Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011
Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 7.63 MB - 239 pages]
Control and Prevention of Viral Gastroenteritis
PDF Version [PDF - 112 KB - 2 pages]
S. S. MonroeView Abstract
Diarrheal illness remains 1 of the top 5 causes of death in low-income and middle-income countries, especially for children <5 years of age. Introduction of universal childhood vaccination against rotaviruses has greatly reduced the incidence and severity of illness in upper-income and lower-income settings. For adults, norovirus is the leading cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrheal illness and is responsible for nearly 21 million episodes annually in the United States, of which 5.5 million are foodborne. Public health efforts to control and prevent norovirus illness have focused on rapid outbreak detection and source identification and control of transmission in institutional settings.
Dengue Virus Infection in Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 6 pages]
A. Amarasinghe et al.View Abstract
Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and underreported in Africa because of low awareness by health care providers, other prevalent febrile illnesses, and lack of diagnostic testing and systematic surveillance. Other hypotheses to explain low reported numbers of cases include cross-protection from other endemic flavivirus infections, genetic host factors protecting against infection or disease, and low vector competence and transmission efficiency. Population-based studies of febrile illness are needed to determine the epidemiology and true incidence of dengue in Africa.
Seroprevalence of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa–associated Polyomavirus
PDF Version [PDF - 788 KB - 9 pages]
E. van der Meijden et al.View Abstract
We identified a new polyomavirus in skin lesions from a patient with trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS). Apart from TS being an extremely rare disease, little is known of its epidemiology. On the basis of knowledge regarding other polyomaviruses, we anticipated that infections with trichodysplasia spinulosa–associated polyomavirus (TSV) occur frequently and become symptomatic only in immunocompromised patients. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed and used a Luminex-based TSV viral protein 1 immunoassay, excluded cross-reactivity with phylogenetically related Merkel cell polyomavirus, and measured TSV seroreactivity. Highest reactivity was found in a TS patient. In 528 healthy persons in the Netherlands, a wide range of seroreactivities was measured and resulted in an overall TSV seroprevalence of 70% (range 10% in small children to 80% in adults). In 80 renal transplant patients, seroprevalence was 89%. Infection with the new TSV polyomavirus is common and occurs primarily at a young age.
Human Polyomavirus Related to African Green Monkey Lymphotropic Polyomavirus
PDF Version [PDF - 531 KB - 7 pages]
V. Sauvage et al.View Abstract
While studying the virome of the skin surface of a patient with a Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) by using unbiased, high-throughput sequencing, we identified a human polyomavirus nearly identical to human polyomavirus 9, a virus recently reported in blood and urine of renal transplantion patients and closely related to the African green monkey lymphotropic polyomavirus. Specific PCR analysis further identified this virus in 2/8 patients with MCC but in only 1/111 controls without MCC. This virus was shed for >20 months by the MCC index patient and was on the skin of the spouse of the index patient. These results provide information on the viral ecology of human skin and raise new questions regarding the pathology of virus-associated skin disorders.
Asymptomatic Primary Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection among Adults
PDF Version [PDF - 535 KB - 10 pages]
Y. L. Tolstov et al.View Abstract
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is a recently discovered virus that causes 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas. We examined data for 564 gay/bisexual male participants >18 years of age in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and found that 447 (79.3%) were MCV-antibody positive at initial enrollment. Of the 117 MCV-seronegative men, 31 subsequently seroconverted over a 4-year follow-up period, corresponding to a 6.6% annual conversion rate. MCV immunoglobulin G levels remained detectable up to 25 years after exposure. No signs, symptoms, or routine diagnostic test results were associated with MCV infection, and no correlation between HIV infection or AIDS progression and MCV infection was noted. An initial correlation between chronic hepatitis B virus infection and MCV prevalence could not be confirmed among MCV seroconverters or in studies of a second hepatitis B virus–hyperendemic cohort from Qidong, China. In adults, MCV is typically an asymptomatic, common, and commensal viral infection that initiates rare cancers after virus (rather than host cell) mutations.
Incidence of Acute Gastroenteritis and Role of Norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004–2005
PDF Version [PDF - 299 KB - 8 pages]
A. J. Hall et al.View Abstract
Approximately 179 million cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) occur annually in the United States. However, lack of routine clinical testing for viruses limits understanding of their role among persons seeking medical care. Fecal specimens submitted for routine bacterial culture through a health maintenance organization in Georgia, USA, were tested with molecular diagnostic assays for norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and adenovirus. Incidence was estimated by using national health care utilization rates. Routine clinical diagnostics identified a pathogen in 42 (7.3%) of 572 specimens; inclusion of molecular viral testing increased pathogen detection to 15.7%. Community AGE incidence was 41,000 cases/100,000 person-years and outpatient incidence was 5,400/100,000 person-years. Norovirus was the most common pathogen, accounting for 6,500 (16%) and 640 (12%) per 100,000 person-years of community and outpatient AGE episodes, respectively. This study demonstrates that noroviruses are leading causes of AGE among persons seeking medical care.
Novel Surveillance Network for Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 391 KB - 7 pages]
E. Vega et al.View Abstract
CaliciNet, the outbreak surveillance network for noroviruses in the United States, was launched in March 2009. As of January 2011, twenty state and local health laboratories had been certified to submit norovirus sequences and epidemiologic outbreak data to CaliciNet. During the network’s first year, 552 outbreaks were submitted to CaliciNet, of which 78 (14%) were associated with foodborne transmission. A total of 395 (72%) outbreaks were typed as GII.4, of which 298 (75%) belonged to a new variant, GII.4 New Orleans, which first emerged in October 2009. Analysis of the complete capsid and P2 region sequences confirmed that GII.4 New Orleans is distinct from previous GII.4 variants, including GII.4 Minerva (2006b).
Spread of Measles Virus D4-Hamburg, Europe, 2008–2011
PDF Version [PDF - 256 KB - 6 pages]
A. Mankertz et al.View SummaryView Abstract
More than 24,300 cases were identified in 22 countries.
A new strain of measles virus, D4-Hamburg, was imported from London to Hamburg in December 2008 and subsequently spread to Bulgaria, where an outbreak of >24,300 cases was observed. We analyzed spread of the virus to demonstrate the importance of addressing hard-to-reach communities within the World Health Organization European Region regarding access to medical care and vaccination campaigns. The D4-Hamburg strain appeared during 2009–2011 in Poland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Austria, Greece, Romania, Turkey, Macedonia, Serbia, Switzerland, and Belgium and was repeatedly reimported to Germany. The strain was present in Europe for >27 months and led to >25,000 cases in 12 countries. Spread of the virus was prevalently but not exclusively associated with travel by persons in the Roma ethnic group; because this travel extends beyond the borders of any European country, measures to prevent the spread of measles should be implemented by the region as a whole.
Medscape CME Activity
Deaths Associated with Human Adenovirus-14p1 Infections, Europe, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 387 KB - 6 pages]M. J. Carr et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Clinicians should consider this virus in the differential diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia.
Human adenovirus (HAdV) serotype 14 is rarely identified. However, an emerging variant, termed HAdV-14p1, recently has been described in the United States in association with outbreaks of acute respiratory disease with high rates of illness and death. We retrospectively analyzed specimens confirmed positive for HAdV by immunofluorescence, virus culture, or real-time PCR during July 1, 2009–July 31, 2010, and describe 9 cases of HAdV-14p1 infection with characteristic mutations in the fiber and E1A genes that are phylogenetically indistinguishable from the viruses previously detected in the United States. Three patients died; 2 were immunocompromised, and 1 was an immunocompetent adult. We propose that surveillance should be increased for HAdV-14p1 and recommend that this virus be considered in the differential diagnosis of sudden-onset acute respiratory disease, particularly fatal infections, for which an etiology is not clear.
Case–Control Study of Risk Factors for Hospitalization Caused by Pandemic (H1N1) 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 8 pages]
K. A. Ward et al.View Abstract
We conducted a case–control study to identify risk factors for hospitalization from pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among persons >16 years of age in Sydney, Australia. The study comprised 302 case-patients and 603 controls. In a logistic regression model, after adjusting for age and sex, risk factors for hospitalization were pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 22.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.2–54.5), immune suppression (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.8–10.9), pre-existing lung disease (OR 6.6, 95% CI 3.8–11.6), asthma requiring regular preventive medication (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.7–6.8), heart disease (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2–4.1), diabetes (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.2–6.5), and current smoker (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.2) or previously smoked (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.0). Although obesity was not independently associated with hospitalization, it was associated with an increased risk of requiring mechanical ventilation. Public health messages should give greater emphasis on the risk for severe disease among pregnant women and smokers.
Novel Arenavirus Infection in Humans, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 221 KB - 4 pages]
M. L. Milazzo et al.View Abstract
Immunoglobulin G against Whitewater Arroyo virus or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was found in 41 (3.5%) of 1,185 persons in the United States who had acute central nervous system disease or undifferentiated febrile illnesses. The results of analyses of antibody titers in paired serum samples suggest that a North American Tacaribe serocomplex virus was the causative agent of the illnesses in 2 persons and that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was the causative agent of the illnesses in 3 other antibody-positive persons in this study. The results of this study suggest that Tacaribe serocomplex viruses native to North America, as well as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, are causative agents of human disease in the United States.
Cost-effectiveness of Sick Leave Policies for Health Care Workers with Influenza-like Illness, Brazil, 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 370 KB - 9 pages]
N. V. Mota et al.View Abstract
We describe the effect of influenza-like illness (ILI) during the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on health care worker (HCW) absenteeism and compare the effectiveness and cost of 2 sick leave policies for HCWs with suspected influenza. We assessed initial 2-day sick leaves plus reassessment until the HCW was asymptomatic (2-day + reassessment policy), and initial 7-day sick leaves (7-day policy). Sick leaves peaked in August 2009: 3% of the workforce received leave for ILI. Costs during May–October reached R$798,051.87 (≈US $443,362). The 7-day policy led to a higher monthly rate of sick leave days per 100 HCWs than did the 2-day + reassessment policy (8.72 vs. 3.47 days/100 HCWs; p<0.0001) and resulted in higher costs (US $609 vs. US $1,128 per HCW on leave). ILI affected HCW absenteeism. The 7-day policy was more costly and not more effective in preventing transmission to patients than the 2-day + reassessment policy.
Enterovirus 68 among Children with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection, the Philippines
PDF Version [PDF - 354 KB - 6 pages]
T. Imamura et al.View Abstract
Enterovirus 68 (EV68) is a rare enterovirus associated with respiratory illness that, unlike other enteroviruses, has been identified only from respiratory specimens. We identified EV68 from respiratory specimens of children hospitalized with a diagnosis of severe pneumonia in Leyte, Republic of the Philippines. Twenty-one samples showed high similarity with EV68 by sequencing of 5′ nontranslated region; 17 of these samples were confirmed as EV68 by sequencing of viral protein 1 capsid coding region. Most previously reported EV68 cases had been identified as sporadic cases. All 21 patients we identified had severe illness, and 2 died, possibly the first reported fatal cases associated with EV68 infection. Our study suggests that EV68 may be a possible causative agent of severe respiratory illnesses.
Novel Human Reovirus Isolated from Children with Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy
PDF Version [PDF - 413 KB - 9 pages]
L. A. Ouattara et al.View Abstract
For many encephalitis cases, the cause remains unidentified. After 2 children (from the same family) received a diagnosis of acute necrotizing encephalopathy at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (Tours, France), we attempted to identify the etiologic agent. Because clinical samples from the 2 patients were negative for all pathogens tested, urine and throat swab specimens were added to epithelial cells, and virus isolates detected were characterized by molecular analysis and electron microscopy. We identified a novel reovirus strain (serotype 2), MRV2Tou05, which seems to be closely related to porcine and human strains. A specific antibody response directed against this new reovirus strain was observed in convalescent-phase serum specimens from the patients, whereas no response was observed in 38 serum specimens from 38 healthy adults. This novel reovirus is a new etiologic agent of encephalitis.
Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Risk Areas, California, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 442 KB - 10 pages]
R. M. Carney et al.View Abstract
The Dynamic Continuous-Area Space-Time (DYCAST) system is a biologically based spatiotemporal model that uses public reports of dead birds to identify areas at high risk for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission to humans. In 2005, during a statewide epidemic of WNV (880 cases), the California Department of Public Health prospectively implemented DYCAST over 32,517 km2 in California. Daily risk maps were made available online and used by local agencies to target public education campaigns, surveillance, and mosquito control. DYCAST had 80.8% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity for predicting human cases, and κ analysis indicated moderate strength of chance-adjusted agreement for >4 weeks. High-risk grid cells (populations) were identified an average of 37.2 days before onset of human illness; relative risk for disease was >39× higher than for low-risk cells. Although prediction rates declined in subsequent years, results indicate DYCAST was a timely and effective early warning system during the severe 2005 epidemic.
Medscape CME Activity
Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Seroconversion among Adults, Singapore, 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 356 KB - 8 pages]W. Lim et al.View Abstract
A total of 828 community-dwelling adults were studied during the course of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak in Singapore during June–September 2009. Baseline blood samples were obtained before the outbreak, and 2 additional samples were obtained during follow-up. Seroconversion was defined as a >4-fold increase in antibody titers to pandemic (H1N1) 2009, determined by using hemagglutination inhibition. Men were more likely than women to seroconvert (mean adjusted hazards ratio [HR] 2.23, mean 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26–3.93); Malays were more likely than Chinese to seroconvert (HR 2.67, 95% CI 1.04–6.91). Travel outside Singapore during the study period was associated with seroconversion (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.11–2.78) as was use of public transport (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.05–3.09). High baseline antibody titers were associated with reduced seroconversion. This study suggests possible areas for intervention to reduce transmission during future influenza outbreaks.
Use of Medical Care during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Navarre, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 293 KB - 4 pages]
R. Burgui et al.View Abstract
Of 233 households with laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Navarre, Spain, only 64% (107/166) of contacts with influenza-like illness had sought medical care. This value was lower for adults (53%, 39/74) than for children <15 years of age (74%, 68/92), as well as for those with cases secondary to another household case (58%, 64/111).
Risk Factors for Death from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Southern Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 294 KB - 5 pages]
R. T. Yokota et al.View Abstract
To identify risk factors for death from pandemic (H1N1) 2009, we obtained data for 157 hospitalized patients with confirmed cases of this disease. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes and class III obesity were associated with death. These findings helped define priority vaccination groups in Brazil.
Multidrug-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in Immunocompetent Child
PDF Version [PDF - 134 KB - 3 pages]
A. Eshaghi et al.View Abstract
Recent case reports describe multidrug-resistant influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection in immunocompromised patients exposed to neuraminidase inhibitors because of an I223R neuraminidase mutation. We report a case of multidrug-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 bearing the I223R mutation in an ambulatory child with no previous exposure to neuraminidase inhibitors.
Predictors of Pneumococcal Co-infection for Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 296 KB - 4 pages]
M. Masiá et al.View Abstract
We conducted a systematic investigation of pneumococcal co-infection in patients with a diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and any risk factor for complications or with severity criteria. We found 14% prevalence, with one third of patients having nonpneumonic infections. A severity assessment score >1 and high C-reactive protein levels were predictors of pneumococcal co-infection.
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated Deaths Detected by Unexplained Death and Medical Examiner Surveillance
PDF Version [PDF - 252 KB - 5 pages]
C. H. Lees et al.View Abstract
During the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak, Minnesota, New Mexico, and Oregon used several surveillance methods to detect associated deaths. Surveillance using unexplained death and medical examiner data allowed for detection of 34 (18%) pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated deaths that were not detected by hospital-based surveillance.
Human Parvovirus 4 as Potential Cause of Encephalitis in Children, India
PDF Version [PDF - 367 KB - 4 pages]
L. A. Benjamin et al.View Abstract
To investigate whether uncharacterized infectious agents were associated with neurologic disease, we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 12 children with acute central nervous system infection. A high-throughput pyrosequencing screen detected human parvovirus 4 DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of 2 children with encephalitis of unknown etiology.
Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia
PDF Version [PDF - 157 KB - 3 pages]
M. C. Dell’Amico et al.View Abstract
We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected.
Porcine Rotavirus Closely Related to Novel Group of Human Rotaviruses
PDF Version [PDF - 162 KB - 3 pages]
M. Wakuda et al.View Abstract
We determined nucleotide sequences and inferred amino acid sequences of viral protein (VP) 4, VP6, VP7, and nonstructural protein 4 genes of a porcine rotavirus strain (SKA-1) from Japan. The strain was closely related to a novel group of human rotavirus strains (B219 and J19).
Enterovirus 68 in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections, Osaka, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 245 KB - 4 pages]
A. Kaida et al.View Abstract
Enterovirus 68 strains were detected in 14 specimens from children with respiratory tract infections and 1 specimen from a child with febrile convulsions during 2010 in Osaka, Japan. These strains had deletions in the 5′ untranslated region and were genetically different from reported strains. This virus is associated with respiratory tract infections in Japan.
Bagaza Virus in Partridges and Pheasants, Spain, 2010
PDF Version [PDF - 204 KB - 3 pages]
M. Agüero et al.View Abstract
In September 2010, an unusually high number of wild birds (partridges and pheasants) died in Cádiz in southwestern Spain. Reverse transcription PCR and virus isolation detected flavivirus infections. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis identified Bagaza virus, a flavivirus with a known distribution that includes sub-Saharan Africa and India, as the causative agent.
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Hyalommid Ticks, Northeastern Kenya
PDF Version [PDF - 275 KB - 4 pages]
R. Sang et al.View Abstract
As part of ongoing arbovirus surveillance, we screened ticks obtained from livestock in northeastern Kenya in 2008 to assess the risk for human exposure to tick-borne viruses. Of 1,144 pools of 8,600 Hyalomma spp. ticks screened for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus by reverse transcription PCR, 23 pools were infected, demonstrating a potential for human exposure.
Poliomyelitis Outbreak,Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, September 2010–February 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 210 KB - 4 pages]
A. Le Menach et al.View Abstract
On November 4, 2010, the Republic of the Congo declared a poliomyelitis outbreak. A cross-sectional survey in Pointe-Noire showed poor sanitary conditions and low vaccination coverage (55.5%), particularly among young adults. Supplementary vaccination should focus on older age groups in countries with evidence of immunity gaps.
Neurologic Disorders and Hepatitis E, France, 2010
PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 3 pages]
L. Despierres et al.View Abstract
We report meningitis with diffuse neuralgic pain or polyradiculoneuropathy associated with PCR-documented acute hepatitis E in 2 adults. These observations suggest that diagnostic testing for hepatitis E virus should be conducted for patients who have neurologic symptoms and liver cytolysis.
Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy
PDF Version [PDF - 223 KB - 3 pages]
G. Cardeti et al.View Abstract
Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany.
Novel GII.12 Norovirus Strain, United States, 2009–2010
PDF Version [PDF - 255 KB - 3 pages]
E. Vega and J. VinjéView Abstract
In October 2009, a novel GII.12 norovirus strain emerged in the United States and caused 16% of all reported norovirus outbreaks during the winter season. Sequence analysis demonstrated a recombinant virus with a P2 region that was largely conserved compared with previously sequenced GII.12 strains.
Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany
PDF Version [PDF - 411 KB - 4 pages]
C. M. Freuling et al.View Abstract
A virus isolated from a Natterer’s bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.
Imported Measles and Implications for Its Elimination in Taiwan
PDF Version [PDF - 358 KB - 4 pages]
W. Cheng et al.View Abstract
During November 2008–May 2009, an outbreak of 53 measles cases occurred in Taiwan. Of these, 3 cases were sporadic, and the other 50 cases could be grouped into 8 clusters by genetic analysis. We determined 7 H1 genotypes linked to importation and 1 G3 genotype linked to an untraceable source.
Pygmy Rice Rat as Potential Host of Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus
PDF Version [PDF - 266 KB - 4 pages]
E. S. Travassos da Rosa et al.View Abstract
To study the dynamics of wild rodent populations and identify potential hosts for hantavirus, we conducted an eco-epidemiologic study in Campo Novo do Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We detected and genetically characterized Castelo dos Sonhos virus found in a species of pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys utiaritensis).
West Nile Virus Infection in Killer Whale, Texas, USA, 2007
PDF Version [PDF - 233 KB - 3 pages]
J. St. Leger et al.View Abstract
In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans.
Fatal Neurologic Disease and Abortion in Mare Infected with Lineage 1 West Nile Virus, South Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
M. Venter et al.View Abstract
In 2010, lineage 1 West Nile virus was detected in South Africa in the brain of a pregnant mare that succumbed to neurologic disease and in her aborted fetus, suggesting an association with abortion in horses. All West Nile virus strains previously detected in horses and humans in South Africa were lineage 2.
Circulating Coxsackievirus A16 Identified as Recombinant Type A Human Enterovirus, China
PDF Version [PDF - 425 KB - 4 pages]
K. Zhao et al.View Abstract
To determine the relationship of coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) to prototype CA16-G10, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of circulating CA16 strains in China. Complex recombinant forms of CA16-related viruses involving multiple human enteroviruses, subgroup A (CA4, CA16, and enterovirus 71), are prevalent among patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease.
Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China
PDF Version [PDF - 238 KB - 3 pages]
W. Qiu et al.View Abstract
Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.
Aichi Virus Shedding in High Concentrations in Patients with Acute Diarrhea
PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 5 pages]
J. Drexler et al.View Abstract
We assessed Aichi virus shedding in patients with gastroenteritis and negative test results for other viral and bacterial infections. High concentrations of up to 1.32 × 1012 RNA copies/g stool were found in 10 (2.0%) of 499 outpatients sampled in northern Germany, 2004. These data substantiate Aichi virus pathogenicity in humans.
Atypical Pestivirus and Severe Respiratory Disease in Calves, Europe
PDF Version [PDF - 249 KB - 4 pages]
N. Decaro et al.View Abstract
In 2010, a HoBi-like pestivirus was isolated from clinically affected calves in Italy. This European virus reproduced a milder form of disease under experimental conditions and was genetically related to previously reported HoBi-like strains. Isolation of this novel virus from a clinical outbreak may have implications for cattle health and prophylactic programs.
Specimen Collection and Confirmation of Norovirus Outbreaks
PDF Version [PDF - 226 KB - 3 pages]
M. S. Plantenga et al.View Abstract
We evaluated data from gastroenteritis outbreaks in Oregon to assess sensitivity of stool testing for norovirus and determine number of specimens needed to confirm norovirus as the cause. Norovirus can be readily confirmed if 3–6 specimens are collected any time <7 days after onset of diarrhea and for almost that long after symptoms resolve.
African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX in Domestic Pigs, Congo, 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 199 KB - 3 pages]
C. Gallardo et al.View Abstract
African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX, associated with outbreaks in eastern Africa, is cocirculating in the Republic of the Congo with West African genotype I. Data suggest that viruses from eastern Africa are moving into western Africa, increasing the threat of outbreaks caused by novel viruses in this region.
Reston Ebolavirus Antibodies in Bats, the Philippines
PDF Version [PDF - 90 KB - 2 pages]
S. Taniguchi et al.
Acute Hepatitis C Outbreak among HIV-infected Men, Madrid, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
A. Montoya-Ferrer et al.
Saffold Virus Infection in Children, Malaysia, 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 97 KB - 3 pages]
K. B. Chua et al.
Human Bocavirus DNA in Paranasal Sinus Mucosa
PDF Version [PDF - 80 KB - 2 pages]
V. Falcone et al.
Mixed Genotype Infections with Hepatitis C Virus, Pakistan
PDF Version [PDF - 91 KB - 3 pages]
S. Butt et al.
West Nile Virus Aseptic Meningitis and Stuttering in Woman
PDF Version [PDF - 86 KB - 2 pages]
N. Mickail et al.
No Evidence of Dengue Virus Circulation in Rural Gabon
PDF Version [PDF - 79 KB - 2 pages]
X. Pourrut et al.
Enteric Coronavirus in Ferrets, the Netherlands
PDF Version [PDF - 119 KB - 2 pages]
L. B. Provacia et al.
Seroepidemiology of Saffold Cardiovirus Type 2
PDF Version [PDF - 87 KB - 2 pages]
J. Galama et al.
Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Travelers Returning from Egypt, 2010
PDF Version [PDF - 86 KB - 2 pages]
R. N. Charrel and E. A. Gould
About the Cover
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online OnlyPotential Effects of Rift Valley Fever in the United StatesD. M. Hartley et al.
- Page created: September 09, 2011
- Page last updated: February 08, 2012
- Page last reviewed: February 08, 2012
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Office of the Director (OD)