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Volume 16, Number 5—May 2010

Research

Latent Tuberculosis among Persons at Risk for Infection with HIV, Tijuana, Mexico

Richard S. GarfeinComments to Author , Rafael Laniado-Laborin, Timothy C. Rodwell, Remedios Lozada, Robert Deiss, Jose Luis Burgos, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota, Paris Cerecer, Kathleen Moser, Maria Luisa Volker, and Steffanie A. Strathdee
Author affiliations: University of California San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, California, USA (R.S. Garfein, T.C. Rodwell, R. Deiss, J.L. Burgos, J. Cuevas-Mota, S.A. Strathdee); Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Tijuana, Mexico (R. Laniado-Laborin); Patronato Pro-Comité Municipal de Prevención del SIDA, Tijuana (R. Lozada); Instituto de Servicios de Salud Pública del Estado de Baja California, Tijuana (P. Cerecer, M.L. Volker); San Diego County Department of Health and Human Services, San Diego (K. Moser)

Main Article

Table 1

Univariate analysis of factors associated with tuberculosis infection status among high-risk groups for HIV in Tijuana, Mexico, April–July 2007*

Characteristic Total (n = 503) IGRA– (n = 217) IGRA+ (n = 286) Odds ratio (95% CI)
Risk factor†‡
Injected drugs 232 (46.1) 86 (39.6) 146 (51.1) 1.59 (1.11–2.27)
Used drugs but never injected 207 (41.2) 94 (43.3) 113 (39.5) 0.86 (0.60–1.22)
Sex work 115 (22.9) 59 (27.2) 56 (19.6) 0.65 (0.43-0.99)
Homeless/unstably housed 280 (55.7) 135 (62.2) 145 (50.7) 0.63 (0.44–0.90)
Median age, y (IQR)
36.0 (29–42)
34.0 (28–40)
38.0 (31–43)
1.04 (1.02–1.06)
Sex
M 297 (59.0) 112 (51.6) 185 (64.7) 1.00
F 193 (38.4) 99 (45.6) 94 (32.9) 0.58 (0.40–0.83)
Transgender
13 (2.6)
6 (2.8)
7 (2.5)
0.71 (0.23–2.16)
Years lived in Tijuana, median (IQR) 6.04 (1–13.3) 3.51 (0.3–10.0) 9.0 (3.0–16.4) 1.03 (1.012–1.04)
Most frequent type of sleeping arrangement‡
Stable 223 (44.3) 82 (37.8) 141 (49.3) 1.00
Unstable housing 209 (41.6) 105 (48.4) 104 (36.4) 0.58 (0.39–0.85)
Homeless
71 (14.1)
30 (13.8)
41 (14.3)
0.80 (0.46–1.37)
Ever incarcerated 338 (67.2) 128 (59.0) 210 (73.4) 1.92 (1.32–2.80)
Incarceration status
Never jailed 165 (32.8) 89 (41.0) 76 (26.6) 1.00
Jailed in USA only 129 (25.6) 58 (26.7) 71(24.8) 1.43 (0.90–2.28)
Jailed in Mexico or Mexico and USA
209 (41.5)
70 (32.3)
139 (48.6)
2.33 (1.53–3.54)
Noninjection drug used most often‡
None 157 (31.2) 67 (30.9) 90 (31.5) 1.00
Methamphetamines 218 (43.3) 101 (46.5) 117 (40.9) 0.86 (0.57–1.30)
Heroin 52 (10.3) 14 (6.5) 38 (13.3) 2.02 (1.01–4.03)
Any other drug
76 (15.1)
35 (16.1)
41 (14.3)
0.87 (0.50–1.51)
Ever injected illegal drugs 248 (49.3) 92 (42.4) 156 (54.6) 1.63 (1.14–2.33)
Mean (SD) years injected drugs among IDUs
13.5 (13.0)
13.0 (13.5)
14.0 (14.0)
1.02 (0.99–1.05)
Ever known anyone with TB 210 (41.8) 78 (35.9) 132 (46.2) 1.53 (1.06–2.19)

*Values are no. (%) unless otherwise indicated. IGRA, interferon-γ release assay; CI, confidence interval; IQR, interquartile range; IDUs, injection drug users; TB, tuberculosis.
†Risk groups are not mutually exclusive; reference group includes all participants without the characteristic.
‡Refers to the past 6 mo.

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