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Volume 12, Number 6—June 2006
Volume 12, Number 6—June 2006 PDF Version [PDF - 10.97 MB - 175 pages]
Host Range Restriction and Pathogenicity in the Context of Influenza Pandemic
PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 6 pages]
G. Neumann and Y. KawaokaView SummaryView Abstract
Certain viral factors determine the host range restriction and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses.
Influenza A viruses cause pandemics at random intervals. Pandemics are caused by viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein to which human populations are immunologically naive. Such an HA can be introduced into the human population through reassortment between human and avian virus strains or through the direct transfer of an avian influenza virus to humans. The factors that determine the interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of influenza viruses are still poorly understood; however, the HA protein plays an important role in overcoming the interspecies barrier and in virulence in avian influenza viruses. Recently, the RNA polymerase (PB2) protein has also been recognized as a critical factor in host range restriction, while the nonstructural (NS1) protein affects the initial host immune responses. We summarize current knowledge of viral factors that determine host range restriction and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses.
Dengue Prevention and 35 Years of Vector Control in Singapore
PDF Version [PDF - 180 KB - 7 pages]
E. Ooi et al.View SummaryView Abstract
A vector control program must be based on epidemiologic and entomologic data.
After a 15-year period of low incidence, dengue has reemerged in Singapore in the past decade. We identify potential causes of this resurgence. A combination of lowered herd immunity, virus transmission outside the home, an increase in the age of infection, and the adoption of a case-reactive approach to vector control contribute to the increased dengue incidence. Singapore's experience with dengue indicates that prevention efforts may not be sustainable. For renewed success, Singapore needs to return to a vector control program that is based on carefully collected entomologic and epidemiologic data. Singapore's taking on a leadership role in strengthening disease surveillance and control in Southeast Asia may also be useful in reducing virus importation.
Co-infections of Adenovirus Species in Previously Vaccinated Patients
PDF Version [PDF - 282 KB - 10 pages]
G. J. Vora et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Adenoviral infections associated with respiratory illness in military trainees involve multiple co-infecting species and serotypes.
Despite the success of the adenovirus vaccine administered to US military trainees, acute respiratory disease (ARD) surveillance still detected breakthrough infections (respiratory illnesses associated with the adenovirus serotypes specifically targeted by the vaccine). To explore the role of adenoviral co-infection (simultaneous infection by multiple pathogenic adenovirus species) in breakthrough disease, we examined specimens from patients with ARD by using 3 methods to detect multiple adenoviral species: a DNA microarray, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a multiplex PCR assay. Analysis of 52 samples (21 vaccinated, 31 unvaccinated) collected from 1996 to 2000 showed that all vaccinated samples had co-infections. Most of these co-infections were community-acquired serotypes of species B1 and E. Unvaccinated samples primarily contained only 1 species (species E) associated with adult respiratory illness. This study highlights the rarely reported phenomenon of adenoviral co-infections in a clinically relevant environment suitable for the generation of new recombinational variants.
Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003–04 Influenza Season
PDF Version [PDF - 278 KB - 6 pages]
J. C. Hageman et al.View SummaryView Abstract
S. aureus community-acquired pneumonia has been reported from 9 states.
During the 2003–04 influenza season, 17 cases of Staphylococcus aureus community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were reported from 9 states; 15 (88%) were associated with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The median age of patients was 21 years; 5 (29%) had underlying diseases, and 4 (24%) had risk factors for MRSA. Twelve (71%) had laboratory evidence of influenza virus infection. All but 1 patient, who died on arrival, were hospitalized. Death occurred in 5 (4 with MRSA). S. aureus isolates were available from 13 (76%) patients (11 MRSA). Toxin genes were detected in all isolates; 11 (85%) had only genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. All isolates had community-associated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns; all MRSA isolates had the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa. In communities with a high prevalence of MRSA, empiric therapy of severe CAP during periods of high influenza activity should include consideration for MRSA.
Human Streptococcus suis Outbreak, Sichuan, China
PDF Version [PDF - 303 KB - 7 pages]
H. Yu et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Streptococcus suis outbreak was associated with exposure to sick or dead pigs.
From mid-July to the end of August 2005, a total of 215 cases of human Streptococcus suis infections, 66 of which were laboratory confirmed, were reported in Sichuan, China. All infections occurred in backyard farmers who were directly exposed to infection during the slaughtering process of pigs that had died of unknown causes or been killed for food because they were ill. Sixty-one (28%) of the farmers had streptococcal toxic shock syndrome; 38 (62%) of them died. The other illnesses reported were sepsis (24%) and meningitis (48%) or both. All isolates tested positive for genes for tuf, species-specific 16S rRNA, cps2J, mrp, ef, and sly. A single strain of S. suis caused the outbreak, as shown by the identification of a single ribotype. The high death ratio was of concern; prohibiting backyard slaughtering ended the outbreak.
Multidrug-resistant Commensal Escherichia coli in Children, Peru and Bolivia
PDF Version [PDF - 188 KB - 7 pages]
A. Bartoloni et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Healthy children in urban areas have a high prevalence of fecal carriage of drug-resistant E. coli.
Using a rapid screening method, we investigated the prevalence of fecal carriage of antimicrobial drug–resistant Escherichia coli in 3,174 healthy children from 4 urban settings in Peru and Bolivia. High resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (94%), tetracycline (93%), streptomycin (82%), and chloramphenicol (70%). Lower resistance rates were observed for nalidixic acid (35%), kanamycin (28%), gentamicin (21%), and ciprofloxacin (18%); resistance to ceftriaxone and amikacin was uncommon (<0.5%). In a random sample of 1,080 resistant E. coli isolates, 90% exhibited a multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. The 2 most common MDR phenotypes (ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/chloramphenicol) could be transferred en bloc in conjugation experiments. The most common acquired resistance genes were blaTEM, tet(A), tet(B), drfA8, sul1, sul2, and catI. These findings underscore the magnitude of the problem of antimicrobial drug resistance in low-resource settings and the urgent need for surveillance and control of this phenomenon.
Social Behavior and Meningococcal Carriage in British Teenagers
PDF Version [PDF - 301 KB - 8 pages]
J. MacLennan et al.View Abstract
Understanding predisposing factors for meningococcal carriage may identify targets for public health interventions. Before mass vaccination with meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine began in autumn 1999, we took pharyngeal swabs from ≈14,000 UK teenagers and collected information on potential risk factors. Neisseria meningitidis was cultured from 2,319 (16.7%) of 13,919 swabs. In multivariable analysis, attendance at pubs/clubs, intimate kissing, and cigarette smoking were each independently and strongly associated with increased risk for meningococcal carriage (p<0.001). Carriage in those with none of these risk factors was 7.8%, compared to 32.8% in those with all 3. Passive smoking was also linked to higher risk for carriage, but age, sex, social deprivation, home crowding, or school characteristics had little or no effect. Social behavior, rather than age or sex, can explain the higher frequency of meningococcal carriage among teenagers. A ban on smoking in public places may reduce risk for transmission.
Haemophilus influenzae Type b Reemergence after Combination Immunization
PDF Version [PDF - 94 KB - 5 pages]
N. G. Johnson et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Combination vaccines may suppress Hib antibody concentration and avidity.
An increase in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in British children has been linked to the widespread use of a diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis combination vaccine (DTaP-Hib). We measured anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate antibody concentration and avidity before and after a Hib booster in 176 children 2–4 years of age who had received 3 doses of DTP-Hib (either DT whole cell pertussis-Hib or DTaP-Hib) combination vaccine in infancy. We also measured pharyngeal carriage of Hib. Antibody concentrations before and avidity indices after vaccination were low (geometric mean concentration 0.46 μg/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36–0.58; geometric mean avidity index 0.16, 95% CI 0.14–0.18) and inversely related to the number of previous doses of DTaP-Hib (p = 0.02 and p<0.001, respectively). Hib was found in 2.1% (95% CI 0.7%–6.0%) of study participants. Our data support an association between DTaP-Hib vaccine combinations and clinical Hib disease through an effect on antibody concentration and avidity.
Norwalk Virus–specific Binding to Oyster Digestive Tissues
PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 6 pages]
F. S. Le Guyader et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Specific binding of virus to oysters can selectively concentrate a human pathogen.
The primary pathogens related to shellfishborne gastroenteritis outbreaks are noroviruses. These viruses show persistence in oysters, which suggests an active mechanism of virus concentration. We investigated whether Norwalk virus or viruslike particles bind specifically to oyster tissues after bioaccumulation or addition to tissue sections. Since noroviruses attach to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family, tests using immunohistochemical analysis were performed to evaluate specific binding of virus or viruslike particles to oyster tissues through these ligands. Viral particles bind specifically to digestive ducts (midgut, main and secondary ducts, and tubules) by carbohydrate structures with a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine residue in an α linkage (same binding site used for recognition of human histo-blood group antigens). These data show that the oyster can selectively concentrate a human pathogen and that conventional depuration will not eliminate noroviruses from oyster tissue.
Human Parechovirus Infections in Canada
PDF Version [PDF - 242 KB - 7 pages]
Y. Abed and G. BoivinView SummaryView Abstract
These infections are associated with a variety of clinical syndromes, in part related to specific serotype.
A new reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for identification of 28 Canadian human parechovirus (HPeV) isolates, including 20 HPeV-1, 3 HPeV-2, and 5 HPeV-3, recovered from 1985 to 2004. All HPeV-1 isolates but 1 were genetically distinct from the Harris reference strain. One HPeV-2 isolate was related to the Williamson strain; the other 2 were related to the Connecticut strain. HPeV-3 isolates clustered together. Seventy-five percent of isolates were recovered during the typical enterovirus season. All patients but 1 were children with a mean age of 14.6 months, 6.3 months, and 0.7 months for HPeV-1, HPeV-2, and HPeV-3 patients, respectively. All HPeV-2– and HPeV-3–infected children were hospitalized with a diagnosis of viremia or sepsis. HPeV-1–infected children had bronchiolitis diagnosed in 50% of the cases, with few cases of pneumonia and enteritis. Two infected patients (1 child with leukemia and a 78-year-old woman) died of septic shock and severe pneumonia, respectively.
Genetic Divergence of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Ocular Toxoplasmosis, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 212 KB - 8 pages]
A. Khan et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Brazilian strains of T. gondii differ from lineages in North America and Europe; these differences may underlie severe ocular disease.
Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and the frequent occurrence of ocular disease in Brazil. To identify the genotypes of parasite strains associated with ocular disease, we compared 25 clinical and animal isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazil to previously characterized clonal lineages from North America and Europe. Multilocus nested polymerase chain reaction analysis was combined with direct sequencing of a polymorphic intron to classify strains by phylogenetic methods. The genotypes of T. gondii strains isolated from Brazil were highly divergent when compared to the previously described clonal lineages. Several new predominant genotypes were identified from different regions of Brazil, including 2 small outbreaks attributable to foodborne or waterborne infection. These findings show that the genetic makeup of T. gondii is more complex than previously recognized and suggest that unique or divergent genotypes may contribute to different clinical outcomes of toxoplasmosis in different localities.
Coccidioidomycosis as a Common Cause of Community-acquired Pneumonia
PDF Version [PDF - 68 KB - 5 pages]
L. Valdivia et al.View Abstract
The early manifestations of coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) are similar to those of other causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Without specific etiologic testing, the true frequency of valley fever may be underestimated by public health statistics. Therefore, we conducted a prospective observational study of adults with recent onset of a lower respiratory tract syndrome. Valley fever was serologically confirmed in 16 (29%) of 55 persons (95% confidence interval 16%–44%). Antimicrobial medications were used in 81% of persons with valley fever. Symptomatic differences at the time of enrollment had insufficient predictive value for valley fever to guide clinicians without specific laboratory tests. Thus, valley fever is a common cause of CAP after exposure in a disease-endemic region. If CAP develops in persons who travel or reside in Coccidioides-endemic regions, diagnostic evaluation should routinely include laboratory evaluation for this organism.
Temple Monkeys and Health Implications of Commensalism, Kathmandu, Nepal
PDF Version [PDF - 314 KB - 7 pages]
L. Jones-Engel et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Humans in contact with macaques risk exposure to enzootic primateborne viruses.
The threat of zoonotic transmission of infectious agents at monkey temples highlights the necessity of investigating the prevalence of enzootic infectious agents in these primate populations. Biological samples were collected from 39 rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, polymerase chain reaction, or combination of these tests for evidence of infection with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1), simian virus 40 (SV40), simian retrovirus (SRV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Antibody seroprevalence was 94.9% to RhCMV (37/39), 89.7% to SV40 (35/39), 64.1% to CHV-1 (25/39), and 97.4% to SFV (38/39). Humans who come into contact with macaques at Swoyambhu risk exposure to enzootic primateborne viruses. We discuss implications for public health and primate management strategies that would reduce contact between humans and primates.
Human Rotavirus Serotype G9, São Paulo, Brazil, 1996–2003
PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 6 pages]
R. Carmona et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Diverse rotavirus strains are present, and frequency of G9 is high.
A total of 3,101 fecal specimens were collected during an 8-year survey for rotavirus infection in São Paulo, Brazil. Group A rotavirus was detected in 774 (25.0%) specimens. Of these, 431 strains (55.7%) were analyzed for G and P types by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction; G1 was the predominant serotype (68.2%), followed by G9 (17.2%), G4 (6.3%), G2 (1.2%), G3 (0.7%), mixed infection (1.8%), and untypeable (4.6%). Both rotavirus G and P types could be established in 332 strains (77.0%). We identified the 4 most common strains worldwide: PG1 (66.6%), PG2 (1.0%), PG3 (0.6%), and PG4 (7.2%). Among the single G9 strains detected, VP4 genotyping showed that PG9 was the most prevalent, followed by PG9 and PG9. The emergence and high frequency of rotavirus G9 in São Paulo, Brazil, and other parts of the world will affect the development and evaluation of future vaccines.
2,500-year Evolution of the Term Epidemic
PDF Version [PDF - 249 KB - 5 pages]
P. Martin and E. Martin-GranelView SummaryView Abstract
The meaning has been evolving since Hippocrates first used this word 25 centuries ago.
The term epidemic (from the Greek epi [on] plus demos [people]), first used by Homer, took its medical meaning when Hippocrates used it as the title of one of his famous treatises. At that time, epidemic was the name given to a collection of clinical syndromes, such as coughs or diarrheas, occurring and propagating in a given period at a given location. Over centuries, the form and meaning of the term have changed. Successive epidemics of plague in the Middle Ages contributed to the definition of an epidemic as the propagation of a single, well-defined disease. The meaning of the term continued to evolve in the 19th-century era of microbiology. Its most recent semantic evolution dates from the last quarter of the 20th century, and this evolution is likely to continue in the future.
Pasture Types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan Communities
PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 3 pages]
Q. Wang et al.View Abstract
Our study showed that open pastures had more small mammal burrows than fenced pastures in Tibetan pastoralist communities in 2003. This characteristic was linked to a higher prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and indicates that pasture type may affect E. multilocularis transmission.
Antiretroviral Drug Resistance and Routine Therapy, Cameroon
PDF Version [PDF - 196 KB - 4 pages]
C. Laurent et al.View Abstract
Among 128 patients routinely receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic in Cameroon, 16.4% had drug resistance after a median of 10 months. Of these, 12.5% had resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 10.2% to non-NRTIs, and 2.3% to protease inhibitors.
Raccoons and Skunks as Sentinels for Enzootic Tularemia
PDF Version [PDF - 88 KB - 3 pages]
Z. L. Berrada et al.View Abstract
We analyzed sera from diverse mammals of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, for evidence of Francisella tularensis exposure. Skunks and raccoons were frequently seroreactive, whereas white-footed mice, cottontail rabbits, deer, rats, and dogs were not. Tularemia surveillance may be facilitated by focusing on skunks and raccoons.
VIM-1 Metallo-β-lactamase in Acinetobacter baumannii
PDF Version [PDF - 92 KB - 3 pages]
A. Tsakris et al.View Abstract
In 2004 and 2005, 5 metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-positive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were found in 2 Greek hospitals. Isolates were unrelated and carried blaVIM-1 in a class 1 integron; blaOXA-51- and blaOXA-58-like carbapenemase genes were also detected. VIM-1 MBL in Acinetobacter spp. causes concern, given the increasing resistance of this species.
West Nile Virus Infection in Humans and Horses, Cuba
PDF Version [PDF - 56 KB - 3 pages]
M. Pupo et al.View Abstract
A surveillance system to detect West Nile virus (WNV) was established in Cuba in 2002. WNV infection was confirmed by serologic assays in 4 asymptomatic horses and 3 humans with encephalitis in 2003 and 2004. These results are the first reported evidence of WNV activity in Cuba.
Bordetella pertussis, Finland and France
PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 3 pages]
V. Caro et al.View Abstract
We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and genotyping to compare clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis recovered since the early 1990s in Finland and France, 2 countries with similar histories of long-term mass vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Isolates from both countries were similar genetically but varied temporally.
Francisella tularensis in Rodents, China
PDF Version [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
F. Zhang et al.View Abstract
A total of 420 rodents in China were examined for Francisella tularensis by polymerase chain reaction. The infection rates were 4.76% in total, and 11.65%, 10.00%, 6.56%, 1.77%, and 0% in Jilin, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Zhejiang, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that all the detected agents belonged to F. tularensis subsp. holarctica.
Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Greater Paris Area
PDF Version [PDF - 262 KB - 4 pages]
V. Sivadon-Tardy et al.View Abstract
We studied 263 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome from 1996 to 2001, 40% of which were associated with a known causative agent, mainly Campylobacter jejuni (22%) or cytomegalovirus (15%). The cases with no known agent (60%) peaked in winter, and half were preceded by respiratory infection, influenzalike syndrome, or gastrointestinal illness.
Cowpox Virus Transmission from Rats to Monkeys, the Netherlands
PDF Version [PDF - 161 KB - 3 pages]
B. Martina et al.View Abstract
We report an outbreak of cowpox virus among monkeys at a sanctuary for exotic animals. Serologic analysis and polymerase chain reaction were performed on blood and swab samples from different rodent species trapped at the sanctuary during the outbreak. Sequence comparison and serologic results showed that brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) transmitted the virus to monkeys.
Hantaviruses in Serbia and Montenegro
PDF Version [PDF - 155 KB - 4 pages]
A. Papa et al.View Abstract
Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkan Peninsula. An outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurred in 2002 in Serbia and Montenegro. The epidemiologic characteristics and genetic relatedness of Dobrava/Belgrade virus strains responsible for most cases are described.
Preventing Zoonotic Influenza Virus Infection
PDF Version [PDF - 115 KB - 4 pages]
A. Ramirez et al.View Abstract
We evaluated 49 swine industry workers and 79 nonexposed controls for antibodies to swine influenza viruses. Multivariate modeling showed that workers who seldom used gloves (odds ratio [OR] 30.3) or who smoked (OR 18.7) most frequently had evidence of previous H1N1 swine virus. These findings may be valuable in planning for pandemic influenza.
Class 1 Integrons in Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., US Hospitals
PDF Version [PDF - 246 KB - 4 pages]
A. N. Rao et al.View Abstract
We examined Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. from US hospitals for class 1 integrons. Of 320 isolates, 181 (57%) were positive; association of integrons with resistance varied by drug and organism. Thus, determining integron epidemiology will improve understanding of how antibacterial resistance determinants spread in the United States.
Mixed Cryptosporidium Infections and HIV
PDF Version [PDF - 181 KB - 4 pages]
V. Cama et al.View Abstract
Mixed Cryptosporidium infections were detected in 7 of 21 patients with a diagnosis of rare Cryptosporidium canis or C. felis infections; 6 patients were infected with 2 Cryptosporidium spp. and 1 patient with 3 species. Mixed infections may occur more frequently than previously believed and should be considered when assessing cryptosporidiosis.
Acanthamoeba Encephalitis in Patient with Systemic Lupus, India
PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
C. G. Shirwadkar et al.View Abstract
We report a fatal case of encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba in a 24-year-old woman from India with systemic lupus erythematosus. Diagnosis was made by identification of amebas in brain sections by immunofluorescence analysis and confirmed by demonstrating Acanthamoeba mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene DNA in brain tissue sections.
Linguatuliasis in Germany
PDF Version [PDF - 108 KB - 3 pages]
D. Tappe et al.
Simple Respiratory Mask
PDF Version [PDF - 48 KB - 2 pages]
V. M. Dato et al.
West Nile Virus in Horses, Guatemala
PDF Version [PDF - 54 KB - 2 pages]
M. Morales-Betoulle et al.
Streptobacillus moniliformis Endocarditis
PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
N. Balakrishnan et al.
Epidemic Clostridium difficile Strain in Hospital Visitation Dog
PDF Version [PDF - 27 KB - 2 pages]
S. L. Lefebvre et al.
Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Chicago Area
PDF Version [PDF - 93 KB - 3 pages]
D. A. Jobe et al.
H5N1 Influenza A Virus and Infected Human Plasma
PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
S. Chutinimitkul et al.
Books and Media
Infectious Diseases: A Clinical Approach, 2nd Edition
PDF Version [PDF - 42 KB - 1 page]
D. L. Paterson
About the Cover
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online OnlyMinimizing the Impact of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the CommunityR. J. Gorwitz et al.
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