Figure 2. Relationships between primate and human parasites: Malaria phylogeny based on the circumsporozoite protein gene. The alignment does not include the central repeat region. P. falciparum (Pfa), P. vivax (Pvi), and P. malariae (Pma) are from humans; P. cynomolgi (Pcy), P. simiovale (Pso), and P. knowlesi (Pkn) are from macaques; P. simium (Psi) and P. brasilianum (Pbr) are from New World monkeys; P. reichenowi (Pre) is from chimpanzees; P. gallinacium (Pga) is from birds; and P. berghei (Pbe) and P. yoelii (Pyo) are from rodents. The numbers in the names indicate different isolates as described in (30). The sequence of P. gallinacium was reported by (31). The numbers on the branches are bootstrap % based on 500 pseudoreplications. The tree was estimated by the neighbor-joining method with the Tajima and Nei distance (32).