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Volume 18, Number 5—May 2012

Research

No Association between 2008–09 Influenza Vaccine and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection, Manitoba, Canada, 2009

Salaheddin M. MahmudComments to Author , Paul Van Caeseele, Gregory Hammond, Carol Kurbis, Tim Hilderman, and Lawrence Elliott
Author affiliations: University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (S.M. Mahmud, P. Van Caeseele, G. Hammond, T. Hilderman, L. Elliott); Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg (S.M. Mahmud, C. Kurbis); Cadham Provincial Laboratory, Winnipeg (P.V. Caeseele); Manitoba Health, Winnipeg (T. Hilderman, L. Elliott)

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Table 2

Demographic and clinical characteristics of persons enrolled in a study to determine possible association between receipt of 2008–09 TIV and subsequent infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, Manitoba, Canada, 2009*

Characteristic Community controls Community case-patients Hospitalized case-patients Total
Total 2,479 (74.9) 626 (18.9) 205 (6.2) 3,310
Female sex 1,468 (59.2) 322 (51.4) 115 (56.1) 1,905
Age, y
0.5–4 210 (8.5) 62 (9.9) 48 (23.4) 320
5–19 413 (16.7) 223 (35.6) 41 (20.0) 677
20–34 553 (22.3) 154 (24.6) 44 (21.5) 751
35–49 600 (24.2) 110 (17.6) 35 (17.1) 745
50–59 331 (13.4) 56 (8.9) 20 (9.8) 407
>60 372 (15.0) 21 (3.4) 17 (8.3) 410
Age, y, median (Q1–Q3) 36 (19–51) 22 (10–39) 23 (5–43) 34 (16–52)
Residence
Northern Manitoba 362 (14.6) 156 (24.9) 82 (40.0) 600
Urban area 1,406 (56.7) 341 (54.5) 88 (42.9) 1835
SEFI quintile†
1 596 (24.0) 106 (16.9) 22 (10.7) 724
2 541 (21.8) 140 (22.4) 28 (13.7) 709
3 499 (20.1) 126 (20.1) 25 (12.2) 650
4 468 (18.9) 130 (20.8) 41 (20.0) 639
5 375 (15.1) 124 (19.8) 89 (43.4) 588
Physician visits in past year, median (Q1–Q3) 14 (5–32) 7 (3–19) 20 (10–51) 15 (6–34)
Hospitalizations in past 5 y, median (Q1–Q3) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 3 (1–5) 1 (0–2)
Pregnant‡ 85 (5.8) 17 (5.3) 25 (21.7) 127
Chronic disease 548 (22.1) 90 (14.4) 78 (38.0) 716
Diabetes 219 (8.8) 30 (4.8) 35 (17.1) 284
COPD 98 (4.0) 11 (1.8) 15 (7.3 124
Asthma 133 (5.4) 38 (6.1) 25 (12.2) 196
Ischemic heart disease 51 (2.1) 6 (1.0) 6 (2.9) 63
Chronic renal failure 43 (1.7) 5 (0.8) 10 (4.9) 58
Cancer, excluding NMS 95 (3.8) 7 (1.1) 10 (4.9) 112
Receipt of drug treatment
Antiviral drug treatment 276 (11.1) 123 (19.6) 15 (7.3) 414
Antiviral prophylaxis 72 (2.9) 22 (3.5) 3 (1.5) 97
Antimicrobial drug treatment 1,035 (41.8) 219 (35.0) 106 (51.7) 1,360
Receipt of TIV
2007–08 544 (21.9) 123 (19.6) 37 (18.0) 704
2008–09 564 (22.8) 109 (17.4) 39 (19.0) 712
No. TIVs received in past 5 years
0 1,450 (58.5) 383 (61.2) 119 (58.0) 1,952
>1 1,029 (41.5) 243 (38.8) 86 (42.0) 1,358
1–3 711 (28.7) 187 (29.9) 65 (31.7) 963
4–5 318 (12.8) 56 (8.9) 21 (10.2) 395
5 156 (6.3) 19 (3.0) 9 (4.4) 184
Ever received PPV23 343 (13.8) 41 (6.5) 32 (15.6) 416

*Values are no. (%) except as indicated. See Table 1 for definitions of variables. TIV, inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine; Q1–Q3, quartiles 1-3; SEFI, Socioeconomic Factor Index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NMS, nonmelanoma skin cancer; PPV23, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.
†SEFI quintiles are in order of worsening socioeconomic scale (24).
‡Of 5- to 49-year-old female participants.

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