-1333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090475.
  • Past, Present, and Future of Japanese Encephalitis PDF Version [PDF - 326 KB - 8 pages]
    S. L. Hills and D. C. Phillips
            Cite This Article
    EID Hills SL, Phillips DC. Past, Present, and Future of Japanese Encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090149
    AMA Hills SL, Phillips DC. Past, Present, and Future of Japanese Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1333. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090149.
    APA Hills, S. L., & Phillips, D. C. (2009). Past, Present, and Future of Japanese Encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090149.

Books and Media

  • Avian Influenza PDF Version [PDF - 257 KB - 1 page]
    E. Mumford
            Cite This Article
    EID Mumford E. Avian Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090095
    AMA Mumford E. Avian Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1334. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090095.
    APA Mumford, E. (2009). Avian Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090095.

About the Cover

  • For the world does not yet censure Those who tread the paths of dreams PDF Version [PDF - 352 KB - 1 page]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. For the world does not yet censure Those who tread the paths of dreams. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1336-1337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.AC1508
    AMA Potter P. For the world does not yet censure Those who tread the paths of dreams. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1336-1337. doi:10.3201/eid1508.AC1508.
    APA Potter, P. (2009). For the world does not yet censure Those who tread the paths of dreams. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1336-1337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.AC1508.

Etymologia

  • Lyssavirus PDF Version [PDF - 305 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Lyssavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.E11508
    AMA Lyssavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1184. doi:10.3201/eid1508.E11508.
    APA (2009). Lyssavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.E11508.

Corrections

  • Erratum: Vol. 14 No. 8
            Cite This Article
    EID Erratum: Vol. 14 No. 8. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.C21508
    AMA Erratum: Vol. 14 No. 8. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1334. doi:10.3201/eid1508.C21508.
    APA (2009). Erratum: Vol. 14 No. 8. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.C21508.
  • Erratum: Vol. 15 No. 3 PDF Version [PDF - 257 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Erratum: Vol. 15 No. 3. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.C11508
    AMA Erratum: Vol. 15 No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1334. doi:10.3201/eid1508.C11508.
    APA (2009). Erratum: Vol. 15 No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.C11508.
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