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Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008

Research

Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons

Jeffrey S. Hall1Comments to Author , Kevin T. Bentler, Gabrielle Landolt, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Minnis, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott C. Barras, J. Jeffrey Root, John Pilon, Kristy Pabilonia, Cindy Driscoll, Dennis Slate, Heather Sullivan, and Robert G. McLean
Author affiliations: US Department of Agriculture National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (J.S. Hall, K.T. Bentler, S.A. Elmore, J.J. Root, J. Pilon, H. Sullivan, R.G. McLean); Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Fort Collins (G. Landolt, K. Pabilonia); Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi, USA (R.B. Minnis); US Department of Agriculture National Wildlife Research Center, Kingsville, Texas, USA (T.A. Campbell); US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services, Moreley, Virginia, USA (S.C. Barras); Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Oxford, Maryland, USA (C. Driscoll); US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services, Concord, New Hampshire, USA (D. Slate)

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Figure

Raccoon respiratory tissues stained with lectins specific for sialic acids (SAs) with α2,6- and α2,3-linkages. A) Upper trachea; B) lower trachea; C) bronchus; D) bronchiole. Arrows indicate endothelial lining of the tissues indicated. Green staining shows a reaction with fluorescein isothiocyanate–labeled Sambucus nigra lectin, which indicates SAs linked to galactose by an α2,6-linkage (SAα2,6Gal). Red staining shows a reaction with biotinylated Maackia amurensis lectin (detected with Alexa Flu

Figure. Raccoon respiratory tissues stained with lectins specific for sialic acids (SAs) with α2,6- and α2,3-linkages. A) Upper trachea; B) lower trachea; C) bronchus; D) bronchiole. Arrows indicate endothelial lining of the tissues indicated. Green staining shows a reaction with fluorescein isothiocyanate–labeled Sambucus nigra lectin, which indicates SAs linked to galactose by an α2,6-linkage (SAα2,6Gal). Red staining shows a reaction with biotinylated Maackia amurensis lectin (detected with Alexa Fluor 594–conjugated streptavidin), which indicates an SAα2,3Gal linkage. Tissues were counterstained with 4,6,-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride. Original magnification ×40 in panels A, B, and D and ×100 in panel C.

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1Current affiliation: US Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

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