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Volume 4, Number 2—June 1998


Wild Primate Populations in Emerging Infectious Disease Research: The Missing Link?

Nathan D. Wolfe*, Ananias A. Escalante†, William B. Karesh‡, Annelisa Kilbourn‡, Andrew Spielman*, and Altaf A. Lal†
Author affiliations: *Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Public Health Service, Chamblee, Georgia, USA; ‡Wildlife Health Sciences, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, USA.

Main Article


Routes of pathogen exchange between human and nonhuman primates

Route of exchange Pathogen Direction of exchange Evidencea Reference
Animal bite Herpes B Nonhuman primate to human E 6b
Monkeypox Nonhuman primate to human E 7
Fecal-oral Poliovirus Human to nonhuman primate L 2b
Poliovirus Chimpanzee to chimpanzee E 8
Hunting, food prep 
& eating Ebola Nonhuman primate to human E 9
Nasal secretions Mycobacterium leprae Among primates P, L 10b
Respiratory droplet Tuberculosis Human to nonhuman primate L 11b
Vector-borne Malaria Both directions L,E 12b
Filaria Both directions L,E 8b
Water-mediated Dracunculiasis Human to nonhuman primate L 13
Schistosomiasis Nonhuman primate to human E 14
Xenotransplantation SV40 Nonhuman primate to human Ec 15b

aL = laboratory; E = epidemiologic ; P = evidence that parasites live naturally in multiple primate hosts.
bEvidence reviewed.
cThe only current evidence for xenotransplantation includes SV40 spread through vaccine production.

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