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Volume 19, Number 9—September 2013

Synopsis

Nodding Syndrome

Scott F. DowellComments to Author , James J. Sejvar, Lul Riek, Katelijn A.H. Vandemaele, Margaret Lamunu, Annette C. Kuesel, Erich Schmutzhard, William Matuja, Sudhir Bunga, Jennifer Foltz, Thomas B. Nutman, Andrea S. Winkler, and Anthony K. Mbonye
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (S.F. Dowell, J.J. Sejvar, S. Bunga, J. Foltz); Ministry of Health, Juba, South Sudan (L. Riek); World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (K.A.H. Vandemaele, M. Lamunu, A.C. Kuesel); University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (E. Schmutzhard); Muhimbili University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (W. Matuja); National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA (T.B. Nutman); Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany (A.S. Winkler); Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda (A.K. Mbonye); Makerere University, Kampala (A.K. Mbonye)

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Table 2

Recommended case definitions for nodding syndrome


Psychiatric manifestations
Confirmed Probable case, with documented head nodding episodes:
Observed and recorded by a trained health care worker
Videotaped head nodding episode
Video/EEG/EMG documenting head nodding as atonic seizures

*As agreed upon at the first International Conference on Nodding Syndrome, Kampala, Uganda, July 2012.16 EEG, electroencephalography; EMG, electromyography.
†Repetitive involuntary drops of the head toward the chest on ≥2 occasions.

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