Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 20, Number 5—May 2014

Volume 20, Number 5—May 2014   PDF Version [PDF - 10.66 MB - 191 pages]

Perspective

  • Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses PDF Version [PDF - 326 KB - 5 pages]
    T. J. O’Shea et al.
    View Summary

    High metabolism and body temperatures of flying bats might enable them to host many viruses.

        View Abstract

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

        Cite This Article
    EID O’Shea TJ, Cryan PM, Cunningham AA, Fooks AR, Hayman D, Luis AD, et al. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):741-745. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130539
    AMA O’Shea TJ, Cryan PM, Cunningham AA, et al. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):741-745. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130539.
    APA O’Shea, T. J., Cryan, P. M., Cunningham, A. A., Fooks, A. R., Hayman, D., Luis, A. D....Wood, J. (2014). Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 741-745. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130539.

Synopses

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Outbreaks of Kingella kingae Infections in Daycare Facilities PDF Version [PDF - 501 KB - 8 pages]
    P. Yagupsky
    View Summary

    Improved methods for identifying infected children and carriers are needed to adequately investigate outbreaks of K. kingae.

        View Abstract

    During the past decade, transmission of the bacterium Kingella kingae has caused clusters of serious infections, including osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, bacteremia, endocarditis, and meningitis, among children in daycare centers in the United States, France, and Israel. These events have been characterized by high attack rates of disease and prevalence of the invasive strain among asymptomatic classmates of the respective index patients, suggesting that the causative organisms benefitted from enhanced colonization fitness, high transmissibility, and high virulence. After prophylactic antibacterial drugs were administered to close contacts of infected children, no further cases of disease were detected in the facilities, although test results showed that some children still carried the bacterium. Increased awareness of this public health problem and use of improved culture methods and sensitive nucleic acid amplification assays for detecting infected children and respiratory carriers are needed to identify and adequately investigate outbreaks of K. kingae disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yagupsky P. Outbreaks of Kingella kingae Infections in Daycare Facilities. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):746-753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131633
    AMA Yagupsky P. Outbreaks of Kingella kingae Infections in Daycare Facilities. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):746-753. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131633.
    APA Yagupsky, P. (2014). Outbreaks of Kingella kingae Infections in Daycare Facilities. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 746-753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131633.

Research

  • Molecular Investigation of Tularemia Outbreaks, Spain, 1997–2008 PDF Version [PDF - 646 KB - 8 pages]
    J. Ariza-Miguel et al.
    View Summary

    This disease has reemerged because of persistence of local reservoirs of infection.

        View Abstract

    Tularemia outbreaks occurred in northwestern Spain in 1997–1998 and 2007–2008 and affected >1,000 persons. We assessed isolates involved in these outbreaks by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with 2 restriction enzymes and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 genomic loci of Francisella tularensis, the cause of this disease. Isolates were divided into 3 pulsotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 8 allelic profiles by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis. Isolates obtained from the second tularemia outbreak had the same genotypes as isolates obtained from the first outbreak. Both outbreaks were caused by genotypes of genetic subclade B.Br:FTNF002–00, which is widely distributed in countries in central and western Europe. Thus, reemergence of tularemia in Spain was not caused by the reintroduction of exotic strains, but probably by persistence of local reservoirs of infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ariza-Miguel J, Johansson A, Fernández-Natal M, Martínez-Nistal C, Orduña A, Rodríguez-Ferri EF, et al. Molecular Investigation of Tularemia Outbreaks, Spain, 1997–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):754-761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130654
    AMA Ariza-Miguel J, Johansson A, Fernández-Natal M, et al. Molecular Investigation of Tularemia Outbreaks, Spain, 1997–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):754-761. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130654.
    APA Ariza-Miguel, J., Johansson, A., Fernández-Natal, M., Martínez-Nistal, C., Orduña, A., Rodríguez-Ferri, E. F....Rodríguez-Lázaro, D. (2014). Molecular Investigation of Tularemia Outbreaks, Spain, 1997–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 754-761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130654.
  • Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue PDF Version [PDF - 626 KB - 11 pages]
    G. Buehring et al.
    View Summary

    Molecular evidence for this virus in humans raises public health concerns.

        View Abstract

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a deltaretrovirus, causes B-cell leukemia/lymphoma in cattle and is prevalent in herds globally. A previous finding of antibodies against BLV in humans led us to examine the possibility of human infection with BLV. We focused on breast tissue because, in cattle, BLV DNA and protein have been found to be more abundant in mammary epithelium than in lymphocytes. In human breast tissue specimens, we identified BLV DNA by using nested liquid-phase PCR and DNA sequencing. Variations from the bovine reference sequence were infrequent and limited to base substitutions. In situ PCR and immunohistochemical testing localized BLV to the secretory epithelium of the breast. Our finding of BLV in human tissues indicates a risk for the acquisition and proliferation of this virus in humans. Further research is needed to determine whether BLV may play a direct role in human disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Buehring G, Shen H, Jensen HM, Choi K, Sun D, Nuovo G, et al. Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):772-782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131298
    AMA Buehring G, Shen H, Jensen HM, et al. Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):772-782. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131298.
    APA Buehring, G., Shen, H., Jensen, H. M., Choi, K., Sun, D., & Nuovo, G. (2014). Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 772-782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131298.
  • Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Spain, 1980–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 484 KB - 7 pages]
    T. López-Cuadrado et al.
    View Summary

    Surveillance and control systems should be reinforced to provide reliable data.

        View Abstract

    Using mortality data from National Institute of Statistics in Spain, we analyzed trends of infectious disease mortality rates in Spain during 1980–2011 to provide information on surveillance and control of infectious diseases. During the study period, 628,673 infectious disease–related deaths occurred, the annual change in the mortality rate was −1.6%, and the average infectious disease mortality rate was 48.5 deaths/100,000 population. Although the beginning of HIV/AIDS epidemic led to an increased mortality rate, a decreased rate was observed by the end of the twentieth century. By codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, the most frequent underlying cause of death was pneumonia. Emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases continue to be public health problems despite reduced mortality rates produced by various interventions. Therefore, surveillance and control systems should be reinforced with a goal of providing reliable data for useful decision making.

        Cite This Article
    EID López-Cuadrado T, Llácer A, Palmera-Suárez R, Gómez-Barroso D, Savulescu C, González-Yuste P, et al. Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Spain, 1980–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):782-789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131528
    AMA López-Cuadrado T, Llácer A, Palmera-Suárez R, et al. Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Spain, 1980–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):782-789. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131528.
    APA López-Cuadrado, T., Llácer, A., Palmera-Suárez, R., Gómez-Barroso, D., Savulescu, C., González-Yuste, P....Fernández-Cuenca, R. (2014). Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Spain, 1980–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 782-789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131528.
  • Carriage Rate and Effects of Vaccination after Outbreaks of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease, Brazil, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 395 KB - 6 pages]
    M. Sáfadi et al.
    View Summary

    Polysaccharide vaccine did not affect carriage nor interrupt transmission of an epidemic strain.

        View Abstract

    During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sáfadi M, Carvalhanas T, Paula de Lemos A, Gorla M, Salgado M, Fukasawa LO, et al. Carriage Rate and Effects of Vaccination after Outbreaks of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease, Brazil, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):806-811. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130948
    AMA Sáfadi M, Carvalhanas T, Paula de Lemos A, et al. Carriage Rate and Effects of Vaccination after Outbreaks of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease, Brazil, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):806-811. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130948.
    APA Sáfadi, M., Carvalhanas, T., Paula de Lemos, A., Gorla, M., Salgado, M., Fukasawa, L. O....Cassio de Moraes, J. (2014). Carriage Rate and Effects of Vaccination after Outbreaks of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease, Brazil, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 806-811. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130948.
  • Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in Oropharyngeal Cancer before Vaccine Introduction, United States PDF Version [PDF - 958 KB - 7 pages]
    M. Steinau et al.
    View Summary

    Prevalence of HPVs in oropharyngeal cancer DNA suggests that vaccines could prevent most cases.

        View Abstract

    We conducted a study to determine prevalence of HPV types in oropharyngeal cancers in the United States and establish a prevaccine baseline for monitoring the impact of vaccination. HPV DNA was extracted from tumor tissue samples from patients in whom cancer was diagnosed during 1995–2005. The samples were obtained from cancer registries and Residual Tissue Repository Program sites in the United States. HPV was detected and typed by using PCR reverse line blot assays. Among 557 invasive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, 72% were positive for HPV and 62% for vaccine types HPV16 or 18. Prevalence of HPV-16/18 was lower in women (53%) than in men (66%), and lower in non-Hispanic Black patients (31%) than in other racial/ethnic groups (68%–80%). Results indicate that vaccines could prevent most oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, but their effect may vary by demographic variables.

        Cite This Article
    EID Steinau M, Saraiya M, Goodman MT, Peters ES, Watson M, Cleveland JL, et al. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in Oropharyngeal Cancer before Vaccine Introduction, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):822-828. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131311
    AMA Steinau M, Saraiya M, Goodman MT, et al. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in Oropharyngeal Cancer before Vaccine Introduction, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):822-828. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131311.
    APA Steinau, M., Saraiya, M., Goodman, M. T., Peters, E. S., Watson, M., Cleveland, J. L....Unger, E. R. (2014). Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in Oropharyngeal Cancer before Vaccine Introduction, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 822-828. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131311.
  • Treatment Practices, Outcomes, and Costs of Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States, 2005–2007 PDF Version [PDF - 590 KB - 10 pages]
    S. M. Marks et al.
    View Summary

    Drug resistance was extensive and care was complex; nevertheless, high rates of treatment completion were achieved albeit at considerable cost.

        View Abstract

    To describe factors associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR), including extensively-drug-resistant (XDR), tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, we abstracted inpatient, laboratory, and public health clinic records of a sample of MDR TB patients reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from California, New York City, and Texas during 2005–2007. At initial diagnosis, MDR TB was detected in 94% of 130 MDR TB patients and XDR TB in 80% of 5 XDR TB patients. Mutually exclusive resistance was 4% XDR, 17% pre-XDR, 24% total first-line resistance, 43% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-plus-other resistance, and 13% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-only resistance. Nearly three-quarters of patients were hospitalized, 78% completed treatment, and 9% died during treatment. Direct costs, mostly covered by the public sector, averaged $134,000 per MDR TB and $430,000 per XDR TB patient; in comparison, estimated cost per non-MDR TB patient is $17,000. Drug resistance was extensive, care was complex, treatment completion rates were high, and treatment was expensive.

        Cite This Article
    EID Marks SM, Flood J, Seaworth B, Hirsch-Moverman Y, Armstrong L, Mase S, et al. Treatment Practices, Outcomes, and Costs of Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States, 2005–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):812-821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131037
    AMA Marks SM, Flood J, Seaworth B, et al. Treatment Practices, Outcomes, and Costs of Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States, 2005–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):812-821. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131037.
    APA Marks, S. M., Flood, J., Seaworth, B., Hirsch-Moverman, Y., Armstrong, L., Mase, S....Sheeran, K. (2014). Treatment Practices, Outcomes, and Costs of Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States, 2005–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 812-821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131037.
  • Molecular Characterization of Cryptically Circulating Rabies Virus from Ferret Badgers, Taiwan PDF Version [PDF - 678 KB - 9 pages]
    H. Chiou et al.
    View Summary

    The virus has been circulating in Taiwan for about 100 years.

        View Abstract

    After the last reported cases of rabies in a human in 1959 and a nonhuman animal in 1961, Taiwan was considered free from rabies. However, during 2012–2013, an outbreak occurred among ferret badgers in Taiwan. To examine the origin of this virus strain, we sequenced 3 complete genomes and acquired multiple rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein and glycoprotein sequences. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrated that the RABV affecting the Taiwan ferret badgers (RABV-TWFB) is a distinct lineage within the group of lineages from Asia and that it has been differentiated from its closest lineages, China I (including isolates from Chinese ferret badgers) and the Philippines, 158–210 years ago. The most recent common ancestor of RABV-TWFB originated 91–113 years ago. Our findings indicate that RABV could be cryptically circulating in the environment. An understanding of the underlying mechanism might shed light on the complex interaction between RABV and its host.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chiou H, Hsieh C, Jeng C, Chan F, Wang H, Pang V, et al. Molecular Characterization of Cryptically Circulating Rabies Virus from Ferret Badgers, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):790-798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131389
    AMA Chiou H, Hsieh C, Jeng C, et al. Molecular Characterization of Cryptically Circulating Rabies Virus from Ferret Badgers, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):790-798. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131389.
    APA Chiou, H., Hsieh, C., Jeng, C., Chan, F., Wang, H., & Pang, V. (2014). Molecular Characterization of Cryptically Circulating Rabies Virus from Ferret Badgers, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 790-798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131389.
  • Streptococcus mitis Strains Causing Severe Clinical Disease in Cancer Patients PDF Version [PDF - 962 KB - 10 pages]
    S. A. Shelburne et al.
    View Summary

    This species has a critical role in invasive viridans group streptococci bloodstream infections.

        View Abstract

    The genetically diverse viridans group streptococci (VGS) are increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of human diseases. We used a recently developed multilocus sequence analysis scheme to define the species of 118 unique VGS strains causing bacteremia in patients with cancer; Streptococcus mitis (68 patients) and S. oralis (22 patients) were the most frequently identified strains. Compared with patients infected with non–S. mitis strains, patients infected with S. mitis strains were more likely to have moderate or severe clinical disease (e.g., VGS shock syndrome). Combined with the sequence data, whole-genome analyses showed that S. mitis strains may more precisely be considered as >2 species. Furthermore, we found that multiple S. mitis strains induced disease in neutropenic mice in a dose-dependent fashion. Our data define the prominent clinical effect of the group of organisms currently classified as S. mitis and lay the groundwork for increased understanding of this understudied pathogen.

        Cite This Article
    EID Shelburne SA, Sahasrabhojane P, Saldana M, Yao H, Su X, Horstmann N, et al. Streptococcus mitis Strains Causing Severe Clinical Disease in Cancer Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):762-771. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130953
    AMA Shelburne SA, Sahasrabhojane P, Saldana M, et al. Streptococcus mitis Strains Causing Severe Clinical Disease in Cancer Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):762-771. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130953.
    APA Shelburne, S. A., Sahasrabhojane, P., Saldana, M., Yao, H., Su, X., Horstmann, N....Flores, A. R. (2014). Streptococcus mitis Strains Causing Severe Clinical Disease in Cancer Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 762-771. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130953.
  • Persistence and Complex Evolution of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clone PDF Version [PDF - 468 KB - 7 pages]
    D. Ben-David et al.
    View Summary

    This clone has persisted in a post–acute care facility for >5 years.

        View Abstract

    Prolonged outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in health care facilities are uncommon. We found persistent transmission of a fluroquinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae clone during 2006–2011 in a post–acute care facility in Israel, despite mandatory vaccination and fluoroquinolone restriction. Capsular switch and multiple antimicrobial nonsusceptibility mutations occurred within this single clone. The persistent transmission of fluoroquinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae during a 5-year period underscores the importance of long-term care facilities as potential reservoirs of multidrug-resistant streptococci.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ben-David D, Schwaber MJ, Adler A, Masarwa S, Edgar R, Navon-Venezia S, et al. Persistence and Complex Evolution of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):799-805. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130142
    AMA Ben-David D, Schwaber MJ, Adler A, et al. Persistence and Complex Evolution of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):799-805. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130142.
    APA Ben-David, D., Schwaber, M. J., Adler, A., Masarwa, S., Edgar, R., Navon-Venezia, S....Dagan, R. (2014). Persistence and Complex Evolution of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 799-805. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130142.

Dispatches

  • PCR for Detection of Oseltamivir Resistance Mutation in Influenza A(H7N9) Virus PDF Version [PDF - 321 KB - 3 pages]
    W. Wang et al.
        View Abstract

    Sensitive molecular techniques are needed for rapid detection of the R292K oseltamivir-resistant mutant of influenza A(H7/N9) virus strain to monitor its transmission and guide antiviral treatment. We developed a real-time reverse transcription PCR and single nucleotide polymorphism probes to differentiate this mutant strain in mixed virus populations in human specimens.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wang W, Song Z, Guan W, Liu Y, Zhang X, Xu L, et al. PCR for Detection of Oseltamivir Resistance Mutation in Influenza A(H7N9) Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):847-849. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131364
    AMA Wang W, Song Z, Guan W, et al. PCR for Detection of Oseltamivir Resistance Mutation in Influenza A(H7N9) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):847-849. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131364.
    APA Wang, W., Song, Z., Guan, W., Liu, Y., Zhang, X., Xu, L....Hu, Y. (2014). PCR for Detection of Oseltamivir Resistance Mutation in Influenza A(H7N9) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 847-849. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131364.
  • Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States PDF Version [PDF - 446 KB - 5 pages]
    D. N. Birdsell et al.
        View Abstract

    We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage.

        Cite This Article
    EID Birdsell DN, Johansson A, Öhrman C, Kaufman E, Molins C, Pearson T, et al. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):861-865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131559
    AMA Birdsell DN, Johansson A, Öhrman C, et al. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):861-865. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131559.
    APA Birdsell, D. N., Johansson, A., Öhrman, C., Kaufman, E., Molins, C., Pearson, T....Wagner, D. M. (2014). Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 861-865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131559.
  • Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Tree Sparrow, Shanghai, China, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 427 KB - 4 pages]
    B. Zhao et al.
        View Abstract

    In spring 2013, influenza A(H7N9) virus was isolated from an apparently healthy tree sparrow in Chongming Dongping National Forest Park, Shanghai City, China. The entire gene constellation of the virus is similar to that of isolates from humans, highlighting the need to monitor influenza A(H7N9) viruses in different species.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zhao B, Zhang X, Zhu W, Teng Z, Yu X, Gao Y, et al. Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Tree Sparrow, Shanghai, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):850-853. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131707
    AMA Zhao B, Zhang X, Zhu W, et al. Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Tree Sparrow, Shanghai, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):850-853. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131707.
    APA Zhao, B., Zhang, X., Zhu, W., Teng, Z., Yu, X., Gao, Y....Wu, F. (2014). Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Tree Sparrow, Shanghai, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 850-853. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131707.
  • Full-Genome Analysis of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus from a Human, North America, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 644 KB - 5 pages]
    K. Pabbaraju et al.
        View Abstract

    Full-genome analysis was conducted on the first isolate of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus from a human in North America. The virus has a hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.3.2.1c and is a reassortant with an H9N2 subtype lineage polymerase basic 2 gene. No mutations conferring resistance to adamantanes or neuraminidase inhibitors were found.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pabbaraju K, Tellier R, Wong S, Li Y, Bastien N, Tang JW, et al. Full-Genome Analysis of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus from a Human, North America, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):887-891. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.140164
    AMA Pabbaraju K, Tellier R, Wong S, et al. Full-Genome Analysis of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus from a Human, North America, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):887-891. doi:10.3201/eid2005.140164.
    APA Pabbaraju, K., Tellier, R., Wong, S., Li, Y., Bastien, N., Tang, J. W....Tipples, G. A. (2014). Full-Genome Analysis of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus from a Human, North America, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 887-891. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.140164.
  • Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Antibodies in Humans after Contact with Infected Poultry, Taiwan, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 417 KB - 4 pages]
    H. Wu et al.
        View Abstract

    Six persons in Taiwan who had contact with poultry infected with influenza A(H5N2) showed seroconversion for the virus by hemagglutinin inhibition or microneutralization testing. We developed an ELISA based on nonstructural protein 1 of the virus to differentiate natural infection from cross-reactivity after vaccination; 2 persons also showed seroconversion by this test.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wu H, Yang J, Liu M, Yang C, Cheng M, Chang F, et al. Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Antibodies in Humans after Contact with Infected Poultry, Taiwan, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):857-860. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131393
    AMA Wu H, Yang J, Liu M, et al. Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Antibodies in Humans after Contact with Infected Poultry, Taiwan, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):857-860. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131393.
    APA Wu, H., Yang, J., Liu, M., Yang, C., Cheng, M., & Chang, F. (2014). Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Antibodies in Humans after Contact with Infected Poultry, Taiwan, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 857-860. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131393.
  • Responses to Threat of Influenza A(H7N9) and Support for Live Poultry Markets, Hong Kong, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 499 KB - 5 pages]
    P. Wu et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a population survey in Hong Kong to gauge psychological and behavioral responses to the threat of influenza A(H7N9) and support for closure of live poultry markets. We found low anxiety and low levels of exposure to live poultry but mixed support for permanent closure of the markets.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wu P, Fang VJ, Liao Q, Ng D, Wu JT, Leung GM, et al. Responses to Threat of Influenza A(H7N9) and Support for Live Poultry Markets, Hong Kong, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):882-886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131859
    AMA Wu P, Fang VJ, Liao Q, et al. Responses to Threat of Influenza A(H7N9) and Support for Live Poultry Markets, Hong Kong, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):882-886. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131859.
    APA Wu, P., Fang, V. J., Liao, Q., Ng, D., Wu, J. T., Leung, G. M....Cowling, B. J. (2014). Responses to Threat of Influenza A(H7N9) and Support for Live Poultry Markets, Hong Kong, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 882-886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131859.
  • Role of Transportation in Spread of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection, United States PDF Version [PDF - 364 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Lowe et al.
        View Abstract

    After porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was detected in the United States in 2013, we tested environmental samples from trailers in which pigs had been transported. PEDV was found in 5.2% of trailers not contaminated at arrival, , suggesting that the transport process is a source of transmission if adequate hygiene measures are not implemented.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lowe J, Gauger P, Harmon K, Zhang J, Connor J, Yeske P, et al. Role of Transportation in Spread of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):872-874. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131628
    AMA Lowe J, Gauger P, Harmon K, et al. Role of Transportation in Spread of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):872-874. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131628.
    APA Lowe, J., Gauger, P., Harmon, K., Zhang, J., Connor, J., Yeske, P....Main, R. (2014). Role of Transportation in Spread of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 872-874. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131628.
  • Human Infections with Rickettsia raoultii, China PDF Version [PDF - 359 KB - 3 pages]
    N. Jia et al.
        View Abstract

    We used molecular methods to identify Rickettsia raoultii infections in 2 persons in China. These persons had localized rashes around sites of tick bites. R. raoultii DNA was detected in 4% of Dermacentor silvarum ticks collected in the same area of China and in 1 feeding tick detached from 1 patient.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jia N, Zheng Y, Ma L, Huo Q, Ni X, Jiang B, et al. Human Infections with Rickettsia raoultii, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):866-868. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130995
    AMA Jia N, Zheng Y, Ma L, et al. Human Infections with Rickettsia raoultii, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):866-868. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130995.
    APA Jia, N., Zheng, Y., Ma, L., Huo, Q., Ni, X., Jiang, B....Cao, W. (2014). Human Infections with Rickettsia raoultii, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 866-868. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130995.
  • Factors Associated with Antimicrobial Drug Use in Medicaid Programs PDF Version [PDF - 337 KB - 4 pages]
    P. Li et al.
        View Abstract

    Using US Medicaid data, we found that 52% of adult Medicaid patients with acute respiratory tract infections filled prescriptions for antimicrobial drugs in 2007. Factors associated with lower likelihood of use were higher county-level availability of primary care physicians and state-level participation in a campaign for appropriate antimicrobial drug use.

        Cite This Article
    EID Li P, Metlay JP, Marcus SC, Doshi JA. Factors Associated with Antimicrobial Drug Use in Medicaid Programs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):829-832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130493
    AMA Li P, Metlay JP, Marcus SC, et al. Factors Associated with Antimicrobial Drug Use in Medicaid Programs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):829-832. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130493.
    APA Li, P., Metlay, J. P., Marcus, S. C., & Doshi, J. A. (2014). Factors Associated with Antimicrobial Drug Use in Medicaid Programs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 829-832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130493.
  • Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates PDF Version [PDF - 441 KB - 5 pages]
    B. Race et al.
        View Abstract

    Chronic wasting disease is a prion disease of cervids. Assessment of its zoonotic potential is critical. To evaluate primate susceptibility, we tested monkeys from 2 genera. We found that 100% of intracerebrally inoculated and 92% of orally inoculated squirrel monkeys were susceptible, but cynomolgus macaques were not, suggesting possible low risk for humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Race B, Meade-White KD, Phillips K, Striebel J, Race R, Chesebro B, et al. Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):833-837. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130778
    AMA Race B, Meade-White KD, Phillips K, et al. Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):833-837. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130778.
    APA Race, B., Meade-White, K. D., Phillips, K., Striebel, J., Race, R., & Chesebro, B. (2014). Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 833-837. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130778.
  • Shigella spp. with Reduced Azithromycin Susceptibility, Quebec, Canada, 2012–2013 PDF Version [PDF - 379 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Gaudreau et al.
        View Abstract

    During 2012–2013 in Montreal, Canada, 4 locally acquired Shigella spp. pulse types with the mph(A) gene and reduced susceptibility to azithromycin were identified from 9 men who have sex with men, 7 of whom were HIV infected. Counseling about prevention of enteric sexually transmitted infections might help slow transmission of these organisms.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gaudreau C, Barkati S, Leduc J, Pilon PA, Favreau J, Bekal S, et al. Shigella spp. with Reduced Azithromycin Susceptibility, Quebec, Canada, 2012–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):854-856. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130966
    AMA Gaudreau C, Barkati S, Leduc J, et al. Shigella spp. with Reduced Azithromycin Susceptibility, Quebec, Canada, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):854-856. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130966.
    APA Gaudreau, C., Barkati, S., Leduc, J., Pilon, P. A., Favreau, J., & Bekal, S. (2014). Shigella spp. with Reduced Azithromycin Susceptibility, Quebec, Canada, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 854-856. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130966.
  • Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Soldiers, South Korea, April 2011–March 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 291 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Heo et al.
        View Abstract

    During April 2011–March 2012, we retrospectively reviewed medical records for South Korea soldiers to assess the etiology and epidemiology of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections. Adenovirus was the most commonly identified virus (63.2%) and the most common cause of pneumonia (79.3%) and hospitalization (76.6%); 3 soldiers died of adenovirus-related illness.

        Cite This Article
    EID Heo J, Lee J, Kim H, Choe K. Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Soldiers, South Korea, April 2011–March 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):875-877. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131692
    AMA Heo J, Lee J, Kim H, et al. Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Soldiers, South Korea, April 2011–March 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):875-877. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131692.
    APA Heo, J., Lee, J., Kim, H., & Choe, K. (2014). Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Soldiers, South Korea, April 2011–March 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 875-877. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131692.
  • Extensively Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, South Korea, 2011–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 315 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Cho et al.
        View Abstract

    To better understand extensively drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, we assessed clinical and microbiological characteristics of 5 extensively drug-resistant pneumococcal isolates. We concluded that long-term care facility residents who had undergone tracheostomy might be reservoirs of these pneumococci; 13- and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines should be considered for high-risk persons; and antimicrobial drugs should be used judiciously.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cho S, Baek J, Kang C, Kim S, Ha Y, Chung D, et al. Extensively Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, South Korea, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):869-871. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131371
    AMA Cho S, Baek J, Kang C, et al. Extensively Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, South Korea, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):869-871. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131371.
    APA Cho, S., Baek, J., Kang, C., Kim, S., Ha, Y., Chung, D....Song, J. (2014). Extensively Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, South Korea, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 869-871. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131371.
  • Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 486 KB - 4 pages]
    Z. Feng et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine whether, and to what extent, influenza A subtype H3 viruses were present in feral swine in the United States, we conducted serologic and virologic surveillance during October 2011–September 2012. These animals were periodically exposed to and infected with A(H3N2) viruses, suggesting they may threaten human and animal health.

        Cite This Article
    EID Feng Z, Baroch JA, Long L, Xu Y, Cunningham FL, Pedersen K, et al. Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):843-846. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131578
    AMA Feng Z, Baroch JA, Long L, et al. Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):843-846. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131578.
    APA Feng, Z., Baroch, J. A., Long, L., Xu, Y., Cunningham, F. L., Pedersen, K....Wan, X. (2014). Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 843-846. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131578.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations and Deaths, Costa Rica, 2009–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 415 KB - 4 pages]
    G. Saborío et al.
        View Abstract

    Data needed to guide influenza vaccine policies are lacking in tropical countries. We multiplied the number of severe acute respiratory infections by the proportion testing positive for influenza. There were ≈6,699 influenza hospitalizations and 803 deaths in Costa Rica during 2009–2012, supporting continuation of a national influenza vaccine program.

        Cite This Article
    EID Saborío G, Clara A, Garcia A, Quesada F, Palekar R, Minaya P, et al. Influenza-associated Hospitalizations and Deaths, Costa Rica, 2009–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):878-881. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131775
    AMA Saborío G, Clara A, Garcia A, et al. Influenza-associated Hospitalizations and Deaths, Costa Rica, 2009–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):878-881. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131775.
    APA Saborío, G., Clara, A., Garcia, A., Quesada, F., Palekar, R., Minaya, P....Azziz-Baumgartner, E. (2014). Influenza-associated Hospitalizations and Deaths, Costa Rica, 2009–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 878-881. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131775.
  • Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 2011–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 726 KB - 5 pages]
    M. Dietrich et al.
        View Abstract

    We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dietrich M, Lebarbenchon C, Jaeger A, Le Rouzic C, Bastien M, Lagadec E, et al. Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):838-842. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131088
    AMA Dietrich M, Lebarbenchon C, Jaeger A, et al. Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):838-842. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131088.
    APA Dietrich, M., Lebarbenchon, C., Jaeger, A., Le Rouzic, C., Bastien, M., Lagadec, E....Tortosa, P. (2014). Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 838-842. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131088.

Photo Quizzes

  • Photo Quiz PDF Version [PDF - 704 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Fulghieri and S. Bloom
            Cite This Article
    EID Fulghieri C, Bloom S. Sarah Elizabeth Stewart. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):893-895. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131876
    AMA Fulghieri C, Bloom S. Sarah Elizabeth Stewart. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):893-895. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131876.
    APA Fulghieri, C., & Bloom, S. (2014). Sarah Elizabeth Stewart. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 893-895. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131876.

Letters

  • Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Kentucky Sequence Type 198 PDF Version [PDF - 315 KB - 2 pages]
    R. Rickert-Hartman and J. P. Folster
            Cite This Article
    EID Rickert-Hartman R, Folster JP. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Kentucky Sequence Type 198. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):910-911. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131575
    AMA Rickert-Hartman R, Folster JP. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Kentucky Sequence Type 198. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):910-911. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131575.
    APA Rickert-Hartman, R., & Folster, J. P. (2014). Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Kentucky Sequence Type 198. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 910-911. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131575.
  • Coxsackievirus A16 Encephalitis during Obinutuzumab Therapy, Belgium, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 274 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Eyckmans et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Eyckmans T, Wollants E, Janssens A, Schoemans H, Lagrou K, Wauters J, et al. Coxsackievirus A16 Encephalitis during Obinutuzumab Therapy, Belgium, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):913-915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131766
    AMA Eyckmans T, Wollants E, Janssens A, et al. Coxsackievirus A16 Encephalitis during Obinutuzumab Therapy, Belgium, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):913-915. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131766.
    APA Eyckmans, T., Wollants, E., Janssens, A., Schoemans, H., Lagrou, K., Wauters, J....Maertens, J. (2014). Coxsackievirus A16 Encephalitis during Obinutuzumab Therapy, Belgium, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 913-915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131766.
  • Babesia venatorum Infection in Child, China PDF Version [PDF - 300 KB - 2 pages]
    Y. Sun et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Sun Y, Li S, Jiang J, Wang X, Zhang Y, Wang H, et al. Babesia venatorum Infection in Child, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):896-897. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.121034
    AMA Sun Y, Li S, Jiang J, et al. Babesia venatorum Infection in Child, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):896-897. doi:10.3201/eid2005.121034.
    APA Sun, Y., Li, S., Jiang, J., Wang, X., Zhang, Y., Wang, H....Cao, W. (2014). Babesia venatorum Infection in Child, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 896-897. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.121034.
  • Myasthenia Gravis Associated with Acute Hepatitis E Infection in Immunocompetent Woman PDF Version [PDF - 306 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Belbezier et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Belbezier A, Deroux A, Sarrot-Reynauld F, Larrat S, Bouillet L. Myasthenia Gravis Associated with Acute Hepatitis E Infection in Immunocompetent Woman. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):908-910. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131551
    AMA Belbezier A, Deroux A, Sarrot-Reynauld F, et al. Myasthenia Gravis Associated with Acute Hepatitis E Infection in Immunocompetent Woman. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):908-910. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131551.
    APA Belbezier, A., Deroux, A., Sarrot-Reynauld, F., Larrat, S., & Bouillet, L. (2014). Myasthenia Gravis Associated with Acute Hepatitis E Infection in Immunocompetent Woman. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 908-910. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131551.
  • New Variant of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States, 2014 PDF Version [PDF - 609 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Wang et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Wang L, Byrum B, Zhang Y. New Variant of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):917-919. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.140195
    AMA Wang L, Byrum B, Zhang Y. New Variant of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):917-919. doi:10.3201/eid2005.140195.
    APA Wang, L., Byrum, B., & Zhang, Y. (2014). New Variant of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 917-919. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.140195.
  • Unique Strain of Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Mali PDF Version [PDF - 363 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Zivcec et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Zivcec M, Maïga O, Kelly A, Feldmann F, Sogoba N, Schwan TG, et al. Unique Strain of Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Mali. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):911-913. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131641
    AMA Zivcec M, Maïga O, Kelly A, et al. Unique Strain of Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Mali. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):911-913. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131641.
    APA Zivcec, M., Maïga, O., Kelly, A., Feldmann, F., Sogoba, N., Schwan, T. G....Safronetz, D. (2014). Unique Strain of Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Mali. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 911-913. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131641.
  • Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Portugal, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 319 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Barros et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Barros M, Branquinho R, Grosso F, Peixe L, Novais C. Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Portugal, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):903-905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130783
    AMA Barros M, Branquinho R, Grosso F, et al. Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Portugal, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):903-905. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130783.
    APA Barros, M., Branquinho, R., Grosso, F., Peixe, L., & Novais, C. (2014). Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Portugal, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 903-905. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130783.
  • Composite SCCmec Element in Single-locus Variant (ST217) of Epidemic MRSA-15 Clone PDF Version [PDF - 299 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Vignaroli et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Vignaroli C, Mancini A, Varaldo PE. Composite SCCmec Element in Single-locus Variant (ST217) of Epidemic MRSA-15 Clone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):905-907. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130934
    AMA Vignaroli C, Mancini A, Varaldo PE. Composite SCCmec Element in Single-locus Variant (ST217) of Epidemic MRSA-15 Clone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):905-907. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130934.
    APA Vignaroli, C., Mancini, A., & Varaldo, P. E. (2014). Composite SCCmec Element in Single-locus Variant (ST217) of Epidemic MRSA-15 Clone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 905-907. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130934.
  • Bartonella quintana in Body Lice from Scalp Hair of Homeless Persons, France PDF Version [PDF - 291 KB - 2 pages]
    R. Drali et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Drali R, Sangaré A, Boutellis A, Angelakis E, Veracx A, Socolovschi C, et al. Bartonella quintana in Body Lice from Scalp Hair of Homeless Persons, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):907-908. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131242
    AMA Drali R, Sangaré A, Boutellis A, et al. Bartonella quintana in Body Lice from Scalp Hair of Homeless Persons, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):907-908. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131242.
    APA Drali, R., Sangaré, A., Boutellis, A., Angelakis, E., Veracx, A., Socolovschi, C....Raoult, D. (2014). Bartonella quintana in Body Lice from Scalp Hair of Homeless Persons, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 907-908. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131242.
  • Serologic Evidence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Northern Sea Otters PDF Version [PDF - 289 KB - 3 pages]
    Z. Li et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Li Z, Ip HS, Trost JF, White C, Murray MJ, Carney PJ, et al. Serologic Evidence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Northern Sea Otters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):915-917. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131890
    AMA Li Z, Ip HS, Trost JF, et al. Serologic Evidence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Northern Sea Otters. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):915-917. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131890.
    APA Li, Z., Ip, H. S., Trost, J. F., White, C., Murray, M. J., Carney, P. J....Katz, J. M. (2014). Serologic Evidence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Northern Sea Otters. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 915-917. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.131890.
  • Staphylococcus aureus Carrying mecC Gene in Animals and Urban Wastewater, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 313 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Porrero et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Porrero M, Valverde A, Fernández-Llario P, Díez-Guerrier A, Mateos A, Lavín S, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Carrying mecC Gene in Animals and Urban Wastewater, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):899-901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130426
    AMA Porrero M, Valverde A, Fernández-Llario P, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Carrying mecC Gene in Animals and Urban Wastewater, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):899-901. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130426.
    APA Porrero, M., Valverde, A., Fernández-Llario, P., Díez-Guerrier, A., Mateos, A., Lavín, S....Domínguez, L. (2014). Staphylococcus aureus Carrying mecC Gene in Animals and Urban Wastewater, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 899-901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130426.
  • Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies in Adult Cows and Maternal Antibodies in Calves PDF Version [PDF - 314 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Elbers et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Elbers A, Stockhofe N, van der Poel W. Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies in Adult Cows and Maternal Antibodies in Calves. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):901-902. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130763
    AMA Elbers A, Stockhofe N, van der Poel W. Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies in Adult Cows and Maternal Antibodies in Calves. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):901-902. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130763.
    APA Elbers, A., Stockhofe, N., & van der Poel, W. (2014). Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies in Adult Cows and Maternal Antibodies in Calves. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 901-902. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130763.
  • Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gulls, Alaska, USA PDF Version [PDF - 302 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Bonnedahl et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Bonnedahl J, Hernandez J, Stedt J, Waldenström J, Olsen B, Drobni M, et al. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gulls, Alaska, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130325
    AMA Bonnedahl J, Hernandez J, Stedt J, et al. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gulls, Alaska, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):899. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130325.
    APA Bonnedahl, J., Hernandez, J., Stedt, J., Waldenström, J., Olsen, B., & Drobni, M. (2014). Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gulls, Alaska, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.130325.

About the Cover

  • Courage Unmasked PDF Version [PDF - 297 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Bloom
            Cite This Article
    EID Bloom S. Courage Unmasked. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):920-921. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.AC2005
    AMA Bloom S. Courage Unmasked. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):920-921. doi:10.3201/eid2005.AC2005.
    APA Bloom, S. (2014). Courage Unmasked. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 920-921. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.AC2005.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Papillomavirus PDF Version [PDF - 350 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Etymologia: Papillomavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(5):821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.ET2005
    AMA Etymologia: Papillomavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(5):821. doi:10.3201/eid2005.ET2005.
    APA (2014). Etymologia: Papillomavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2005.ET2005.
TOP