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Volume 14, Number 11—November 2008


Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe

Nienke van de Sande-Bruinsma, Hajo GrundmannComments to Author , Didier Verloo, Edine Tiemersma, Jos Monen, Herman Goossens, Matus Ferech, and the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System and European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Project Groups 1
Author affiliations: National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (N. van de Sande-Bruinsma, H. Grundmann, E. Tiemersma, J. Monen); University Medical Centre, Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands (H. Grundmann); Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Ukkel, Belgium (D. Verloo); University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium (H. Goossens, M. Ferech);

Main Article

Table 2

Differences in the proportion of antimicrobial drug resistance in 21 European countries, 2005, and significant trends, 2001–2005

Compound-pathogen† Antimicrobial drug resistance
Europe, %, 2005
Trends, 2001–2005*
Maximum (country) Minimum (country) fd‡ Increase (p<0.05) Decrease (p<0.05)
PNSP 36 (FR) 1.3 (NL) 27.7 BG ES, UK
ENSP 41 (FR) 2 (CZ) 20.5 FI, HU, NL
FQRE 29 (PT) 3 (IS) 9.7 AT, BE, BG, CZ, DE, ES, FI, HR, HU, LU, NL, PT, SE

*No trend analysis was performed for Denmark and France, and for Ireland and the United Kingdom for proportion of Escherichia coli resistant to fluoroquinolones (FQRE), because data were not available for all years of the study period (2001–2005). See Table 1 footnote for country designations.
†PNSP, proportion of Streptococcus pneumoniae not susceptible to penicillin; ENSP, erythromycin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae.
‡fd, factor difference.

Main Article

1National representatives of these 2 project groups in 2005 were as follows: Austria: H. Mittermayer, S. Metz, W. Koller (European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [EARSS]); Belgium: E. Hendrickx (EARSS), H. Goossens; Bulgaria: B. Markova; Croatia: A. Tambic-Andrasevic, Igor Francetic (European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption [ESAC]), S. Kalenic (EARSS); Cyprus: D. Bagatzouni (EARSS); Czech Republic: P. Dvorak (ESAC), P. Urbaskova (EARSS); Denmark: D. Monnet, A. Anker Nielsen (ESAC); Estonia: P. Naaber (EARSS); Finland: P. Huovinen (ESAC), P. Paakkari (ESAC), O. Lyytikainen (EARSS), A. Nissinen (EARSS); France: P. Maugendre (ESAC), D. Guillemot (ESAC), B. Coignard, (EARSS), V. Jarlier (EARSS); Germany: W. Kern (ESAC), H. Schroeder (ESAC), W. Witte (EARSS), K. Heckenbach (EARSS); Greece: H. Giamarellou (ESAC), A. Antoniadou (ESAC), A. Tsakris (EARSS), A. Vatopoulos (EARSS); Hungary: G. Ternak (ESAC), M. Fuzi (EARSS); Iceland: K. Kristinsson; Ireland: E. Smyth (ESAC), R. Cunney (ESAC), D. Igoe (EARSS), O. Murphy (EARSS); Israel: R. Raz (EARSS); Italy: G. Cornaglia, A. Pantosti (EARSS), P. D’Ancona (EARSS); Latvia: S. Berzina (ESAC), A. Balode (EARSS); Lithuania: R. Valenteliene (ESAC), J. Miciulevicience; Luxembourg: R. Hemmer, M. Bruch (ESAC); Malta: M. Borg, P. Zarb (ESAC); the Netherlands: R. Janknegt (ESAC), M. Filius (ESAC), H. de Neeling (EARSS), E. Tiemermsa, J Degener (EARSS); Norway: H. Salvesen Blix (ESAC), A. Hoiby (EARSS), G. Simonsen (EARSS); Poland: W. Hryniewicz, P. Grzesiowski; Portugal: L. Caldeira (ESAC), M. Canica (EARSS); Romania: I. Codita; Slovakia: V. Foltan (ESAC), T. Tesar (ESAC), L. Langsadl (EARSS); Slovenia: M. Cizman (ESAC), M. Mueller-Premru (EARSS), J. Kolman (EARSS); Spain: J. Campos, F. Baquero (EARSS); Sweden: O. Cars (ESAC), G. Skoog (ESAC), B. Liljequist (EARSS), G. Kahlmeter (EARSS); Turkey: S. Unal (ESAC), D. Gür (EARSS); United Kingdom: P. Davey (ESAC), A. Johnson (EARSS), R. Hill (EARSS), H. Hughes (EARSS), M. Coyne (EARSS).

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