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Volume 2, Number 4—October 1996

Volume 2, Number 4—October 1996   PDF Version [PDF - 1.07 MB - 124 pages]

Perspective

  • Guarding Against the Most Dangerous Emerging Pathogens: Insights from Evolutionary Biology PDF Version [PDF - 98 KB - 13 pages]
    P. W. Ewald
        View Abstract

    Control of emerging infectious diseases will be difficult because of the large number of disease-causing organisms that are emerging or could emerge and the great diversity of geographic areas in which emergence can occur. The modern view of the evolution of pathogen virulence—specifically its focus on the tradeoff between costs and benefits to the pathogen from increased host exploitation—allows control programs to identify and focus on the most dangerous pathogens (those that can be established with high virulence in human populations).

        Cite This Article
    EID Ewald PW. Guarding Against the Most Dangerous Emerging Pathogens: Insights from Evolutionary Biology. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):245-257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960401
    AMA Ewald PW. Guarding Against the Most Dangerous Emerging Pathogens: Insights from Evolutionary Biology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):245-257. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960401.
    APA Ewald, P. W. (1996). Guarding Against the Most Dangerous Emerging Pathogens: Insights from Evolutionary Biology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 245-257. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960401.
  • Social Inequalities and Emerging Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 85 KB - 11 pages]
    P. Farmer
        View Abstract

    Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models—which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation—are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives.

        Cite This Article
    EID Farmer P. Social Inequalities and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):259-269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960402
    AMA Farmer P. Social Inequalities and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):259-269. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960402.
    APA Farmer, P. (1996). Social Inequalities and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 259-269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960402.

Synopses

  • Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Virulence: Type III Secretion and Pathogenicity Islands PDF Version [PDF - 315 KB - 18 pages]
    J. Mecsas and E. J. Strauss
        View Abstract

    Recently, two novel but widespread themes have emerged in the field of bacterial virulence: type III secretion systems and pathogenicity islands. Type III secretion systems, which are found in various gram-negative organisms, are specialized for the export of virulence factors delivered directly to host cells. These factors subvert normal host cell functions in ways that seem beneficial to invading bacteria. The genes encoding several type III secretion systems reside on pathogenicity islands, which are inserted DNA segments within the chromosome that confer upon the host bacterium a variety of virulence traits, such as the ability to acquire iron and to adhere to or enter host cells. Many of these segments of DNA appear to have been acquired in a single step from a foreign source. The ability to obtain complex virulence traits in one genetic event, rather than by undergoing natural selection for many generations, provides a mechanism for sudden radical changes in bacterial-host interactions. Type III secretion systems and pathogenicity islands must have played critical roles in the evolution of known pathogens and are likely to lead to the emergence of novel infectious diseases in the future.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mecsas J, Strauss EJ. Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Virulence: Type III Secretion and Pathogenicity Islands. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):271-288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960403
    AMA Mecsas J, Strauss EJ. Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Virulence: Type III Secretion and Pathogenicity Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):271-288. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960403.
    APA Mecsas, J., & Strauss, E. J. (1996). Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Virulence: Type III Secretion and Pathogenicity Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 271-288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960403.
  • New Vaccines for the Prevention of Pneumococcal Infections PDF Version [PDF - 68 KB - 10 pages]
    H. Käyhty and J. Eskola
        View Abstract

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of acute otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. Because in recent years antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal strains have been emerging throughout the world, vaccination against pneumococcal infections has become more urgent. The capsular polysaccharide vaccine that has been available is neither immunogenic nor protective in young children and other immunocompromised patients. Several pneumococcal proteins have been proposed as candidate vaccines, but no human studies associated with them have been reported. Clinical trials of first-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have shown that covalent coupling of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides to protein carriers improves the immunogenicity of the polysaccharides. The protective efficacy of the conjugate vaccines against carriage, acute otitis media, and invasive infections is being studied.

        Cite This Article
    EID Käyhty H, Eskola J. New Vaccines for the Prevention of Pneumococcal Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):289-298. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960404
    AMA Käyhty H, Eskola J. New Vaccines for the Prevention of Pneumococcal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):289-298. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960404.
    APA Käyhty, H., & Eskola, J. (1996). New Vaccines for the Prevention of Pneumococcal Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 289-298. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960404.
  • A Mathematical Model and CD4+ Lymphocyte Dynamics in HIV Infection PDF Version [PDF - 147 KB - 7 pages]
    T. Hraba and J. Dolezal
        View Abstract

    The paper presents a model of CD4+ lymphocyte dynamics in HIV-infected persons. The model incorporates a feedback mechanism regulating the production of T lymphocytes and simulates the dynamics of CD8+ lymphocytes, whose production is assumed to be closely linked to that of CD4+ cells. Because CD4+ lymphocyte counts are a good prognostic indicator of HIV infection, the model was used to simulate such therapeutic interventions as chemotherapy and active and passive immunization. The model also simulated the therapeutic administration of anti-CD8 antibodies; this intervention was assumed to activate T-cell production by activating a feedback mechanism blocked by the high numbers of CD8+ lymphocytes present in HIV-infected persons. The character and implications of the model are discussed in the context of other mathematical models used in HIV infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hraba T, Dolezal J. A Mathematical Model and CD4+ Lymphocyte Dynamics in HIV Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):299-305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960405
    AMA Hraba T, Dolezal J. A Mathematical Model and CD4+ Lymphocyte Dynamics in HIV Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):299-305. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960405.
    APA Hraba, T., & Dolezal, J. (1996). A Mathematical Model and CD4+ Lymphocyte Dynamics in HIV Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 299-305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960405.
  • Chlamydiae as Pathogens: New Species and New Issues PDF Version [PDF - 92 KB - 13 pages]
    R. W. Peeling and R. C. Brunham
        View Abstract

    The recognition of genital chlamydial infection as an important public health problem was made first by the recognition of its role in acute clinical syndromes, as well as in serious reproductive and ocular complications, and secondly by our awareness of its prevalence when diagnostic tests became widely accessible. The recent availability of effective single dose oral antimicrobial therapy and sensitive molecular amplification tests that allow the use of noninvasive specimens for diagnosis and screening is expected to have a major impact in reducing the prevalence of disease in the next decade. Clinical manifestations associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection continue to emerge beyond respiratory illness. In particular, its association with atherosclerosis deserves further investigation. Chlamydia pecorum, a pathogen of ruminants, was recently recognized as a new species. The continued application of molecular techniques will likely elucidate an expanding role for chlamydiae in human and animal diseases, delineate the phylogenetic relationships among chlamydial species and within the eubacteria domain, and provide tools for detection and control of chlamydial infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Peeling RW, Brunham RC. Chlamydiae as Pathogens: New Species and New Issues. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):307-319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960406
    AMA Peeling RW, Brunham RC. Chlamydiae as Pathogens: New Species and New Issues. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):307-319. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960406.
    APA Peeling, R. W., & Brunham, R. C. (1996). Chlamydiae as Pathogens: New Species and New Issues. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 307-319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960406.

Dispatches

  • Experimental Inoculation of Plants and Animals with Ebola Virus PDF Version [PDF - 44 KB - 5 pages]
    R. Swanepoel et al.
        View Abstract

    Thirty-three varieties of 24 species of plants and 19 species of vertebrates and invertebrates were experimentally inoculated with Ebola Zaire virus. Fruit and insectivorous bats supported replication and circulation of high titers of virus without necessarily becoming ill; deaths occurred only among bats that had not adapted to the diet fed in the laboratory.

        Cite This Article
    EID Swanepoel R, Leman PA, Burt FJ, Zachariades NA, Braack LE, Ksiazek TG, et al. Experimental Inoculation of Plants and Animals with Ebola Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):321-325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960407
    AMA Swanepoel R, Leman PA, Burt FJ, et al. Experimental Inoculation of Plants and Animals with Ebola Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):321-325. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960407.
    APA Swanepoel, R., Leman, P. A., Burt, F. J., Zachariades, N. A., Braack, L. E., Ksiazek, T. G....Peters, C. J. (1996). Experimental Inoculation of Plants and Animals with Ebola Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 321-325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960407.
  • Encephalitis Caused by a Lyssavirus in Fruit Bats in Australia PDF Version [PDF - 40 KB - 5 pages]
    G. C. Fraser et al.
        View Abstract

    This report describes the first pathologic and immunohistochemical recognition in Australia of a rabies-like disease in a native mammal, a fruit bat, the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto). A virus with close serologic and genetic relationships to members of the Lyssavirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae was isolated in mice from the tissue homogenates of a sick juvenile animal.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fraser GC, Hooper PT, Lunt RA, Gould AR, Gleeson LJ, Hyatt AD, et al. Encephalitis Caused by a Lyssavirus in Fruit Bats in Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):327-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960408
    AMA Fraser GC, Hooper PT, Lunt RA, et al. Encephalitis Caused by a Lyssavirus in Fruit Bats in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):327-331. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960408.
    APA Fraser, G. C., Hooper, P. T., Lunt, R. A., Gould, A. R., Gleeson, L. J., Hyatt, A. D....Kattenbelt, J. A. (1996). Encephalitis Caused by a Lyssavirus in Fruit Bats in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 327-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960408.
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in the United States, 1979-1994: Using National Mortality Data to Assess the Possible Occurrence of Variant Cases PDF Version [PDF - 51 KB - 5 pages]
    R. C. Holman et al.
        View Abstract

    After a cluster of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) cases among unusually young patients was reported recently from the United Kingdom, we examined trends and the current incidence of CJD in the United States. We found that the age-adjusted CJD death rate in the United States is similar to published estimates of the crude incidence of CJD worldwide and has continued to be stable from 1979 through 1994. The number of CJD deaths in persons <45 years of age remained stable during this period. We found no evidence of the variant form of CJD.

        Cite This Article
    EID Holman RC, Khan AS, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in the United States, 1979-1994: Using National Mortality Data to Assess the Possible Occurrence of Variant Cases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):333-337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960409
    AMA Holman RC, Khan AS, Belay ED, et al. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in the United States, 1979-1994: Using National Mortality Data to Assess the Possible Occurrence of Variant Cases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):333-337. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960409.
    APA Holman, R. C., Khan, A. S., Belay, E. D., & Schonberger, L. B. (1996). Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in the United States, 1979-1994: Using National Mortality Data to Assess the Possible Occurrence of Variant Cases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 333-337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960409.
  • Rapid Increase of Resistance to Erythromycin and Clindamycin in Streptococcus pyogenes in Italy, 1993-1995 PDF Version [PDF - 39 KB - 4 pages]
    G. Cornaglia et al.
        View Abstract

    A survey of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes in Italy showed a sharp increase in erythromycin resistance. In 1993, the incidence of erythromycin-resistant strains was on average 5.1%, with marked variations by geographic area. Two years later, the incidence of these strains had registered a 1.5- to roughly 20-fold increase, with a mean value of 25.9%, exceeding 40% in three centers out of 13 and 30% in another four. For all the strains studied, normal levels of susceptibility to penicillin were reported.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cornaglia G, Ligozzi M, Mazzariol A, Valentini M, Orefici G, Fontana R, et al. Rapid Increase of Resistance to Erythromycin and Clindamycin in Streptococcus pyogenes in Italy, 1993-1995. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):339-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960410
    AMA Cornaglia G, Ligozzi M, Mazzariol A, et al. Rapid Increase of Resistance to Erythromycin and Clindamycin in Streptococcus pyogenes in Italy, 1993-1995. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):339-342. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960410.
    APA Cornaglia, G., Ligozzi, M., Mazzariol, A., Valentini, M., Orefici, G., & Fontana, R. (1996). Rapid Increase of Resistance to Erythromycin and Clindamycin in Streptococcus pyogenes in Italy, 1993-1995. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 339-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960410.
  • Assessing the Costs and Benefits of an Oral Vaccine for Raccoon Rabies: A Possible Model PDF Version [PDF - 38 KB - 7 pages]
    M. I. Meltzer
        View Abstract

    Any cost-benefit analysis of the use of an oral vaccine to control raccoon rabies should include calculating both costs and benefits in terms of $/unit area. Further, cost savings must be adjusted to match the stages of an epizootic: pre-epizootic, epizootic, and post-epizootic. A generic model, which can be adapted to different sites, illustrates the use of threshold analysis to link distribution costs, cost savings, bait density, and vaccine price. Initial results indicate the need to lower the cost of the vaccine, continue research to determine optimal bait densities, and examine distribution plans that do not require continued protection of areas in which raccoon rabies was eliminated through previous vaccination programs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Meltzer MI. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of an Oral Vaccine for Raccoon Rabies: A Possible Model. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):343-349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960411
    AMA Meltzer MI. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of an Oral Vaccine for Raccoon Rabies: A Possible Model. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):343-349. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960411.
    APA Meltzer, M. I. (1996). Assessing the Costs and Benefits of an Oral Vaccine for Raccoon Rabies: A Possible Model. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 343-349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960411.

Commentaries

  • Traditional Healers and Global Surveillance Strategies for Emerging Diseases: Closing the Gap PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 3 pages]
    N. E. Groce and M. E. Reeve
            Cite This Article
    EID Groce NE, Reeve ME. Traditional Healers and Global Surveillance Strategies for Emerging Diseases: Closing the Gap. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):351-353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960412
    AMA Groce NE, Reeve ME. Traditional Healers and Global Surveillance Strategies for Emerging Diseases: Closing the Gap. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):351-353. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960412.
    APA Groce, N. E., & Reeve, M. E. (1996). Traditional Healers and Global Surveillance Strategies for Emerging Diseases: Closing the Gap. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 351-353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960412.

Letters

  • Widespread Foodborne Cyclosporiasis Outbreaks Present Major Challenges PDF Version [PDF - 31 KB - 3 pages]
    D. G. Colley
            Cite This Article
    EID Colley DG. Widespread Foodborne Cyclosporiasis Outbreaks Present Major Challenges. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):354-356. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960413
    AMA Colley DG. Widespread Foodborne Cyclosporiasis Outbreaks Present Major Challenges. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):354-356. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960413.
    APA Colley, D. G. (1996). Widespread Foodborne Cyclosporiasis Outbreaks Present Major Challenges. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 354-356. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960413.
  • Identification of Cyclospora in Poultry PDF Version [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
    H. L. García-López et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID García-López HL, Rodríguez-Tovar LE, De la Garza CE. Identification of Cyclospora in Poultry. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):356-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960414
    AMA García-López HL, Rodríguez-Tovar LE, De la Garza CE. Identification of Cyclospora in Poultry. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):356-357. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960414.
    APA García-López, H. L., Rodríguez-Tovar, L. E., & De la Garza, C. E. (1996). Identification of Cyclospora in Poultry. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 356-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960414.
  • PCR Confirmation of Infection with Cyclospora cayetanensis PDF Version [PDF - 30 KB - 3 pages]
    N. J. Pieniazek et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pieniazek NJ, Slemenda SB, da Silva AJ, Alfano EM, Arrowood MJ. PCR Confirmation of Infection with Cyclospora cayetanensis. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):357-359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960415
    AMA Pieniazek NJ, Slemenda SB, da Silva AJ, et al. PCR Confirmation of Infection with Cyclospora cayetanensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):357-359. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960415.
    APA Pieniazek, N. J., Slemenda, S. B., da Silva, A. J., Alfano, E. M., & Arrowood, M. J. (1996). PCR Confirmation of Infection with Cyclospora cayetanensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 357-359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960415.
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Depopulation of French Polynesia in the 19th Century PDF Version [PDF - 30 KB - 3 pages]
    P. M. Martin and C. Combes
            Cite This Article
    EID Martin PM, Combes C. Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Depopulation of French Polynesia in the 19th Century. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):359-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960416
    AMA Martin PM, Combes C. Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Depopulation of French Polynesia in the 19th Century. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):359-361. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960416.
    APA Martin, P. M., & Combes, C. (1996). Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Depopulation of French Polynesia in the 19th Century. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 359-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960416.
  • Epidemic Zoster and AIDS PDF Version [PDF - 23 KB - 2 pages]
    D. M. Morens et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Morens DM, Agarwal A, Sarkar S, Panda S, Detels R. Epidemic Zoster and AIDS. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):361-362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960417
    AMA Morens DM, Agarwal A, Sarkar S, et al. Epidemic Zoster and AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):361-362. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960417.
    APA Morens, D. M., Agarwal, A., Sarkar, S., Panda, S., & Detels, R. (1996). Epidemic Zoster and AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 361-362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960417.
  • Ancient Egypt and Today: Enough Scourges to Go Around PDF Version [PDF - 22 KB - 2 pages]
    D. G. Colley
            Cite This Article
    EID Colley DG. Ancient Egypt and Today: Enough Scourges to Go Around. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):362-363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960418
    AMA Colley DG. Ancient Egypt and Today: Enough Scourges to Go Around. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):362-363. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960418.
    APA Colley, D. G. (1996). Ancient Egypt and Today: Enough Scourges to Go Around. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 362-363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960418.
  • AIDS and ĀĀĀ in Egypt? PDF Version [PDF - 15 KB - 1 page]
    R. J. Littman and D. M. Morens
            Cite This Article
    EID Littman RJ, Morens DM. AIDS and ĀĀĀ in Egypt?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960419
    AMA Littman RJ, Morens DM. AIDS and ĀĀĀ in Egypt?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):363. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960419.
    APA Littman, R. J., & Morens, D. M. (1996). AIDS and ĀĀĀ in Egypt?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960419.
  • ADDENDUM PDF Version [PDF - 10 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID ADDENDUM. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960420
    AMA ADDENDUM. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):364. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960420.
    APA (1996). ADDENDUM. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960420.

About the Cover

News and Notes

  • ABA Sponsors Program on Law and Emerging Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 15 KB - 1 page]
    D. P. Fidler
            Cite This Article
    EID Fidler DP. ABA Sponsors Program on Law and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960421
    AMA Fidler DP. ABA Sponsors Program on Law and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):364. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960421.
    APA Fidler, D. P. (1996). ABA Sponsors Program on Law and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960421.
  • A Global Theme Issue: Bibliography of References PDF Version [PDF - 62 KB - 8 pages]
    M. A. Winker
            Cite This Article
    EID Winker MA. A Global Theme Issue: Bibliography of References. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):364-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960422
    AMA Winker MA. A Global Theme Issue: Bibliography of References. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):364-371. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960422.
    APA Winker, M. A. (1996). A Global Theme Issue: Bibliography of References. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 364-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960422.
  • Conference on Emerging Foodborne Pathogens PDF Version [PDF - 15 KB - 1 page]
    D. Dalisera
            Cite This Article
    EID Dalisera D. Conference on Emerging Foodborne Pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(4):371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960423
    AMA Dalisera D. Conference on Emerging Foodborne Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(4):371. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960423.
    APA Dalisera, D. (1996). Conference on Emerging Foodborne Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(4), 371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0204.960423.
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