Volume 19, Number 12—December 2013
Volume 19, Number 12—December 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 12.87 MB - 175 pages]
Review of Institute of Medicine and National Research Council Recommendations for One Health Initiative
PDF Version [PDF - 314 KB - 5 pages]
C. Rubin et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Review of Institutes of Medicine publication articles on One Health themes concludes that future studies and workshops should consider progress made and address remaining gaps.
Human health is inextricably linked to the health of animals and the viability of ecosystems; this is a concept commonly known as One Health. Over the last 2 decades, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC) have published consensus reports and workshop summaries addressing a variety of threats to animal, human, and ecosystem health. We reviewed a selection of these publications and identified recommendations from NRC and IOM/NRC consensus reports and from opinions expressed in workshop summaries that are relevant to implementation of the One Health paradigm shift. We grouped these recommendations and opinions into thematic categories to determine if sufficient attention has been given to various aspects of One Health. We conclude that although One Health themes have been included throughout numerous IOM and NRC publications, identified gaps remain that may warrant targeted studies related to the One Health approach.
Medscape CME Activity
Potential Role of Deer Tick Virus in Powassan Encephalitis Cases in Lyme Disease–endemic Areas of New York, USA PDF Version [PDF - 588 KB - 8 pages]M. Y. El Khoury et al.View SummaryView Abstract
The epidemiologic pattern and limited laboratory testing indicate that this virus lineage might account for most of these illnesses.
Powassan virus, a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group of flaviviruses, encompasses 2 lineages with separate enzootic cycles. The prototype lineage of Powassan virus (POWV) is principally maintained between Ixodes cookei ticks and the groundhog (Marmota momax) or striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), whereas the deer tick virus (DTV) lineage is believed to be maintained between Ixodes scapularis ticks and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). We report 14 cases of Powassan encephalitis from New York during 2004–2012. Ten (72%) of the patients were residents of the Lower Hudson Valley, a Lyme disease–endemic area in which I. scapularis ticks account for most human tick bites. This finding suggests that many of these cases were caused by DTV rather than POWV. In 2 patients, DTV infection was confirmed by genetic sequencing. As molecular testing becomes increasingly available, more cases of Powassan encephalitis may be determined to be attributable to the DTV lineage.
Twenty-Year Summary of Surveillance for Human Hantavirus Infections, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 405 KB - 4 pages]
B. Knust and P. E. RollinView Abstract
In the past 20 years of surveillance for hantavirus in humans in the United States, 624 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have been reported, 96% of which occurred in states west of the Mississippi River. Most hantavirus infections are caused by Sin Nombre virus, but cases of HPS caused by Bayou, Black Creek Canal, Monongahela, and New York viruses have been reported, and cases of domestically acquired hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome caused by Seoul virus have also occurred. Rarely, hantavirus infections result in mild illness that does not progress to HPS. Continued testing and surveillance of clinical cases in humans will improve our understanding of the etiologic agents involved and the spectrum of diseases.
Medscape CME Activity
Epidemiologic Investigations into Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in Humans, South Africa, 2008–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 528 KB - 8 pages]B. N. Archer et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Rift Valley fever continues to pose a notable public health threat to humans.
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonosis posing a public health threat to humans in Africa. During sporadic RVF outbreaks in 2008–2009 and widespread epidemics in 2010–2011, 302 laboratory-confirmed human infections, including 25 deaths (case-fatality rate, 8%) were identified. Incidence peaked in late summer to early autumn each year, which coincided with incidence rate patterns in livestock. Most case-patients were adults (median age 43 years), men (262; 87%), who worked in farming, animal health or meat-related industries (83%). Most case-patients reported direct contact with animal tissues, blood, or other body fluids before onset of illness (89%); mosquitoes likely played a limited role in transmission of disease to humans. Close partnership with animal health and agriculture sectors allowed early recognition of human cases and appropriate preventive health messaging.
Spontaneous Generation of Infectious Prion Disease in Transgenic Mice
PDF Version [PDF - 674 KB - 10 pages]
J. M. Torres et al.View SummaryView Abstract
A single amino acid change induces a new infectious prion.
We generated transgenic mice expressing bovine cellular prion protein (PrPC) with a leucine substitution at codon 113 (113L). This protein is homologous to human protein with mutation 102L, and its genetic link with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome has been established. This mutation in bovine PrPC causes a fully penetrant, lethal, spongiform encephalopathy. This genetic disease was transmitted by intracerebral inoculation of brain homogenate from ill mice expressing mutant bovine PrP to mice expressing wild-type bovine PrP, which indicated de novo generation of infectious prions. Our findings demonstrate that a single amino acid change in the PrPC sequence can induce spontaneous generation of an infectious prion disease that differs from all others identified in hosts expressing the same PrPC sequence. These observations support the view that a variety of infectious prion strains might spontaneously emerge in hosts displaying random genetic PrPC mutations.
Antiviral Susceptibility of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Poultry, Vietnam, 2009–2011
PDF Version [PDF - 635 KB - 9 pages]
H. T. Nguyen et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Monitoring of antiviral drug susceptibility in HPAI H5N1 viruses in poultry is crucial to pandemic preparedness.
We assessed drug susceptibilities of 125 avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam during 2009–2011. Of 25 clade 1.1 viruses, all possessed a marker of resistance to M2 blockers amantadine and rimantadine; 24 were inhibited by neuraminidase inhibitors. One clade 1.1 virus contained the R430W neuraminidase gene and reduced inhibition by oseltamivir, zanamivir, and laninamivir 12-, 73-, and 29-fold, respectively. Three of 30 clade 2.3.4 viruses contained a I223T mutation and showed 7-fold reduced inhibition by oseltamivir. One of 70 clade 188.8.131.52 viruses had the H275Y marker of oseltamivir resistance and exhibited highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir and peramivir; antiviral agents DAS181 and favipiravir inhibited H275Y mutant virus replication in MDCK-SIAT1 cells. Replicative fitness of the H275Y mutant virus was comparable to that of wildtype virus. These findings highlight the role of drug susceptibility monitoring of H5N1 subtype viruses circulating among birds to inform antiviral stockpiling decisions for pandemic preparedness.
Zoonotic Chlamydiaceae Species Associated with Trachoma, Nepal
PDF Version [PDF - 626 KB]
D. Dean et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Zoonotic transmission of non-Chlamydia trachomatis species probably plays a role in ocular trachomatous disease.
Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness. Commercial assays do not discriminate among all Chlamydiaceae species that might be involved in trachoma. We investigated whether a commercial Micro-ArrayTube could discriminate Chlamydiaceae species in DNA extracted directly from conjunctival samples from 101 trachoma patients in Nepal. To evaluate organism viability, we extracted RNA, reverse transcribed it, and subjected it to quantitative real-time PCR. We found that 71 (70.3%) villagers were infected. ArrayTube sensitivity was 91.7% and specificity was 100% compared with that of real-time PCR. Concordance between genotypes detected by microarray and ompA genotyping was 100%. Species distribution included 54 (76%) single infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. suis, or C. pecorum, and 17 (24%) mixed infections that includied C. pneumoniae. Ocular infections were caused by 5 Chlamydiaceae species. Additional studies of trachoma pathogenesis involving Chlamydiaceae species other than C. trachomatis and their zoonotic origins are needed.
Guillain-Barré Syndrome Surveillance during National Influenza Vaccination Campaign, New York, USA, 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 428 KB - 7 pages]
G. P. Giambrone et al.View SummaryView Abstract
A Clinical Network provided timely data but was less complete than traditional hospital discharge data.
The New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) collected information about hospitalized patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during October 2009–May 2010, statewide (excluding New York City), to examine a possible relationship with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. NYSDOH established a Clinical Network of neurologists and 150 hospital neurology units. Hospital discharge data from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) were used to evaluate completeness of reporting from the Clinical Network. A total of 140 confirmed or probable GBS cases were identified: 81 (58%) from both systems, 10 (7%) from Clinical Network only, and 49 (35%) from SPARCS-only. Capture–recapture methods estimated that 6 cases might have been missed by both systems. Clinical Network median reporting time was 12 days versus 131 days for SPARCS. In public health emergencies in New York State, a Clinical Network may provide timely data, but in our study such data were less complete than traditional hospital discharge data.
Powassan Virus in Mammals, Alaska and New Mexico, USA, and Russia, 2004–2007
PDF Version [PDF - 494 KB - 5 pages]
E. R. Deardorff et al.View Abstract
Powassan virus is endemic to the United States, Canada, and the Russian Far East. We report serologic evidence of circulation of this virus in Alaska, New Mexico, and Siberia. These data support further studies of viral ecology in rapidly changing Arctic environments.
Rift Valley Fever in Namibia, 2010
PDF Version [PDF - 430 KB - 3 pages]
F. Monaco et al.View Abstract
During May–July 2010 in Namibia, outbreaks of Rift Valley fever were reported to the National Veterinary Service. Analysis of animal specimens confirmed virus circulation on 7 farms. Molecular characterization showed that all outbreaks were caused by a strain of Rift Valley fever virus closely related to virus strains responsible for outbreaks in South Africa during 2009–2010.
Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Pará State, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 441 KB - 4 pages]
F. L. de Assis et al.View Abstract
In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region.
Outbreak of Human Infection with Sarcocystis nesbitti, Malaysia, 2012
PDF Version [PDF - 393 KB - 3 pages]
S. AbuBakar et al.View Abstract
An outbreak of fever associated with myalgia and myositis occurred in 2012 among 89 of 92 college students and teachers who visited Pangkor Island, Malaysia. The Sarcocystis nesbitti 18S rRNA gene and sarcocysts were obtained from muscle tissues of 2 students. Our findings indicate emergence of S. nesbitti infections in humans in Malaysia.
Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 415 KB - 3 pages]
T. Ng et al.View Abstract
We identified a novel rhabdovirus, American bat vesiculovirus, from postmortem tissue samples from 120 rabies-negative big brown bats with a history of human contact. Five percent of the tested bats were infected with this virus. The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown.
Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Family Members in the United States
PDF Version [PDF - 487 KB - 4 pages]
D. G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis et al.View Abstract
We investigated 32 families of persons with acute toxoplasmosis in which >1 other family member was tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection; 18 (56%) families had >1 additional family member with acute infection. Family members of persons with acute toxoplasmosis should be screened for infection, especially pregnant women and immunocompromised persons.
Surveillance for Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Beijing, China, 2013
PDF Version [PDF - 452 KB - 3 pages]
P. Yang et al.View Abstract
During surveillance for pneumonia of unknown etiology and sentinel hospital–based surveillance in Beijing, China, we detected avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in 4 persons who had pneumonia, influenza-like illness, or asymptomatic infections. Samples from poultry workers, associated poultry environments, and wild birds suggest that this virus might not be present in Beijing.
Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds
PDF Version [PDF - 343 KB - 3 pages]
S. H. Olson et al.View Abstract
We examined 48 published studies for which sample sizes could be ascertained to determine the historic prevalence of influenza A(H7N9) virus in wild bird populations and reviewed GenBank data to further establish its distribution. Low prevalence (0.0093%) in Asia suggests > 30,000 samples would be required to detect the H7N9 subtype in wild birds.
Novel Variants of Clade 2.3.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses, China
PDF Version [PDF - 504 KB - 4 pages]
M. Gu et al.View Abstract
We characterized 7 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in China during 2009–2012 and found that they belong to clade 2.3.4 but do not fit within the 3 defined subclades. Antigenic drift in subtype H5N1 variants may reduce the efficacy of vaccines designed to control these viruses in poultry.
Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
PDF Version [PDF - 399 KB - 3 pages]
S. Gierer et al.View Abstract
We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province.
Novel Orthoreovirus from Mink, China, 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 646 KB - 4 pages]
H. Lian et al.View Abstract
We identified a novel mink orthoreovirus, MRV1HB-A, which seems to be closely related to human strain MRV2tou05, which was isolated from 2 children with acute necrotizing encephalopathy in 2005. Evolution of this virus should be closely monitored so that prevention and control measures can be taken should it become more virulent.
Novel Cause of Tuberculosis in Meerkats, South Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 3.19 MB - 4 pages]
S. Parsons et al.View Abstract
The organism that causes tuberculosis in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) has been poorly characterized. Our genetic analysis showed it to be a novel member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and closely related to the dassie bacillus. We have named this epidemiologically and genetically unique strain M. suricattae.
Cerebellar Cysticercosis Caused by Larval Taenia crassiceps Tapeworm in Immunocompetent Woman, Germany
PDF Version [PDF - 429 KB - 4 pages]
V. Ntoukas et al.View Abstract
Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing.
Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark
PDF Version [PDF - 546 KB - 3 pages]
J. S. Krog et al.View Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus for which pigs are the primary animal reservoir. To investigate whether HEV occurs in mink in Denmark, we screened feces and tissues from domestic and wild mink. Our finding of a novel HEV variant supports previous findings of HEV variants in a variety of species.
Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H1N2) Virus Derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Isolated from Swine, Japan, 2012
PDF Version [PDF - 410 KB - 3 pages]
M. Kobayashi et al.View Abstract
We isolated a novel influenza virus A(H1N2) strain from a pig on January 13, 2012, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain was a novel type of double-reassortant virus derived from the swine influenza virus strains H1N1pdm09 and H1N2, which were prevalent in Gunma at that time.
Myocarditis after Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Treatment for Ehrlichiosis
PDF Version [PDF - 326 KB - 3 pages]
S. U. Nayak and G. L. SimonView SummaryView Abstract
Myocarditis after Treatment for Ehrlichiosis
The manifestations of human monocytic ehrlichiosis range from a mild febrile syndrome to a severe multisystem illness. Myocardial involvement is uncommon. We report a woman, 78 years of age, who was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole after a tick bite, in whom myocarditis was subsequently diagnosed. She recovered completely after doxycycline therapy.
Transmission of Brucellosis from Elk to Cattle and Bison, Greater Yellowstone Area, USA, 2002–2012
PDF Version [PDF - 561 KB - 4 pages]
J. C. Rhyan et al.View Abstract
Bovine brucellosis has been nearly eliminated from livestock in the United States. Bison and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain reservoirs for the disease. During 1990–2002, no known cases occurred in Greater Yellowstone Area livestock. Since then, 17 transmission events from wildlife to livestock have been investigated.
Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi Infection in Dogs, Greece and Portugal, 2011–2012
PDF Version [PDF - 604 KB - 4 pages]
D. Otranto et al.View Abstract
Onchocerca lupi infection is reported primarily in symptomatic dogs. We aimed to determine the infection in dogs from areas of Greece and Portugal with reported cases. Of 107 dogs, 9 (8%) were skin snip–positive for the parasite. DNA sequences of parasites in specimens from distinct dog populations differed genetically from thoses in GenBank.
Peste des Petits Ruminants Infection among Cattle and Wildlife in Northern Tanzania
PDF Version [PDF - 456 KB - 4 pages]
T. Lembo et al.View Abstract
We investigated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection in cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania. No wildlife from protected ecosystems were seropositive. However, cattle from villages where an outbreak had occurred among small ruminants showed high PPR seropositivity, indicating that spillover infection affects cattle. Thus, cattle could be of value for PPR serosurveillance.
Concomitant Human Infections with 2 Cowpox Virus Strains in Related Cases, France, 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 557 KB - 4 pages]
C. Ducournau et al.View Abstract
We investigated 4 related human cases of cowpox virus infection reported in France during 2011. Three patients were infected by the same strain, probably transmitted by imported pet rats, and the fourth patient was infected by another strain. The 2 strains were genetically related to viruses previously isolated from humans with cowpox infection in Europe.
New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1 in Carbapenem-Resistant Salmonella Strain, China
PDF Version [PDF - 334 KB - 3 pages]
J. Huang et al.
Hepatitis E and Lymphocytic Leukemia in Man, Italy
PDF Version [PDF - 366 KB - 3 pages]
M. T. Giordani et al.
Vaccinia Virus in Household Environment during Bovine Vaccinia Outbreak, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 459 KB - 3 pages]
F. L. Assis et al.
Q Fever Surveillance in Ruminants, Thailand, 2012
PDF Version [PDF - 327 KB - 3 pages]
S. L. Yingst et al.
Bicolored White-toothed Shrews as Reservoir for Borna Disease Virus, Bavaria, Germany
PDF Version [PDF - 677 KB - 3 pages]
M. Bourg et al.
Unexpected Brucella suis Biovar 2 Infection in a Dairy Cow, Belgium
PDF Version [PDF - 292 KB - 2 pages]
D. Fretin et al.
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Variants with High Pathogenicity, China
PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 2 pages]
J. Wang et al.
Concurrent Parasitic Infections in a Renal Transplant Patient
PDF Version [PDF - 398 KB - 2 pages]
G. S. Visvesvara et al.
Treponemal Infection in Nonhuman Primates as Possible Reservoir for Human Yaws
PDF Version [PDF - 367 KB - 3 pages]
S. Knauf et al.
Porcine Hokovirus in Domestic Pigs, Cameroon
PDF Version [PDF - 365 KB - 3 pages]
C. Adlhoch et al.
Evaluation of 3 Electronic Methods Used to Detect Influenza Diagnoses during 2009 Pandemic
PDF Version [PDF - 314 KB - 2 pages]
S. Mulpuru et al.
Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Endangered Tibetan Antelope, China, 2012
PDF Version [PDF - 350 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Yu et al.
Books and Media
About the Cover
Toward Proof of Concept of a One Health Approach to Disease Prediction and Control
P. M. Rabinowitz et al.View Abstract
A One Health approach considers the role of changing environments with regard to infectious and chronic disease risks affecting humans and nonhuman animals. Recent disease emergence events have lent support to a One Health approach. In 2010, the Stone Mountain Working Group on One Health Proof of Concept assembled and evaluated the evidence regarding proof of concept of the One Health approach to disease prediction and control. Aspects examined included the feasibility of integrating human, animal, and environmental health and whether such integration could improve disease prediction and control efforts. They found evidence to support each of these concepts but also identified the need for greater incorporation of environmental and ecosystem factors into disease assessments and interventions. The findings of the Working Group argue for larger controlled studies to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the One Health approach.
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