Figure 5. Possible distribution area of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense. Open circle, open square, and open triangle represent brown bears, humans, and Pacific salmon, respectively, from which D. nihonkaiense adult worms or plerocercoids were isolated and identified by DNA sequencing (DNA sequences refer to reference 21). Patients in European countries are suspected to have eaten salmon imported from the Pacific coast of North America.
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