Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011

Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011   PDF Version [PDF - 7.63 MB - 239 pages]

Perspective

  • Control and Prevention of Viral Gastroenteritis PDF Version [PDF - 112 KB - 2 pages]
    S. S. Monroe
        View Abstract

    Diarrheal illness remains 1 of the top 5 causes of death in low-income and middle-income countries, especially for children <5 years of age. Introduction of universal childhood vaccination against rotaviruses has greatly reduced the incidence and severity of illness in upper-income and lower-income settings. For adults, norovirus is the leading cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrheal illness and is responsible for nearly 21 million episodes annually in the United States, of which 5.5 million are foodborne. Public health efforts to control and prevent norovirus illness have focused on rapid outbreak detection and source identification and control of transmission in institutional settings.

        Cite This Article
    EID Monroe SS. Control and Prevention of Viral Gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1347-1348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110824
    AMA Monroe SS. Control and Prevention of Viral Gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1347-1348. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110824.
    APA Monroe, S. S. (2011). Control and Prevention of Viral Gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1347-1348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110824.

Synopses

  • Dengue Virus Infection in Africa PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 6 pages]
    A. Amarasinghe et al.
        View Abstract

    Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and underreported in Africa because of low awareness by health care providers, other prevalent febrile illnesses, and lack of diagnostic testing and systematic surveillance. Other hypotheses to explain low reported numbers of cases include cross-protection from other endemic flavivirus infections, genetic host factors protecting against infection or disease, and low vector competence and transmission efficiency. Population-based studies of febrile illness are needed to determine the epidemiology and true incidence of dengue in Africa.

        Cite This Article
    EID Amarasinghe A, Kuritsky JN, Letson GW, Margolis HS. Dengue Virus Infection in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1349-1354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101515
    AMA Amarasinghe A, Kuritsky JN, Letson GW, et al. Dengue Virus Infection in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1349-1354. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101515.
    APA Amarasinghe, A., Kuritsky, J. N., Letson, G. W., & Margolis, H. S. (2011). Dengue Virus Infection in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1349-1354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101515.

Research

  • Seroprevalence of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa–associated Polyomavirus PDF Version [PDF - 788 KB - 9 pages]
    E. van der Meijden et al.
        View Abstract

    We identified a new polyomavirus in skin lesions from a patient with trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS). Apart from TS being an extremely rare disease, little is known of its epidemiology. On the basis of knowledge regarding other polyomaviruses, we anticipated that infections with trichodysplasia spinulosa–associated polyomavirus (TSV) occur frequently and become symptomatic only in immunocompromised patients. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed and used a Luminex-based TSV viral protein 1 immunoassay, excluded cross-reactivity with phylogenetically related Merkel cell polyomavirus, and measured TSV seroreactivity. Highest reactivity was found in a TS patient. In 528 healthy persons in the Netherlands, a wide range of seroreactivities was measured and resulted in an overall TSV seroprevalence of 70% (range 10% in small children to 80% in adults). In 80 renal transplant patients, seroprevalence was 89%. Infection with the new TSV polyomavirus is common and occurs primarily at a young age.

        Cite This Article
    EID van der Meijden E, Kazem S, Burgers MM, Janssens R, Bavinck JN, de Melker HE, et al. Seroprevalence of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa–associated Polyomavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1355-1363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110114
    AMA van der Meijden E, Kazem S, Burgers MM, et al. Seroprevalence of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa–associated Polyomavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1355-1363. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110114.
    APA van der Meijden, E., Kazem, S., Burgers, M. M., Janssens, R., Bavinck, J. N., de Melker, H. E....Feltkamp, M. C. (2011). Seroprevalence of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa–associated Polyomavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1355-1363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110114.
  • Human Polyomavirus Related to African Green Monkey Lymphotropic Polyomavirus PDF Version [PDF - 531 KB - 7 pages]
    V. Sauvage et al.
        View Abstract

    While studying the virome of the skin surface of a patient with a Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) by using unbiased, high-throughput sequencing, we identified a human polyomavirus nearly identical to human polyomavirus 9, a virus recently reported in blood and urine of renal transplantion patients and closely related to the African green monkey lymphotropic polyomavirus. Specific PCR analysis further identified this virus in 2/8 patients with MCC but in only 1/111 controls without MCC. This virus was shed for >20 months by the MCC index patient and was on the skin of the spouse of the index patient. These results provide information on the viral ecology of human skin and raise new questions regarding the pathology of virus-associated skin disorders.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sauvage V, Foulongne V, Cheval J, Gouilh MA, Pariente K, Dereure O, et al. Human Polyomavirus Related to African Green Monkey Lymphotropic Polyomavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1364-1370. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110278
    AMA Sauvage V, Foulongne V, Cheval J, et al. Human Polyomavirus Related to African Green Monkey Lymphotropic Polyomavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1364-1370. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110278.
    APA Sauvage, V., Foulongne, V., Cheval, J., Gouilh, M. A., Pariente, K., Dereure, O....Eloit, M. (2011). Human Polyomavirus Related to African Green Monkey Lymphotropic Polyomavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1364-1370. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110278.
  • Asymptomatic Primary Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection among Adults PDF Version [PDF - 535 KB - 10 pages]
    Y. L. Tolstov et al.
        View Abstract

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is a recently discovered virus that causes 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas. We examined data for 564 gay/bisexual male participants >18 years of age in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and found that 447 (79.3%) were MCV-antibody positive at initial enrollment. Of the 117 MCV-seronegative men, 31 subsequently seroconverted over a 4-year follow-up period, corresponding to a 6.6% annual conversion rate. MCV immunoglobulin G levels remained detectable up to 25 years after exposure. No signs, symptoms, or routine diagnostic test results were associated with MCV infection, and no correlation between HIV infection or AIDS progression and MCV infection was noted. An initial correlation between chronic hepatitis B virus infection and MCV prevalence could not be confirmed among MCV seroconverters or in studies of a second hepatitis B virus–hyperendemic cohort from Qidong, China. In adults, MCV is typically an asymptomatic, common, and commensal viral infection that initiates rare cancers after virus (rather than host cell) mutations.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tolstov YL, Knauer A, Chen JG, Kensler TW, Kingsley LA, Moore PS, et al. Asymptomatic Primary Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection among Adults. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1371-1380. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110079
    AMA Tolstov YL, Knauer A, Chen JG, et al. Asymptomatic Primary Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection among Adults. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1371-1380. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110079.
    APA Tolstov, Y. L., Knauer, A., Chen, J. G., Kensler, T. W., Kingsley, L. A., Moore, P. S....Chang, Y. (2011). Asymptomatic Primary Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection among Adults. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1371-1380. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110079.
  • Incidence of Acute Gastroenteritis and Role of Norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004–2005 PDF Version [PDF - 299 KB - 8 pages]
    A. J. Hall et al.
        View Abstract

    Approximately 179 million cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) occur annually in the United States. However, lack of routine clinical testing for viruses limits understanding of their role among persons seeking medical care. Fecal specimens submitted for routine bacterial culture through a health maintenance organization in Georgia, USA, were tested with molecular diagnostic assays for norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and adenovirus. Incidence was estimated by using national health care utilization rates. Routine clinical diagnostics identified a pathogen in 42 (7.3%) of 572 specimens; inclusion of molecular viral testing increased pathogen detection to 15.7%. Community AGE incidence was 41,000 cases/100,000 person-years and outpatient incidence was 5,400/100,000 person-years. Norovirus was the most common pathogen, accounting for 6,500 (16%) and 640 (12%) per 100,000 person-years of community and outpatient AGE episodes, respectively. This study demonstrates that noroviruses are leading causes of AGE among persons seeking medical care.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hall AJ, Rosenthal M, Gregoricus N, Greene SA, Ferguson J, Henao OL, et al. Incidence of Acute Gastroenteritis and Role of Norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1381-1388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101533
    AMA Hall AJ, Rosenthal M, Gregoricus N, et al. Incidence of Acute Gastroenteritis and Role of Norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1381-1388. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101533.
    APA Hall, A. J., Rosenthal, M., Gregoricus, N., Greene, S. A., Ferguson, J., Henao, O. L....Widdowson, M. (2011). Incidence of Acute Gastroenteritis and Role of Norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1381-1388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101533.
  • Novel Surveillance Network for Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks, United States PDF Version [PDF - 391 KB - 7 pages]
    E. Vega et al.
        View Abstract

    CaliciNet, the outbreak surveillance network for noroviruses in the United States, was launched in March 2009. As of January 2011, twenty state and local health laboratories had been certified to submit norovirus sequences and epidemiologic outbreak data to CaliciNet. During the network’s first year, 552 outbreaks were submitted to CaliciNet, of which 78 (14%) were associated with foodborne transmission. A total of 395 (72%) outbreaks were typed as GII.4, of which 298 (75%) belonged to a new variant, GII.4 New Orleans, which first emerged in October 2009. Analysis of the complete capsid and P2 region sequences confirmed that GII.4 New Orleans is distinct from previous GII.4 variants, including GII.4 Minerva (2006b).

        Cite This Article
    EID Vega E, Barclay L, Gregoricus N, Williams K, Lee D, Vinjé J, et al. Novel Surveillance Network for Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1389-1395. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101837
    AMA Vega E, Barclay L, Gregoricus N, et al. Novel Surveillance Network for Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1389-1395. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101837.
    APA Vega, E., Barclay, L., Gregoricus, N., Williams, K., Lee, D., & Vinjé, J. (2011). Novel Surveillance Network for Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1389-1395. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101837.
  • Spread of Measles Virus D4-Hamburg, Europe, 2008–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 256 KB - 6 pages]
    A. Mankertz et al.
    View Summary

    More than 24,300 cases were identified in 22 countries.

        View Abstract

    A new strain of measles virus, D4-Hamburg, was imported from London to Hamburg in December 2008 and subsequently spread to Bulgaria, where an outbreak of >24,300 cases was observed. We analyzed spread of the virus to demonstrate the importance of addressing hard-to-reach communities within the World Health Organization European Region regarding access to medical care and vaccination campaigns. The D4-Hamburg strain appeared during 2009–2011 in Poland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Austria, Greece, Romania, Turkey, Macedonia, Serbia, Switzerland, and Belgium and was repeatedly reimported to Germany. The strain was present in Europe for >27 months and led to >25,000 cases in 12 countries. Spread of the virus was prevalently but not exclusively associated with travel by persons in the Roma ethnic group; because this travel extends beyond the borders of any European country, measures to prevent the spread of measles should be implemented by the region as a whole.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mankertz A, Mihneva Z, Gold H, Baumgarte S, Baillot A, Helble R, et al. Spread of Measles Virus D4-Hamburg, Europe, 2008–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1396-1401. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101994
    AMA Mankertz A, Mihneva Z, Gold H, et al. Spread of Measles Virus D4-Hamburg, Europe, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1396-1401. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101994.
    APA Mankertz, A., Mihneva, Z., Gold, H., Baumgarte, S., Baillot, A., Helble, R....Santibanez, S. (2011). Spread of Measles Virus D4-Hamburg, Europe, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1396-1401. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101994.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Deaths Associated with Human Adenovirus-14p1 Infections, Europe, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 387 KB - 6 pages]
    M. J. Carr et al.
    View Summary

    Clinicians should consider this virus in the differential diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia.

        View Abstract

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) serotype 14 is rarely identified. However, an emerging variant, termed HAdV-14p1, recently has been described in the United States in association with outbreaks of acute respiratory disease with high rates of illness and death. We retrospectively analyzed specimens confirmed positive for HAdV by immunofluorescence, virus culture, or real-time PCR during July 1, 2009–July 31, 2010, and describe 9 cases of HAdV-14p1 infection with characteristic mutations in the fiber and E1A genes that are phylogenetically indistinguishable from the viruses previously detected in the United States. Three patients died; 2 were immunocompromised, and 1 was an immunocompetent adult. We propose that surveillance should be increased for HAdV-14p1 and recommend that this virus be considered in the differential diagnosis of sudden-onset acute respiratory disease, particularly fatal infections, for which an etiology is not clear.

        Cite This Article
    EID Carr MJ, Kajon AE, Lu X, Dunford L, O’Reilly P, Holder P, et al. Deaths Associated with Human Adenovirus-14p1 Infections, Europe, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1402-1408. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101760
    AMA Carr MJ, Kajon AE, Lu X, et al. Deaths Associated with Human Adenovirus-14p1 Infections, Europe, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1402-1408. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101760.
    APA Carr, M. J., Kajon, A. E., Lu, X., Dunford, L., O’Reilly, P., Holder, P....Hall, W. W. (2011). Deaths Associated with Human Adenovirus-14p1 Infections, Europe, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1402-1408. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101760.
  • Case–Control Study of Risk Factors for Hospitalization Caused by Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 8 pages]
    K. A. Ward et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a case–control study to identify risk factors for hospitalization from pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among persons >16 years of age in Sydney, Australia. The study comprised 302 case-patients and 603 controls. In a logistic regression model, after adjusting for age and sex, risk factors for hospitalization were pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 22.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.2–54.5), immune suppression (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.8–10.9), pre-existing lung disease (OR 6.6, 95% CI 3.8–11.6), asthma requiring regular preventive medication (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.7–6.8), heart disease (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2–4.1), diabetes (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.2–6.5), and current smoker (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.2) or previously smoked (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.0). Although obesity was not independently associated with hospitalization, it was associated with an increased risk of requiring mechanical ventilation. Public health messages should give greater emphasis on the risk for severe disease among pregnant women and smokers.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ward KA, Spokes PJ, McAnulty JM. Case–Control Study of Risk Factors for Hospitalization Caused by Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1409-1416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.100842
    AMA Ward KA, Spokes PJ, McAnulty JM. Case–Control Study of Risk Factors for Hospitalization Caused by Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1409-1416. doi:10.3201/eid1708.100842.
    APA Ward, K. A., Spokes, P. J., & McAnulty, J. M. (2011). Case–Control Study of Risk Factors for Hospitalization Caused by Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1409-1416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.100842.
  • Novel Arenavirus Infection in Humans, United States PDF Version [PDF - 221 KB - 4 pages]
    M. L. Milazzo et al.
        View Abstract

    Immunoglobulin G against Whitewater Arroyo virus or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was found in 41 (3.5%) of 1,185 persons in the United States who had acute central nervous system disease or undifferentiated febrile illnesses. The results of analyses of antibody titers in paired serum samples suggest that a North American Tacaribe serocomplex virus was the causative agent of the illnesses in 2 persons and that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was the causative agent of the illnesses in 3 other antibody-positive persons in this study. The results of this study suggest that Tacaribe serocomplex viruses native to North America, as well as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, are causative agents of human disease in the United States.

        Cite This Article
    EID Milazzo ML, Campbell GL, Fulhorst CF. Novel Arenavirus Infection in Humans, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1417-1420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110285
    AMA Milazzo ML, Campbell GL, Fulhorst CF. Novel Arenavirus Infection in Humans, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1417-1420. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110285.
    APA Milazzo, M. L., Campbell, G. L., & Fulhorst, C. F. (2011). Novel Arenavirus Infection in Humans, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1417-1420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110285.
  • Cost-effectiveness of Sick Leave Policies for Health Care Workers with Influenza-like Illness, Brazil, 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 370 KB - 9 pages]
    N. V. Mota et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe the effect of influenza-like illness (ILI) during the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on health care worker (HCW) absenteeism and compare the effectiveness and cost of 2 sick leave policies for HCWs with suspected influenza. We assessed initial 2-day sick leaves plus reassessment until the HCW was asymptomatic (2-day + reassessment policy), and initial 7-day sick leaves (7-day policy). Sick leaves peaked in August 2009: 3% of the workforce received leave for ILI. Costs during May–October reached R$798,051.87 (≈US $443,362). The 7-day policy led to a higher monthly rate of sick leave days per 100 HCWs than did the 2-day + reassessment policy (8.72 vs. 3.47 days/100 HCWs; p<0.0001) and resulted in higher costs (US $609 vs. US $1,128 per HCW on leave). ILI affected HCW absenteeism. The 7-day policy was more costly and not more effective in preventing transmission to patients than the 2-day + reassessment policy.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mota NV, Lobo RD, Toscano CM, Pedroso de Lima AC, Dias MB, Komagata H, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Sick Leave Policies for Health Care Workers with Influenza-like Illness, Brazil, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1421-1429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101546
    AMA Mota NV, Lobo RD, Toscano CM, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Sick Leave Policies for Health Care Workers with Influenza-like Illness, Brazil, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1421-1429. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101546.
    APA Mota, N. V., Lobo, R. D., Toscano, C. M., Pedroso de Lima, A. C., Dias, M. B., Komagata, H....Levin, A. S. (2011). Cost-effectiveness of Sick Leave Policies for Health Care Workers with Influenza-like Illness, Brazil, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1421-1429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101546.
  • Enterovirus 68 among Children with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection, the Philippines PDF Version [PDF - 354 KB - 6 pages]
    T. Imamura et al.
        View Abstract

    Enterovirus 68 (EV68) is a rare enterovirus associated with respiratory illness that, unlike other enteroviruses, has been identified only from respiratory specimens. We identified EV68 from respiratory specimens of children hospitalized with a diagnosis of severe pneumonia in Leyte, Republic of the Philippines. Twenty-one samples showed high similarity with EV68 by sequencing of 5′ nontranslated region; 17 of these samples were confirmed as EV68 by sequencing of viral protein 1 capsid coding region. Most previously reported EV68 cases had been identified as sporadic cases. All 21 patients we identified had severe illness, and 2 died, possibly the first reported fatal cases associated with EV68 infection. Our study suggests that EV68 may be a possible causative agent of severe respiratory illnesses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Imamura T, Fuji N, Suzuki A, Tamaki R, Saito M, Aniceto R, et al. Enterovirus 68 among Children with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection, the Philippines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1430-1435. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101328
    AMA Imamura T, Fuji N, Suzuki A, et al. Enterovirus 68 among Children with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1430-1435. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101328.
    APA Imamura, T., Fuji, N., Suzuki, A., Tamaki, R., Saito, M., Aniceto, R....Oshitani, H. (2011). Enterovirus 68 among Children with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1430-1435. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101328.
  • Novel Human Reovirus Isolated from Children with Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy PDF Version [PDF - 413 KB - 9 pages]
    L. A. Ouattara et al.
        View Abstract

    For many encephalitis cases, the cause remains unidentified. After 2 children (from the same family) received a diagnosis of acute necrotizing encephalopathy at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (Tours, France), we attempted to identify the etiologic agent. Because clinical samples from the 2 patients were negative for all pathogens tested, urine and throat swab specimens were added to epithelial cells, and virus isolates detected were characterized by molecular analysis and electron microscopy. We identified a novel reovirus strain (serotype 2), MRV2Tou05, which seems to be closely related to porcine and human strains. A specific antibody response directed against this new reovirus strain was observed in convalescent-phase serum specimens from the patients, whereas no response was observed in 38 serum specimens from 38 healthy adults. This novel reovirus is a new etiologic agent of encephalitis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ouattara LA, Barin F, Barthez MA, Bonnaud B, Roingeard P, Goudeau A, et al. Novel Human Reovirus Isolated from Children with Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1436-1444. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101528
    AMA Ouattara LA, Barin F, Barthez MA, et al. Novel Human Reovirus Isolated from Children with Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1436-1444. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101528.
    APA Ouattara, L. A., Barin, F., Barthez, M. A., Bonnaud, B., Roingeard, P., Goudeau, A....Komurian-Pradel, F. (2011). Novel Human Reovirus Isolated from Children with Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1436-1444. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101528.
  • Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Risk Areas, California, USA PDF Version [PDF - 442 KB - 10 pages]
    R. M. Carney et al.
        View Abstract

    The Dynamic Continuous-Area Space-Time (DYCAST) system is a biologically based spatiotemporal model that uses public reports of dead birds to identify areas at high risk for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission to humans. In 2005, during a statewide epidemic of WNV (880 cases), the California Department of Public Health prospectively implemented DYCAST over 32,517 km2 in California. Daily risk maps were made available online and used by local agencies to target public education campaigns, surveillance, and mosquito control. DYCAST had 80.8% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity for predicting human cases, and κ analysis indicated moderate strength of chance-adjusted agreement for >4 weeks. High-risk grid cells (populations) were identified an average of 37.2 days before onset of human illness; relative risk for disease was >39× higher than for low-risk cells. Although prediction rates declined in subsequent years, results indicate DYCAST was a timely and effective early warning system during the severe 2005 epidemic.

        Cite This Article
    EID Carney RM, Ahearn SC, McConchie A, Glaser CA, Jean C, Barker C, et al. Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Risk Areas, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1445-1454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.100411
    AMA Carney RM, Ahearn SC, McConchie A, et al. Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Risk Areas, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1445-1454. doi:10.3201/eid1708.100411.
    APA Carney, R. M., Ahearn, S. C., McConchie, A., Glaser, C. A., Jean, C., Barker, C....Kramer, V. (2011). Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Risk Areas, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1445-1454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.100411.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Seroconversion among Adults, Singapore, 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 356 KB - 8 pages]
    W. Lim et al.
        View Abstract

    A total of 828 community-dwelling adults were studied during the course of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak in Singapore during June–September 2009. Baseline blood samples were obtained before the outbreak, and 2 additional samples were obtained during follow-up. Seroconversion was defined as a >4-fold increase in antibody titers to pandemic (H1N1) 2009, determined by using hemagglutination inhibition. Men were more likely than women to seroconvert (mean adjusted hazards ratio [HR] 2.23, mean 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26–3.93); Malays were more likely than Chinese to seroconvert (HR 2.67, 95% CI 1.04–6.91). Travel outside Singapore during the study period was associated with seroconversion (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.11–2.78) as was use of public transport (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.05–3.09). High baseline antibody titers were associated with reduced seroconversion. This study suggests possible areas for intervention to reduce transmission during future influenza outbreaks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lim W, Chen CH, Ma Y, Chen MI, Lee VJ, Cook AR, et al. Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Seroconversion among Adults, Singapore, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1455-1462. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101270
    AMA Lim W, Chen CH, Ma Y, et al. Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Seroconversion among Adults, Singapore, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1455-1462. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101270.
    APA Lim, W., Chen, C. H., Ma, Y., Chen, M. I., Lee, V. J., Cook, A. R....Chia, K. S. (2011). Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Seroconversion among Adults, Singapore, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1455-1462. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101270.

Dispatches

  • Use of Medical Care during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Navarre, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 293 KB - 4 pages]
    R. Burgui et al.
        View Abstract

    Of 233 households with laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Navarre, Spain, only 64% (107/166) of contacts with influenza-like illness had sought medical care. This value was lower for adults (53%, 39/74) than for children <15 years of age (74%, 68/92), as well as for those with cases secondary to another household case (58%, 64/111).

        Cite This Article
    EID Burgui R, Martínez-Baz I, Guevara M, Carlos S, Castilla J. Use of Medical Care during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Navarre, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1463-1466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101817
    AMA Burgui R, Martínez-Baz I, Guevara M, et al. Use of Medical Care during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Navarre, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1463-1466. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101817.
    APA Burgui, R., Martínez-Baz, I., Guevara, M., Carlos, S., & Castilla, J. (2011). Use of Medical Care during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Navarre, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1463-1466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101817.
  • Risk Factors for Death from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Southern Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 294 KB - 5 pages]
    R. T. Yokota et al.
        View Abstract

    To identify risk factors for death from pandemic (H1N1) 2009, we obtained data for 157 hospitalized patients with confirmed cases of this disease. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes and class III obesity were associated with death. These findings helped define priority vaccination groups in Brazil.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yokota RT, Skalinski LM, Igansi CN, de Souza LR, Iser BP, Reis PO, et al. Risk Factors for Death from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Southern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1467-1471. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101233
    AMA Yokota RT, Skalinski LM, Igansi CN, et al. Risk Factors for Death from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Southern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1467-1471. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101233.
    APA Yokota, R. T., Skalinski, L. M., Igansi, C. N., de Souza, L. R., Iser, B. P., Reis, P. O....Araújo, W. N. (2011). Risk Factors for Death from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Southern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1467-1471. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101233.
  • Multidrug-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in Immunocompetent Child PDF Version [PDF - 134 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Eshaghi et al.
        View Abstract

    Recent case reports describe multidrug-resistant influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection in immunocompromised patients exposed to neuraminidase inhibitors because of an I223R neuraminidase mutation. We report a case of multidrug-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 bearing the I223R mutation in an ambulatory child with no previous exposure to neuraminidase inhibitors.

        Cite This Article
    EID Eshaghi A, Patel SN, Sarabia A, Higgins RR, Savchenko A, Stojios PJ, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in Immunocompetent Child. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1472-1474. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.102004
    AMA Eshaghi A, Patel SN, Sarabia A, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in Immunocompetent Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1472-1474. doi:10.3201/eid1708.102004.
    APA Eshaghi, A., Patel, S. N., Sarabia, A., Higgins, R. R., Savchenko, A., Stojios, P. J....Gubbay, J. B. (2011). Multidrug-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in Immunocompetent Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1472-1474. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.102004.
  • Predictors of Pneumococcal Co-infection for Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 296 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Masiá et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a systematic investigation of pneumococcal co-infection in patients with a diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and any risk factor for complications or with severity criteria. We found 14% prevalence, with one third of patients having nonpneumonic infections. A severity assessment score >1 and high C-reactive protein levels were predictors of pneumococcal co-infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Masiá M, Padilla S, Antequera P, Ramos JM, Ruiz M, Gutiérrez F, et al. Predictors of Pneumococcal Co-infection for Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1475-1478. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101673
    AMA Masiá M, Padilla S, Antequera P, et al. Predictors of Pneumococcal Co-infection for Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1475-1478. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101673.
    APA Masiá, M., Padilla, S., Antequera, P., Ramos, J. M., Ruiz, M., & Gutiérrez, F. (2011). Predictors of Pneumococcal Co-infection for Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1475-1478. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101673.
  • Pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated Deaths Detected by Unexplained Death and Medical Examiner Surveillance PDF Version [PDF - 252 KB - 5 pages]
    C. H. Lees et al.
        View Abstract

    During the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak, Minnesota, New Mexico, and Oregon used several surveillance methods to detect associated deaths. Surveillance using unexplained death and medical examiner data allowed for detection of 34 (18%) pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated deaths that were not detected by hospital-based surveillance.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lees CH, Avery C, Asherin R, Rainbow J, Danila RN, Smelser C, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated Deaths Detected by Unexplained Death and Medical Examiner Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1479-1483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101914
    AMA Lees CH, Avery C, Asherin R, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated Deaths Detected by Unexplained Death and Medical Examiner Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1479-1483. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101914.
    APA Lees, C. H., Avery, C., Asherin, R., Rainbow, J., Danila, R. N., Smelser, C....Lynfield, R. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated Deaths Detected by Unexplained Death and Medical Examiner Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1479-1483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101914.
  • Human Parvovirus 4 as Potential Cause of Encephalitis in Children, India PDF Version [PDF - 367 KB - 4 pages]
    L. A. Benjamin et al.
        View Abstract

    To investigate whether uncharacterized infectious agents were associated with neurologic disease, we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 12 children with acute central nervous system infection. A high-throughput pyrosequencing screen detected human parvovirus 4 DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of 2 children with encephalitis of unknown etiology.

        Cite This Article
    EID Benjamin LA, Lewthwaite P, Vasanthapuram R, Zhao G, Sharp CP, Simmonds P, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 as Potential Cause of Encephalitis in Children, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1484-1487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110165
    AMA Benjamin LA, Lewthwaite P, Vasanthapuram R, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 as Potential Cause of Encephalitis in Children, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1484-1487. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110165.
    APA Benjamin, L. A., Lewthwaite, P., Vasanthapuram, R., Zhao, G., Sharp, C. P., Simmonds, P....Solomon, T. (2011). Human Parvovirus 4 as Potential Cause of Encephalitis in Children, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1484-1487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110165.
  • Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia PDF Version [PDF - 157 KB - 3 pages]
    M. C. Dell’Amico et al.
        View Abstract

    We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dell’Amico MC, Cavallo A, Gonzales JL, Bonelli SI, Valda Y, Pieri A, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1488-1490. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.100769
    AMA Dell’Amico MC, Cavallo A, Gonzales JL, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1488-1490. doi:10.3201/eid1708.100769.
    APA Dell’Amico, M. C., Cavallo, A., Gonzales, J. L., Bonelli, S. I., Valda, Y., Pieri, A....Bartoloni, A. (2011). Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1488-1490. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.100769.
  • Porcine Rotavirus Closely Related to Novel Group of Human Rotaviruses PDF Version [PDF - 162 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Wakuda et al.
        View Abstract

    We determined nucleotide sequences and inferred amino acid sequences of viral protein (VP) 4, VP6, VP7, and nonstructural protein 4 genes of a porcine rotavirus strain (SKA-1) from Japan. The strain was closely related to a novel group of human rotavirus strains (B219 and J19).

        Cite This Article
    EID Wakuda M, Ide T, Sasaki J, Komoto S, Ishii J, Sanekata T, et al. Porcine Rotavirus Closely Related to Novel Group of Human Rotaviruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1491-1493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101466
    AMA Wakuda M, Ide T, Sasaki J, et al. Porcine Rotavirus Closely Related to Novel Group of Human Rotaviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1491-1493. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101466.
    APA Wakuda, M., Ide, T., Sasaki, J., Komoto, S., Ishii, J., Sanekata, T....Taniguchi, K. (2011). Porcine Rotavirus Closely Related to Novel Group of Human Rotaviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1491-1493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101466.
  • Enterovirus 68 in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections, Osaka, Japan PDF Version [PDF - 245 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Kaida et al.
        View Abstract

    Enterovirus 68 strains were detected in 14 specimens from children with respiratory tract infections and 1 specimen from a child with febrile convulsions during 2010 in Osaka, Japan. These strains had deletions in the 5′ untranslated region and were genetically different from reported strains. This virus is associated with respiratory tract infections in Japan.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kaida A, Kubo H, Sekiguchi J, Kohdera U, Togawa M, Shiomi M, et al. Enterovirus 68 in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections, Osaka, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1494-1497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110028
    AMA Kaida A, Kubo H, Sekiguchi J, et al. Enterovirus 68 in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections, Osaka, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1494-1497. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110028.
    APA Kaida, A., Kubo, H., Sekiguchi, J., Kohdera, U., Togawa, M., Shiomi, M....Iritani, N. (2011). Enterovirus 68 in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections, Osaka, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1494-1497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110028.
  • Bagaza Virus in Partridges and Pheasants, Spain, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 204 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Agüero et al.
        View Abstract

    In September 2010, an unusually high number of wild birds (partridges and pheasants) died in Cádiz in southwestern Spain. Reverse transcription PCR and virus isolation detected flavivirus infections. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis identified Bagaza virus, a flavivirus with a known distribution that includes sub-Saharan Africa and India, as the causative agent.

        Cite This Article
    EID Agüero M, Fernández-Pinero J, Buitrago D, Sánchez A, Elizalde M, San Miguel E, et al. Bagaza Virus in Partridges and Pheasants, Spain, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1498-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110077
    AMA Agüero M, Fernández-Pinero J, Buitrago D, et al. Bagaza Virus in Partridges and Pheasants, Spain, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1498-1501. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110077.
    APA Agüero, M., Fernández-Pinero, J., Buitrago, D., Sánchez, A., Elizalde, M., San Miguel, E....Jiménez-Clavero, M. (2011). Bagaza Virus in Partridges and Pheasants, Spain, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1498-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110077.
  • Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Hyalommid Ticks, Northeastern Kenya PDF Version [PDF - 275 KB - 4 pages]
    R. Sang et al.
        View Abstract

    As part of ongoing arbovirus surveillance, we screened ticks obtained from livestock in northeastern Kenya in 2008 to assess the risk for human exposure to tick-borne viruses. Of 1,144 pools of 8,600 Hyalomma spp. ticks screened for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus by reverse transcription PCR, 23 pools were infected, demonstrating a potential for human exposure.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sang R, Lutomiah J, Koka H, Makio A, Chepkorir E, Ochieng C, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Hyalommid Ticks, Northeastern Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1502-1505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.102064
    AMA Sang R, Lutomiah J, Koka H, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Hyalommid Ticks, Northeastern Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1502-1505. doi:10.3201/eid1708.102064.
    APA Sang, R., Lutomiah, J., Koka, H., Makio, A., Chepkorir, E., Ochieng, C....Schnabel, D. (2011). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Hyalommid Ticks, Northeastern Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1502-1505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.102064.
  • Poliomyelitis Outbreak,Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, September 2010–February 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 210 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Le Menach et al.
        View Abstract

    On November 4, 2010, the Republic of the Congo declared a poliomyelitis outbreak. A cross-sectional survey in Pointe-Noire showed poor sanitary conditions and low vaccination coverage (55.5%), particularly among young adults. Supplementary vaccination should focus on older age groups in countries with evidence of immunity gaps.

        Cite This Article
    EID Le Menach A, Llosa AE, Mouniaman-Nara I, Kouassi F, Ngala J, Boxall N, et al. Poliomyelitis Outbreak,Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, September 2010–February 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1506-1509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110195
    AMA Le Menach A, Llosa AE, Mouniaman-Nara I, et al. Poliomyelitis Outbreak,Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, September 2010–February 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1506-1509. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110195.
    APA Le Menach, A., Llosa, A. E., Mouniaman-Nara, I., Kouassi, F., Ngala, J., Boxall, N....Grais, R. F. (2011). Poliomyelitis Outbreak,Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, September 2010–February 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1506-1509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110195.
  • Neurologic Disorders and Hepatitis E, France, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Despierres et al.
        View Abstract

    We report meningitis with diffuse neuralgic pain or polyradiculoneuropathy associated with PCR-documented acute hepatitis E in 2 adults. These observations suggest that diagnostic testing for hepatitis E virus should be conducted for patients who have neurologic symptoms and liver cytolysis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Despierres L, Kaphan E, Attarian S, Cohen-Bacrie S, Pelletier J, Pouget J, et al. Neurologic Disorders and Hepatitis E, France, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1510-1512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.102028
    AMA Despierres L, Kaphan E, Attarian S, et al. Neurologic Disorders and Hepatitis E, France, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1510-1512. doi:10.3201/eid1708.102028.
    APA Despierres, L., Kaphan, E., Attarian, S., Cohen-Bacrie, S., Pelletier, J., Pouget, J....Colson, P. (2011). Neurologic Disorders and Hepatitis E, France, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1510-1512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.102028.
  • Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy PDF Version [PDF - 223 KB - 3 pages]
    G. Cardeti et al.
        View Abstract

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cardeti G, Brozzi A, Eleni C, Polici N, D’Alterio G, Carletti F, et al. Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1513-1515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101912
    AMA Cardeti G, Brozzi A, Eleni C, et al. Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1513-1515. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101912.
    APA Cardeti, G., Brozzi, A., Eleni, C., Polici, N., D’Alterio, G., Carletti, F....Amaddeo, D. (2011). Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1513-1515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101912.
  • Novel GII.12 Norovirus Strain, United States, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 255 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Vega and J. Vinjé
        View Abstract

    In October 2009, a novel GII.12 norovirus strain emerged in the United States and caused 16% of all reported norovirus outbreaks during the winter season. Sequence analysis demonstrated a recombinant virus with a P2 region that was largely conserved compared with previously sequenced GII.12 strains.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vega E, Vinjé J. Novel GII.12 Norovirus Strain, United States, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1516-1518. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110025
    AMA Vega E, Vinjé J. Novel GII.12 Norovirus Strain, United States, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1516-1518. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110025.
    APA Vega, E., & Vinjé, J. (2011). Novel GII.12 Norovirus Strain, United States, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1516-1518. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110025.
  • Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany PDF Version [PDF - 411 KB - 4 pages]
    C. M. Freuling et al.
        View Abstract

    A virus isolated from a Natterer’s bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Freuling CM, Beer M, Conraths FJ, Finke S, Hoffmann B, Keller B, et al. Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1519-1522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110201
    AMA Freuling CM, Beer M, Conraths FJ, et al. Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1519-1522. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110201.
    APA Freuling, C. M., Beer, M., Conraths, F. J., Finke, S., Hoffmann, B., Keller, B....Müller, T. (2011). Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1519-1522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110201.
  • Imported Measles and Implications for Its Elimination in Taiwan PDF Version [PDF - 358 KB - 4 pages]
    W. Cheng et al.
        View Abstract

    During November 2008–May 2009, an outbreak of 53 measles cases occurred in Taiwan. Of these, 3 cases were sporadic, and the other 50 cases could be grouped into 8 clusters by genetic analysis. We determined 7 H1 genotypes linked to importation and 1 G3 genotype linked to an untraceable source.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cheng W, Yang C, Hou Y, Wang S, Chang H, Chiu H, et al. Imported Measles and Implications for Its Elimination in Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1523-1526. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.100800
    AMA Cheng W, Yang C, Hou Y, et al. Imported Measles and Implications for Its Elimination in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1523-1526. doi:10.3201/eid1708.100800.
    APA Cheng, W., Yang, C., Hou, Y., Wang, S., Chang, H., Chiu, H....Wu, H. (2011). Imported Measles and Implications for Its Elimination in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1523-1526. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.100800.
  • Pygmy Rice Rat as Potential Host of Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus PDF Version [PDF - 266 KB - 4 pages]
    E. S. Travassos da Rosa et al.
        View Abstract

    To study the dynamics of wild rodent populations and identify potential hosts for hantavirus, we conducted an eco-epidemiologic study in Campo Novo do Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We detected and genetically characterized Castelo dos Sonhos virus found in a species of pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys utiaritensis).

        Cite This Article
    EID Travassos da Rosa ES, Medeiros DB, Nunes MR, Simith DB, Pereira Ad, Elkhoury MR, et al. Pygmy Rice Rat as Potential Host of Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1527-1530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101547
    AMA Travassos da Rosa ES, Medeiros DB, Nunes MR, et al. Pygmy Rice Rat as Potential Host of Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1527-1530. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101547.
    APA Travassos da Rosa, E. S., Medeiros, D. B., Nunes, M. R., Simith, D. B., Pereira, A. d., Elkhoury, M. R....Vasconcelos, P. (2011). Pygmy Rice Rat as Potential Host of Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1527-1530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101547.
  • West Nile Virus Infection in Killer Whale, Texas, USA, 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 233 KB - 3 pages]
    J. A. St. Leger et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans.

        Cite This Article
    EID St. Leger JA, Wu G, Anderson M, Dalton L, Nilson E, Wang D, et al. West Nile Virus Infection in Killer Whale, Texas, USA, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1531-1533. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101979
    AMA St. Leger JA, Wu G, Anderson M, et al. West Nile Virus Infection in Killer Whale, Texas, USA, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1531-1533. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101979.
    APA St. Leger, J. A., Wu, G., Anderson, M., Dalton, L., Nilson, E., & Wang, D. (2011). West Nile Virus Infection in Killer Whale, Texas, USA, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1531-1533. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101979.
  • Fatal Neurologic Disease and Abortion in Mare Infected with Lineage 1 West Nile Virus, South Africa PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Venter et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2010, lineage 1 West Nile virus was detected in South Africa in the brain of a pregnant mare that succumbed to neurologic disease and in her aborted fetus, suggesting an association with abortion in horses. All West Nile virus strains previously detected in horses and humans in South Africa were lineage 2.

        Cite This Article
    EID Venter M, Human S, van Niekerk S, Williams J, van Eeden C, Freeman F, et al. Fatal Neurologic Disease and Abortion in Mare Infected with Lineage 1 West Nile Virus, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1534-1536. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101794
    AMA Venter M, Human S, van Niekerk S, et al. Fatal Neurologic Disease and Abortion in Mare Infected with Lineage 1 West Nile Virus, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1534-1536. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101794.
    APA Venter, M., Human, S., van Niekerk, S., Williams, J., van Eeden, C., & Freeman, F. (2011). Fatal Neurologic Disease and Abortion in Mare Infected with Lineage 1 West Nile Virus, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1534-1536. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101794.
  • Circulating Coxsackievirus A16 Identified as Recombinant Type A Human Enterovirus, China PDF Version [PDF - 425 KB - 4 pages]
    K. Zhao et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the relationship of coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) to prototype CA16-G10, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of circulating CA16 strains in China. Complex recombinant forms of CA16-related viruses involving multiple human enteroviruses, subgroup A (CA4, CA16, and enterovirus 71), are prevalent among patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zhao K, Han X, Wang G, Hu W, Zhang W, Yu X, et al. Circulating Coxsackievirus A16 Identified as Recombinant Type A Human Enterovirus, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1537-1540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101719
    AMA Zhao K, Han X, Wang G, et al. Circulating Coxsackievirus A16 Identified as Recombinant Type A Human Enterovirus, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1537-1540. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101719.
    APA Zhao, K., Han, X., Wang, G., Hu, W., Zhang, W., & Yu, X. (2011). Circulating Coxsackievirus A16 Identified as Recombinant Type A Human Enterovirus, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1537-1540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101719.
  • Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China PDF Version [PDF - 238 KB - 3 pages]
    W. Qiu et al.
        View Abstract

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

        Cite This Article
    EID Qiu W, Zheng Y, Zhang S, Fan Q, Liu H, Zhang F, et al. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1541-1543. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101153
    AMA Qiu W, Zheng Y, Zhang S, et al. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1541-1543. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101153.
    APA Qiu, W., Zheng, Y., Zhang, S., Fan, Q., Liu, H., Zhang, F....Hu, R. (2011). Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1541-1543. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101153.
  • Aichi Virus Shedding in High Concentrations in Patients with Acute Diarrhea PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 5 pages]
    J. Drexler et al.
        View Abstract

    We assessed Aichi virus shedding in patients with gastroenteritis and negative test results for other viral and bacterial infections. High concentrations of up to 1.32 × 1012 RNA copies/g stool were found in 10 (2.0%) of 499 outpatients sampled in northern Germany, 2004. These data substantiate Aichi virus pathogenicity in humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Drexler J, Baumgarte S, Luna LK, Eschbach-Bludau M, Lukashev AN, Park S, et al. Aichi Virus Shedding in High Concentrations in Patients with Acute Diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1544-1548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101556
    AMA Drexler J, Baumgarte S, Luna LK, et al. Aichi Virus Shedding in High Concentrations in Patients with Acute Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1544-1548. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101556.
    APA Drexler, J., Baumgarte, S., Luna, L. K., Eschbach-Bludau, M., Lukashev, A. N., & Park, S. (2011). Aichi Virus Shedding in High Concentrations in Patients with Acute Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1544-1548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101556.
  • Atypical Pestivirus and Severe Respiratory Disease in Calves, Europe PDF Version [PDF - 249 KB - 4 pages]
    N. Decaro et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2010, a HoBi-like pestivirus was isolated from clinically affected calves in Italy. This European virus reproduced a milder form of disease under experimental conditions and was genetically related to previously reported HoBi-like strains. Isolation of this novel virus from a clinical outbreak may have implications for cattle health and prophylactic programs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Decaro N, Lucente MS, Mari V, Cirone F, Cordioli P, Camero M, et al. Atypical Pestivirus and Severe Respiratory Disease in Calves, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1549-1552. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101447
    AMA Decaro N, Lucente MS, Mari V, et al. Atypical Pestivirus and Severe Respiratory Disease in Calves, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1549-1552. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101447.
    APA Decaro, N., Lucente, M. S., Mari, V., Cirone, F., Cordioli, P., Camero, M....Buonavoglia, C. (2011). Atypical Pestivirus and Severe Respiratory Disease in Calves, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1549-1552. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101447.
  • Specimen Collection and Confirmation of Norovirus Outbreaks PDF Version [PDF - 226 KB - 3 pages]
    M. S. Plantenga et al.
        View Abstract

    We evaluated data from gastroenteritis outbreaks in Oregon to assess sensitivity of stool testing for norovirus and determine number of specimens needed to confirm norovirus as the cause. Norovirus can be readily confirmed if 3–6 specimens are collected any time <7 days after onset of diarrhea and for almost that long after symptoms resolve.

        Cite This Article
    EID Plantenga MS, Shiferaw B, Keene WE, Biggs C, Terry JM, Grenz L, et al. Specimen Collection and Confirmation of Norovirus Outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1553-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101815
    AMA Plantenga MS, Shiferaw B, Keene WE, et al. Specimen Collection and Confirmation of Norovirus Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1553-1555. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101815.
    APA Plantenga, M. S., Shiferaw, B., Keene, W. E., Biggs, C., Terry, J. M., Grenz, L....Cieslak, P. R. (2011). Specimen Collection and Confirmation of Norovirus Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1553-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101815.
  • African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX in Domestic Pigs, Congo, 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 199 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Gallardo et al.
        View Abstract

    African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX, associated with outbreaks in eastern Africa, is cocirculating in the Republic of the Congo with West African genotype I. Data suggest that viruses from eastern Africa are moving into western Africa, increasing the threat of outbreaks caused by novel viruses in this region.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gallardo C, Anchuelo R, Pelayo V, Poudevigne F, Leon T, Nzoussi J, et al. African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX in Domestic Pigs, Congo, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1556-1558. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101877
    AMA Gallardo C, Anchuelo R, Pelayo V, et al. African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX in Domestic Pigs, Congo, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1556-1558. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101877.
    APA Gallardo, C., Anchuelo, R., Pelayo, V., Poudevigne, F., Leon, T., Nzoussi, J....Arias, M. (2011). African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX in Domestic Pigs, Congo, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1556-1558. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101877.

Letters

  • Reston Ebolavirus Antibodies in Bats, the Philippines PDF Version [PDF - 90 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Taniguchi et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Taniguchi S, Watanabe S, Masangkay JS, Omatsu T, Ikegami T, Alviola P, et al. Reston Ebolavirus Antibodies in Bats, the Philippines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1559-1560. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101693
    AMA Taniguchi S, Watanabe S, Masangkay JS, et al. Reston Ebolavirus Antibodies in Bats, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1559-1560. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101693.
    APA Taniguchi, S., Watanabe, S., Masangkay, J. S., Omatsu, T., Ikegami, T., Alviola, P....Morikawa, S. (2011). Reston Ebolavirus Antibodies in Bats, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1559-1560. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101693.
  • Acute Hepatitis C Outbreak among HIV-infected Men, Madrid, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Montoya-Ferrer et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Montoya-Ferrer A, Fierer DS, Alvarez-Alvarez B, de Gorgolas M, Fernandez-Guerrero ML. Acute Hepatitis C Outbreak among HIV-infected Men, Madrid, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1560-1562. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110147
    AMA Montoya-Ferrer A, Fierer DS, Alvarez-Alvarez B, et al. Acute Hepatitis C Outbreak among HIV-infected Men, Madrid, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1560-1562. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110147.
    APA Montoya-Ferrer, A., Fierer, D. S., Alvarez-Alvarez, B., de Gorgolas, M., & Fernandez-Guerrero, M. L. (2011). Acute Hepatitis C Outbreak among HIV-infected Men, Madrid, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1560-1562. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110147.
  • Saffold Virus Infection in Children, Malaysia, 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 97 KB - 3 pages]
    K. B. Chua et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Chua KB, Voon K, Yu M, Ali WN, Kasri AR, Wang L, et al. Saffold Virus Infection in Children, Malaysia, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1562-1564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101380
    AMA Chua KB, Voon K, Yu M, et al. Saffold Virus Infection in Children, Malaysia, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1562-1564. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101380.
    APA Chua, K. B., Voon, K., Yu, M., Ali, W. N., Kasri, A. R., & Wang, L. (2011). Saffold Virus Infection in Children, Malaysia, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1562-1564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101380.
  • Human Bocavirus DNA in Paranasal Sinus Mucosa PDF Version [PDF - 80 KB - 2 pages]
    V. Falcone et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Falcone V, Ridder GJ, Panning M, Bierbaum S, Neumann-Haefelin D, Huzly D, et al. Human Bocavirus DNA in Paranasal Sinus Mucosa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1564-1565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101944
    AMA Falcone V, Ridder GJ, Panning M, et al. Human Bocavirus DNA in Paranasal Sinus Mucosa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1564-1565. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101944.
    APA Falcone, V., Ridder, G. J., Panning, M., Bierbaum, S., Neumann-Haefelin, D., & Huzly, D. (2011). Human Bocavirus DNA in Paranasal Sinus Mucosa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1564-1565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101944.
  • Mixed Genotype Infections with Hepatitis C Virus, Pakistan PDF Version [PDF - 91 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Butt et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Butt S, Idrees M, Rehman IU, Akbar H, Shahid M, Afzal S, et al. Mixed Genotype Infections with Hepatitis C Virus, Pakistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1565-1567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.100950
    AMA Butt S, Idrees M, Rehman IU, et al. Mixed Genotype Infections with Hepatitis C Virus, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1565-1567. doi:10.3201/eid1708.100950.
    APA Butt, S., Idrees, M., Rehman, I. U., Akbar, H., Shahid, M., Afzal, S....Amin, I. (2011). Mixed Genotype Infections with Hepatitis C Virus, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1565-1567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.100950.
  • West Nile Virus Aseptic Meningitis and Stuttering in Woman PDF Version [PDF - 86 KB - 2 pages]
    N. Mickail et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mickail N, Klein NC, Cunha BA. West Nile Virus Aseptic Meningitis and Stuttering in Woman. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1567-1568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101691
    AMA Mickail N, Klein NC, Cunha BA. West Nile Virus Aseptic Meningitis and Stuttering in Woman. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1567-1568. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101691.
    APA Mickail, N., Klein, N. C., & Cunha, B. A. (2011). West Nile Virus Aseptic Meningitis and Stuttering in Woman. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1567-1568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101691.
  • No Evidence of Dengue Virus Circulation in Rural Gabon PDF Version [PDF - 79 KB - 2 pages]
    X. Pourrut et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pourrut X, Nkoghé D, Gonzalez J, Leroy E. No Evidence of Dengue Virus Circulation in Rural Gabon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1568-1569. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110153
    AMA Pourrut X, Nkoghé D, Gonzalez J, et al. No Evidence of Dengue Virus Circulation in Rural Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1568-1569. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110153.
    APA Pourrut, X., Nkoghé, D., Gonzalez, J., & Leroy, E. (2011). No Evidence of Dengue Virus Circulation in Rural Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1568-1569. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110153.
  • Enteric Coronavirus in Ferrets, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 119 KB - 2 pages]
    L. B. Provacia et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Provacia LB, Smits SL, Martina BE, Raj V, v.d. Doel P, v. Amerongen G, et al. Enteric Coronavirus in Ferrets, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1570-1571. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110115
    AMA Provacia LB, Smits SL, Martina BE, et al. Enteric Coronavirus in Ferrets, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1570-1571. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110115.
    APA Provacia, L. B., Smits, S. L., Martina, B. E., Raj, V., v.d. Doel, P., v. Amerongen, G....Haagmans, B. L. (2011). Enteric Coronavirus in Ferrets, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1570-1571. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.110115.
  • Seroepidemiology of Saffold Cardiovirus Type 2 PDF Version [PDF - 87 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Galama et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Galama J, Lanke K, Zoll J, Roivainen M, van Kuppeveld F. Seroepidemiology of Saffold Cardiovirus Type 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1572-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101953
    AMA Galama J, Lanke K, Zoll J, et al. Seroepidemiology of Saffold Cardiovirus Type 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1572-1573. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101953.
    APA Galama, J., Lanke, K., Zoll, J., Roivainen, M., & van Kuppeveld, F. (2011). Seroepidemiology of Saffold Cardiovirus Type 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1572-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101953.
  • Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Travelers Returning from Egypt, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 86 KB - 2 pages]
    R. N. Charrel and E. A. Gould
            Cite This Article
    EID Charrel RN, Gould EA. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Travelers Returning from Egypt, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1573-1574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101858
    AMA Charrel RN, Gould EA. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Travelers Returning from Egypt, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1573-1574. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101858.
    APA Charrel, R. N., & Gould, E. A. (2011). Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Travelers Returning from Egypt, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1573-1574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101858.

About the Cover

  • We are such stuff / as dreams are made on PDF Version [PDF - 210 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. We are such stuff / as dreams are made on. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1575-1576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.AC1708
    AMA Potter P. We are such stuff / as dreams are made on. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1575-1576. doi:10.3201/eid1708.AC1708.
    APA Potter, P. (2011). We are such stuff / as dreams are made on. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1575-1576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.AC1708.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Rotavirus PDF Version [PDF - 120 KB - 1 page]
    N. Männikkö
            Cite This Article
    EID Männikkö N. Etymologia: Rotavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(8):1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.ET1708
    AMA Männikkö N. Etymologia: Rotavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(8):1501. doi:10.3201/eid1708.ET1708.
    APA Männikkö, N. (2011). Etymologia: Rotavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8), 1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.ET1708.

Online Reports

TOP