Volume 19, Number 9—September 2013
| Psychiatric manifestations
|Confirmed||Probable case, with documented head nodding episodes:|
|Observed and recorded by a trained health care worker|
|Videotaped head nodding episode|
|Video/EEG/EMG documenting head nodding as atonic seizures|
*As agreed upon at the first International Conference on Nodding Syndrome, Kampala, Uganda, July 2012.16 EEG, electroencephalography; EMG, electromyography.
†Repetitive involuntary drops of the head toward the chest on ≥2 occasions.