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Volume 12, Number 6—June 2006

Volume 12, Number 6—June 2006   PDF Version [PDF - 10.97 MB - 175 pages]

Perspective

  • Host Range Restriction and Pathogenicity in the Context of Influenza Pandemic PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 6 pages]
    G. Neumann and Y. Kawaoka
    View Summary

    Certain viral factors determine the host range restriction and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses.

        View Abstract

    Influenza A viruses cause pandemics at random intervals. Pandemics are caused by viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein to which human populations are immunologically naive. Such an HA can be introduced into the human population through reassortment between human and avian virus strains or through the direct transfer of an avian influenza virus to humans. The factors that determine the interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of influenza viruses are still poorly understood; however, the HA protein plays an important role in overcoming the interspecies barrier and in virulence in avian influenza viruses. Recently, the RNA polymerase (PB2) protein has also been recognized as a critical factor in host range restriction, while the nonstructural (NS1) protein affects the initial host immune responses. We summarize current knowledge of viral factors that determine host range restriction and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. Host Range Restriction and Pathogenicity in the Context of Influenza Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):881-886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051336
    AMA Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. Host Range Restriction and Pathogenicity in the Context of Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):881-886. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051336.
    APA Neumann, G., & Kawaoka, Y. (2006). Host Range Restriction and Pathogenicity in the Context of Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 881-886. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051336.

Synopses

  • Dengue Prevention and 35 Years of Vector Control in Singapore PDF Version [PDF - 180 KB - 7 pages]
    E. Ooi et al.
    View Summary

    A vector control program must be based on epidemiologic and entomologic data.

        View Abstract

    After a 15-year period of low incidence, dengue has reemerged in Singapore in the past decade. We identify potential causes of this resurgence. A combination of lowered herd immunity, virus transmission outside the home, an increase in the age of infection, and the adoption of a case-reactive approach to vector control contribute to the increased dengue incidence. Singapore's experience with dengue indicates that prevention efforts may not be sustainable. For renewed success, Singapore needs to return to a vector control program that is based on carefully collected entomologic and epidemiologic data. Singapore's taking on a leadership role in strengthening disease surveillance and control in Southeast Asia may also be useful in reducing virus importation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ooi E, Goh K, Gubler DJ. Dengue Prevention and 35 Years of Vector Control in Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):887-893. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051210
    AMA Ooi E, Goh K, Gubler DJ. Dengue Prevention and 35 Years of Vector Control in Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):887-893. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051210.
    APA Ooi, E., Goh, K., & Gubler, D. J. (2006). Dengue Prevention and 35 Years of Vector Control in Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 887-893. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051210.

Research

  • Co-infections of Adenovirus Species in Previously Vaccinated Patients PDF Version [PDF - 282 KB - 10 pages]
    G. J. Vora et al.
    View Summary

    Adenoviral infections associated with respiratory illness in military trainees involve multiple co-infecting species and serotypes.

        View Abstract

    Despite the success of the adenovirus vaccine administered to US military trainees, acute respiratory disease (ARD) surveillance still detected breakthrough infections (respiratory illnesses associated with the adenovirus serotypes specifically targeted by the vaccine). To explore the role of adenoviral co-infection (simultaneous infection by multiple pathogenic adenovirus species) in breakthrough disease, we examined specimens from patients with ARD by using 3 methods to detect multiple adenoviral species: a DNA microarray, a polymerase chain reaction­ (PCR)–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a multiplex PCR assay. Analysis of 52 samples (21 vaccinated, 31 unvaccinated) collected from 1996 to 2000 showed that all vaccinated samples had co-infections. Most of these co-infections were community-acquired serotypes of species B1 and E. Unvaccinated samples primarily contained only 1 species (species E) associated with adult respiratory illness. This study highlights the rarely reported phenomenon of adenoviral co-infections in a clinically relevant environment suitable for the generation of new recombinational variants.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vora GJ, Lin B, Gratwick K, Meador C, Hansen C, Tibbetts C, et al. Co-infections of Adenovirus Species in Previously Vaccinated Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):921-930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.050245
    AMA Vora GJ, Lin B, Gratwick K, et al. Co-infections of Adenovirus Species in Previously Vaccinated Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):921-930. doi:10.3201/eid1206.050245.
    APA Vora, G. J., Lin, B., Gratwick, K., Meador, C., Hansen, C., Tibbetts, C....Metzgar, D. (2006). Co-infections of Adenovirus Species in Previously Vaccinated Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 921-930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.050245.
  • Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003–04 Influenza Season PDF Version [PDF - 278 KB - 6 pages]
    J. C. Hageman et al.
    View Summary

    S. aureus community-acquired pneumonia has been reported from 9 states.

        View Abstract

    During the 2003–04 influenza season, 17 cases of Staphylococcus aureus community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were reported from 9 states; 15 (88%) were associated with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The median age of patients was 21 years; 5 (29%) had underlying diseases, and 4 (24%) had risk factors for MRSA. Twelve (71%) had laboratory evidence of influenza virus infection. All but 1 patient, who died on arrival, were hospitalized. Death occurred in 5 (4 with MRSA). S. aureus isolates were available from 13 (76%) patients (11 MRSA). Toxin genes were detected in all isolates; 11 (85%) had only genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. All isolates had community-associated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns; all MRSA isolates had the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa. In communities with a high prevalence of MRSA, empiric therapy of severe CAP during periods of high influenza activity should include consideration for MRSA.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hageman JC, Uyeki TM, Francis JS, Jernigan DB, Wheeler J, Bridges CB, et al. Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003–04 Influenza Season. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):894-899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051141
    AMA Hageman JC, Uyeki TM, Francis JS, et al. Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003–04 Influenza Season. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):894-899. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051141.
    APA Hageman, J. C., Uyeki, T. M., Francis, J. S., Jernigan, D. B., Wheeler, J., Bridges, C. B....McDonald, L. (2006). Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003–04 Influenza Season. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 894-899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051141.
  • Human Streptococcus suis Outbreak, Sichuan, China PDF Version [PDF - 303 KB - 7 pages]
    H. Yu et al.
    View Summary

    Streptococcus suis outbreak was associated with exposure to sick or dead pigs.

        View Abstract

    From mid-July to the end of August 2005, a total of 215 cases of human Streptococcus suis infections, 66 of which were laboratory confirmed, were reported in Sichuan, China. All infections occurred in backyard farmers who were directly exposed to infection during the slaughtering process of pigs that had died of unknown causes or been killed for food because they were ill. Sixty-one (28%) of the farmers had streptococcal toxic shock syndrome; 38 (62%) of them died. The other illnesses reported were sepsis (24%) and meningitis (48%) or both. All isolates tested positive for genes for tuf, species-specific 16S rRNA, cps2J, mrp, ef, and sly. A single strain of S. suis caused the outbreak, as shown by the identification of a single ribotype. The high death ratio was of concern; prohibiting backyard slaughtering ended the outbreak.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yu H, Jing H, Chen Z, Zheng H, Zhu X, Wang H, et al. Human Streptococcus suis Outbreak, Sichuan, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):914-920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051194
    AMA Yu H, Jing H, Chen Z, et al. Human Streptococcus suis Outbreak, Sichuan, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):914-920. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051194.
    APA Yu, H., Jing, H., Chen, Z., Zheng, H., Zhu, X., Wang, H....Yang, W. (2006). Human Streptococcus suis Outbreak, Sichuan, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 914-920. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051194.
  • Multidrug-resistant Commensal Escherichia coli in Children, Peru and Bolivia PDF Version [PDF - 188 KB - 7 pages]
    A. Bartoloni et al.
    View Summary

    Healthy children in urban areas have a high prevalence of fecal carriage of drug-resistant E. coli.

        View Abstract

    Using a rapid screening method, we investigated the prevalence of fecal carriage of antimicrobial drug–resistant Escherichia coli in 3,174 healthy children from 4 urban settings in Peru and Bolivia. High resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (94%), tetracycline (93%), streptomycin (82%), and chloramphenicol (70%). Lower resistance rates were observed for nalidixic acid (35%), kanamycin (28%), gentamicin (21%), and ciprofloxacin (18%); resistance to ceftriaxone and amikacin was uncommon (<0.5%). In a random sample of 1,080 resistant E. coli isolates, 90% exhibited a multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. The 2 most common MDR phenotypes (ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/chloramphenicol) could be transferred en bloc in conjugation experiments. The most common acquired resistance genes were blaTEM, tet(A), tet(B), drfA8, sul1, sul2, and catI. These findings underscore the magnitude of the problem of antimicrobial drug resistance in low-resource settings and the urgent need for surveillance and control of this phenomenon.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bartoloni A, Pallecchi L, Benedetti M, Fernandez C, Vallejos Y, Guzman E, et al. Multidrug-resistant Commensal Escherichia coli in Children, Peru and Bolivia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):907-913. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051258
    AMA Bartoloni A, Pallecchi L, Benedetti M, et al. Multidrug-resistant Commensal Escherichia coli in Children, Peru and Bolivia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):907-913. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051258.
    APA Bartoloni, A., Pallecchi, L., Benedetti, M., Fernandez, C., Vallejos, Y., Guzman, E....Rossolini, G. (2006). Multidrug-resistant Commensal Escherichia coli in Children, Peru and Bolivia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 907-913. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051258.
  • Social Behavior and Meningococcal Carriage in British Teenagers PDF Version [PDF - 301 KB - 8 pages]
    J. MacLennan et al.
        View Abstract

    Understanding predisposing factors for meningococcal carriage may identify targets for public health interventions. Before mass vaccination with meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine began in autumn 1999, we took pharyngeal swabs from ≈14,000 UK teenagers and collected information on potential risk factors. Neisseria meningitidis was cultured from 2,319 (16.7%) of 13,919 swabs. In multivariable analysis, attendance at pubs/clubs, intimate kissing, and cigarette smoking were each independently and strongly associated with increased risk for meningococcal carriage (p<0.001). Carriage in those with none of these risk factors was 7.8%, compared to 32.8% in those with all 3. Passive smoking was also linked to higher risk for carriage, but age, sex, social deprivation, home crowding, or school characteristics had little or no effect. Social behavior, rather than age or sex, can explain the higher frequency of meningococcal carriage among teenagers. A ban on smoking in public places may reduce risk for transmission.

        Cite This Article
    EID MacLennan J, Kafatos G, Neal K, Andrews N, Cameron J, Roberts R, et al. Social Behavior and Meningococcal Carriage in British Teenagers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):950-957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051297
    AMA MacLennan J, Kafatos G, Neal K, et al. Social Behavior and Meningococcal Carriage in British Teenagers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):950-957. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051297.
    APA MacLennan, J., Kafatos, G., Neal, K., Andrews, N., Cameron, J., Roberts, R....Stuart, J. M. (2006). Social Behavior and Meningococcal Carriage in British Teenagers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 950-957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051297.
  • Haemophilus influenzae Type b Reemergence after Combination Immunization PDF Version [PDF - 94 KB - 5 pages]
    N. G. Johnson et al.
    View Summary

    Combination vaccines may suppress Hib antibody concentration and avidity.

        View Abstract

    An increase in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in British children has been linked to the widespread use of a diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis combination vaccine (DTaP-Hib). We measured anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate antibody concentration and avidity before and after a Hib booster in 176 children 2–4 years of age who had received 3 doses of DTP-Hib (either DT whole cell pertussis-Hib or DTaP-Hib) combination vaccine in infancy. We also measured pharyngeal carriage of Hib. Antibody concentrations before and avidity indices after vaccination were low (geometric mean concentration 0.46 μg/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36–0.58; geometric mean avidity index 0.16, 95% CI 0.14–0.18) and inversely related to the number of previous doses of DTaP-Hib (p = 0.02 and p<0.001, respectively). Hib was found in 2.1% (95% CI 0.7%–6.0%) of study participants. Our data support an association between DTaP-Hib vaccine combinations and clinical Hib disease through an effect on antibody concentration and avidity.

        Cite This Article
    EID Johnson NG, Ruggeberg JU, Balfour GF, Lee Y, Liddy H, Irving D, et al. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Reemergence after Combination Immunization. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):937-941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051451
    AMA Johnson NG, Ruggeberg JU, Balfour GF, et al. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Reemergence after Combination Immunization. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):937-941. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051451.
    APA Johnson, N. G., Ruggeberg, J. U., Balfour, G. F., Lee, Y., Liddy, H., Irving, D....Heath, P. T. (2006). Haemophilus influenzae Type b Reemergence after Combination Immunization. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 937-941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051451.
  • Norwalk Virus–specific Binding to Oyster Digestive Tissues PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 6 pages]
    F. S. Le Guyader et al.
    View Summary

    Specific binding of virus to oysters can selectively concentrate a human pathogen.

        View Abstract

    The primary pathogens related to shellfishborne gastroenteritis outbreaks are noroviruses. These viruses show persistence in oysters, which suggests an active mechanism of virus concentration. We investigated whether Norwalk virus or viruslike particles bind specifically to oyster tissues after bioaccumulation or addition to tissue sections. Since noroviruses attach to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family, tests using immunohistochemical analysis were performed to evaluate specific binding of virus or viruslike particles to oyster tissues through these ligands. Viral particles bind specifically to digestive ducts (midgut, main and secondary ducts, and tubules) by carbohydrate structures with a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine residue in an α linkage (same binding site used for recognition of human histo-blood group antigens). These data show that the oyster can selectively concentrate a human pathogen and that conventional depuration will not eliminate noroviruses from oyster tissue.

        Cite This Article
    EID Le Guyader FS, Loisy F, Atmar RL, Hutson AM, Estes MK, Ruvoën-Clouet N, et al. Norwalk Virus–specific Binding to Oyster Digestive Tissues. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):931-936. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051519
    AMA Le Guyader FS, Loisy F, Atmar RL, et al. Norwalk Virus–specific Binding to Oyster Digestive Tissues. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):931-936. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051519.
    APA Le Guyader, F. S., Loisy, F., Atmar, R. L., Hutson, A. M., Estes, M. K., Ruvoën-Clouet, N....Le Pendu, J. (2006). Norwalk Virus–specific Binding to Oyster Digestive Tissues. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 931-936. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051519.
  • Human Parechovirus Infections in Canada PDF Version [PDF - 242 KB - 7 pages]
    Y. Abed and G. Boivin
    View Summary

    These infections are associated with a variety of clinical syndromes, in part related to specific serotype.

        View Abstract

    A new reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for identification of 28 Canadian human parechovirus (HPeV) isolates, including 20 HPeV-1, 3 HPeV-2, and 5 HPeV-3, recovered from 1985 to 2004. All HPeV-1 isolates but 1 were genetically distinct from the Harris reference strain. One HPeV-2 isolate was related to the Williamson strain; the other 2 were related to the Connecticut strain. HPeV-3 isolates clustered together. Seventy-five percent of isolates were recovered during the typical enterovirus season. All patients but 1 were children with a mean age of 14.6 months, 6.3 months, and 0.7 months for HPeV-1, HPeV-2, and HPeV-3 patients, respectively. All HPeV-2– and HPeV-3–infected children were hospitalized with a diagnosis of viremia or sepsis. HPeV-1–infected children had bronchiolitis diagnosed in 50% of the cases, with few cases of pneumonia and enteritis. Two infected patients (1 child with leukemia and a 78-year-old woman) died of septic shock and severe pneumonia, respectively.

        Cite This Article
    EID Abed Y, Boivin G. Human Parechovirus Infections in Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):969-975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051675
    AMA Abed Y, Boivin G. Human Parechovirus Infections in Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):969-975. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051675.
    APA Abed, Y., & Boivin, G. (2006). Human Parechovirus Infections in Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 969-975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051675.
  • Genetic Divergence of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Ocular Toxoplasmosis, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 212 KB - 8 pages]
    A. Khan et al.
    View Summary

    Brazilian strains of T. gondii differ from lineages in North America and Europe; these differences may underlie severe ocular disease.

        View Abstract

    Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and the frequent occurrence of ocular disease in Brazil. To identify the genotypes of parasite strains associated with ocular disease, we compared 25 clinical and animal isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazil to previously characterized clonal lineages from North America and Europe. Multilocus nested polymerase chain reaction analysis was combined with direct sequencing of a polymorphic intron to classify strains by phylogenetic methods. The genotypes of T. gondii strains isolated from Brazil were highly divergent when compared to the previously described clonal lineages. Several new predominant genotypes were identified from different regions of Brazil, including 2 small outbreaks attributable to foodborne or waterborne infection. These findings show that the genetic makeup of T. gondii is more complex than previously recognized and suggest that unique or divergent genotypes may contribute to different clinical outcomes of toxoplasmosis in different localities.

        Cite This Article
    EID Khan A, Jordan C, Muccioli C, Vallochi AL, Rizzo LV, Belfort R, et al. Genetic Divergence of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Ocular Toxoplasmosis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):942-949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060025
    AMA Khan A, Jordan C, Muccioli C, et al. Genetic Divergence of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Ocular Toxoplasmosis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):942-949. doi:10.3201/eid1206.060025.
    APA Khan, A., Jordan, C., Muccioli, C., Vallochi, A. L., Rizzo, L. V., Belfort, R....Sibley, L. (2006). Genetic Divergence of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Ocular Toxoplasmosis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 942-949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060025.
  • Coccidioidomycosis as a Common Cause of Community-acquired Pneumonia PDF Version [PDF - 68 KB - 5 pages]
    L. Valdivia et al.
        View Abstract

    The early manifestations of coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) are similar to those of other causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Without specific etiologic testing, the true frequency of valley fever may be underestimated by public health statistics. Therefore, we conducted a prospective observational study of adults with recent onset of a lower respiratory tract syndrome. Valley fever was serologically confirmed in 16 (29%) of 55 persons (95% confidence interval 16%–44%). Antimicrobial medications were used in 81% of persons with valley fever. Symptomatic differences at the time of enrollment had insufficient predictive value for valley fever to guide clinicians without specific laboratory tests. Thus, valley fever is a common cause of CAP after exposure in a disease-endemic region. If CAP develops in persons who travel or reside in Coccidioides-endemic regions, diagnostic evaluation should routinely include laboratory evaluation for this organism.

        Cite This Article
    EID Valdivia L, Nix D, Wright M, Lindberg E, Fagan T, Lieberman D, et al. Coccidioidomycosis as a Common Cause of Community-acquired Pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):958-962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060028
    AMA Valdivia L, Nix D, Wright M, et al. Coccidioidomycosis as a Common Cause of Community-acquired Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):958-962. doi:10.3201/eid1206.060028.
    APA Valdivia, L., Nix, D., Wright, M., Lindberg, E., Fagan, T., Lieberman, D....Galgiani, J. N. (2006). Coccidioidomycosis as a Common Cause of Community-acquired Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 958-962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060028.
  • Temple Monkeys and Health Implications of Commensalism, Kathmandu, Nepal PDF Version [PDF - 314 KB - 7 pages]
    L. Jones-Engel et al.
    View Summary

    Humans in contact with macaques risk exposure to enzootic primateborne viruses.

        View Abstract

    The threat of zoonotic transmission of infectious agents at monkey temples highlights the necessity of investigating the prevalence of enzootic infectious agents in these primate populations. Biological samples were collected from 39 rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, polymerase chain reaction, or combination of these tests for evidence of infection with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1), simian virus 40 (SV40), simian retrovirus (SRV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Antibody seroprevalence was 94.9% to RhCMV (37/39), 89.7% to SV40 (35/39), 64.1% to CHV-1 (25/39), and 97.4% to SFV (38/39). Humans who come into contact with macaques at Swoyambhu risk exposure to enzootic primateborne viruses. We discuss implications for public health and primate management strategies that would reduce contact between humans and primates.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jones-Engel L, Engel GA, Heidrich J, Chalise M, Poudel N, Viscidi R, et al. Temple Monkeys and Health Implications of Commensalism, Kathmandu, Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):900-906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060030
    AMA Jones-Engel L, Engel GA, Heidrich J, et al. Temple Monkeys and Health Implications of Commensalism, Kathmandu, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):900-906. doi:10.3201/eid1206.060030.
    APA Jones-Engel, L., Engel, G. A., Heidrich, J., Chalise, M., Poudel, N., Viscidi, R....Kyes, R. (2006). Temple Monkeys and Health Implications of Commensalism, Kathmandu, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 900-906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060030.
  • Human Rotavirus Serotype G9, São Paulo, Brazil, 1996–2003 PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 6 pages]
    R. Carmona et al.
    View Summary

    Diverse rotavirus strains are present, and frequency of G9 is high.

        View Abstract

    A total of 3,101 fecal specimens were collected during an 8-year survey for rotavirus infection in São Paulo, Brazil. Group A rotavirus was detected in 774 (25.0%) specimens. Of these, 431 strains (55.7%) were analyzed for G and P types by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction; G1 was the predominant serotype (68.2%), followed by G9 (17.2%), G4 (6.3%), G2 (1.2%), G3 (0.7%), mixed infection (1.8%), and untypeable (4.6%). Both rotavirus G and P types could be established in 332 strains (77.0%). We identified the 4 most common strains worldwide: P[8]G1 (66.6%), P[4]G2 (1.0%), P[8]G3 (0.6%), and P[8]G4 (7.2%). Among the single G9 strains detected, VP4 genotyping showed that P[8]G9 was the most prevalent, followed by P[4]G9 and P[6]G9. The emergence and high frequency of rotavirus G9 in São Paulo, Brazil, and other parts of the world will affect the development and evaluation of future vaccines.

        Cite This Article
    EID Carmona R, Timenetsky M, Morillo S, Richtzenhain L. Human Rotavirus Serotype G9, São Paulo, Brazil, 1996–2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):963-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060307
    AMA Carmona R, Timenetsky M, Morillo S, et al. Human Rotavirus Serotype G9, São Paulo, Brazil, 1996–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):963-968. doi:10.3201/eid1206.060307.
    APA Carmona, R., Timenetsky, M., Morillo, S., & Richtzenhain, L. (2006). Human Rotavirus Serotype G9, São Paulo, Brazil, 1996–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 963-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060307.

Historical Review

  • 2,500-year Evolution of the Term Epidemic PDF Version [PDF - 249 KB - 5 pages]
    P. Martin and E. Martin-Granel
    View Summary

    The meaning has been evolving since Hippocrates first used this word 25 centuries ago.

        View Abstract

    The term epidemic (from the Greek epi [on] plus demos [people]), first used by Homer, took its medical meaning when Hippocrates used it as the title of one of his famous treatises. At that time, epidemic was the name given to a collection of clinical syndromes, such as coughs or diarrheas, occurring and propagating in a given period at a given location. Over centuries, the form and meaning of the term have changed. Successive epidemics of plague in the Middle Ages contributed to the definition of an epidemic as the propagation of a single, well-defined disease. The meaning of the term continued to evolve in the 19th-century era of microbiology. Its most recent semantic evolution dates from the last quarter of the 20th century, and this evolution is likely to continue in the future.

        Cite This Article
    EID Martin P, Martin-Granel E. 2,500-year Evolution of the Term Epidemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):976-980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051263
    AMA Martin P, Martin-Granel E. 2,500-year Evolution of the Term Epidemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):976-980. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051263.
    APA Martin, P., & Martin-Granel, E. (2006). 2,500-year Evolution of the Term Epidemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 976-980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051263.

Dispatches

  • Pasture Types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan Communities PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 3 pages]
    Q. Wang et al.
        View Abstract

    Our study showed that open pastures had more small mammal burrows than fenced pastures in Tibetan pastoralist communities in 2003. This characteristic was linked to a higher prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and indicates that pasture type may affect E. multilocularis transmission.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wang Q, Vuitton DA, Xiao Y, Budke CM, Campos-Ponce M, Schantz PM, et al. Pasture Types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan Communities. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1008-1010. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.041229
    AMA Wang Q, Vuitton DA, Xiao Y, et al. Pasture Types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan Communities. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1008-1010. doi:10.3201/eid1206.041229.
    APA Wang, Q., Vuitton, D. A., Xiao, Y., Budke, C. M., Campos-Ponce, M., Schantz, P. M....Giraudoux, P. (2006). Pasture Types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan Communities. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1008-1010. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.041229.
  • Antiretroviral Drug Resistance and Routine Therapy, Cameroon PDF Version [PDF - 196 KB - 4 pages]
    C. Laurent et al.
        View Abstract

    Among 128 patients routinely receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic in Cameroon, 16.4% had drug resistance after a median of 10 months. Of these, 12.5% had resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 10.2% to non-NRTIs, and 2.3% to protease inhibitors.

        Cite This Article
    EID Laurent C, Kouanfack C, Vergne L, Tardy M, Zekeng L, Noumsi N, et al. Antiretroviral Drug Resistance and Routine Therapy, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1001-1004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.050860
    AMA Laurent C, Kouanfack C, Vergne L, et al. Antiretroviral Drug Resistance and Routine Therapy, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1001-1004. doi:10.3201/eid1206.050860.
    APA Laurent, C., Kouanfack, C., Vergne, L., Tardy, M., Zekeng, L., Noumsi, N....Delaporte, E. (2006). Antiretroviral Drug Resistance and Routine Therapy, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1001-1004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.050860.
  • Raccoons and Skunks as Sentinels for Enzootic Tularemia PDF Version [PDF - 88 KB - 3 pages]
    Z. L. Berrada et al.
        View Abstract

    We analyzed sera from diverse mammals of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, for evidence of Francisella tularensis exposure. Skunks and raccoons were frequently seroreactive, whereas white-footed mice, cottontail rabbits, deer, rats, and dogs were not. Tularemia surveillance may be facilitated by focusing on skunks and raccoons.

        Cite This Article
    EID Berrada ZL, Goethert HK, Telford SR. Raccoons and Skunks as Sentinels for Enzootic Tularemia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1019-1021. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.050879
    AMA Berrada ZL, Goethert HK, Telford SR. Raccoons and Skunks as Sentinels for Enzootic Tularemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1019-1021. doi:10.3201/eid1206.050879.
    APA Berrada, Z. L., Goethert, H. K., & Telford, S. R. (2006). Raccoons and Skunks as Sentinels for Enzootic Tularemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1019-1021. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.050879.
  • VIM-1 Metallo-β-lactamase in Acinetobacter baumannii PDF Version [PDF - 92 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Tsakris et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2004 and 2005, 5 metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-positive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were found in 2 Greek hospitals. Isolates were unrelated and carried blaVIM-1 in a class 1 integron; blaOXA-51- and blaOXA-58-like carbapenemase genes were also detected. VIM-1 MBL in Acinetobacter spp. causes concern, given the increasing resistance of this species.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tsakris A, Ikonomidis A, Pournaras S, Tzouvelekis LS, Sofianou D, Legakis NJ, et al. VIM-1 Metallo-β-lactamase in Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):981-983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051097
    AMA Tsakris A, Ikonomidis A, Pournaras S, et al. VIM-1 Metallo-β-lactamase in Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):981-983. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051097.
    APA Tsakris, A., Ikonomidis, A., Pournaras, S., Tzouvelekis, L. S., Sofianou, D., Legakis, N. J....Maniatis, A. N. (2006). VIM-1 Metallo-β-lactamase in Acinetobacter baumannii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 981-983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051097.
  • West Nile Virus Infection in Humans and Horses, Cuba PDF Version [PDF - 56 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Pupo et al.
        View Abstract

    A surveillance system to detect West Nile virus (WNV) was established in Cuba in 2002. WNV infection was confirmed by serologic assays in 4 asymptomatic horses and 3 humans with encephalitis in 2003 and 2004. These results are the first reported evidence of WNV activity in Cuba.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pupo M, Guzmán M, Fernández R, Llop A, Dickinson F, Pérez D, et al. West Nile Virus Infection in Humans and Horses, Cuba. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1022-1024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051235
    AMA Pupo M, Guzmán M, Fernández R, et al. West Nile Virus Infection in Humans and Horses, Cuba. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1022-1024. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051235.
    APA Pupo, M., Guzmán, M., Fernández, R., Llop, A., Dickinson, F., Pérez, D....Drebot, M. (2006). West Nile Virus Infection in Humans and Horses, Cuba. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1022-1024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051235.
  • Bordetella pertussis, Finland and France PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 3 pages]
    V. Caro et al.
        View Abstract

    We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and genotyping to compare clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis recovered since the early 1990s in Finland and France, 2 countries with similar histories of long-term mass vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccines. Isolates from both countries were similar genetically but varied temporally.

        Cite This Article
    EID Caro V, Elomaa A, Brun D, Mertsola J, He Q, Guiso N, et al. Bordetella pertussis, Finland and France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):987-989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051283
    AMA Caro V, Elomaa A, Brun D, et al. Bordetella pertussis, Finland and France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):987-989. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051283.
    APA Caro, V., Elomaa, A., Brun, D., Mertsola, J., He, Q., & Guiso, N. (2006). Bordetella pertussis, Finland and France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 987-989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051283.
  • Francisella tularensis in Rodents, China PDF Version [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
    F. Zhang et al.
        View Abstract

    A total of 420 rodents in China were examined for Francisella tularensis by polymerase chain reaction. The infection rates were 4.76% in total, and 11.65%, 10.00%, 6.56%, 1.77%, and 0% in Jilin, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Zhejiang, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that all the detected agents belonged to F. tularensis subsp. holarctica.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zhang F, Liu W, Chu MC, He J, Duan Q, Wu X, et al. Francisella tularensis in Rodents, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):994-996. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051324
    AMA Zhang F, Liu W, Chu MC, et al. Francisella tularensis in Rodents, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):994-996. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051324.
    APA Zhang, F., Liu, W., Chu, M. C., He, J., Duan, Q., Wu, X....Cao, W. (2006). Francisella tularensis in Rodents, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 994-996. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051324.
  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Greater Paris Area PDF Version [PDF - 262 KB - 4 pages]
    V. Sivadon-Tardy et al.
        View Abstract

    We studied 263 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome from 1996 to 2001, 40% of which were associated with a known causative agent, mainly Campylobacter jejuni (22%) or cytomegalovirus (15%). The cases with no known agent (60%) peaked in winter, and half were preceded by respiratory infection, influenzalike syndrome, or gastrointestinal illness.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sivadon-Tardy V, Orlikowski D, Rozenberg F, Caudie C, Sharshar T, Lebon P, et al. Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Greater Paris Area. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):990-993. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051369
    AMA Sivadon-Tardy V, Orlikowski D, Rozenberg F, et al. Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Greater Paris Area. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):990-993. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051369.
    APA Sivadon-Tardy, V., Orlikowski, D., Rozenberg, F., Caudie, C., Sharshar, T., Lebon, P....Gaillard, J. (2006). Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Greater Paris Area. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 990-993. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051369.
  • Cowpox Virus Transmission from Rats to Monkeys, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 161 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Martina et al.
        View Abstract

    We report an outbreak of cowpox virus among monkeys at a sanctuary for exotic animals. Serologic analysis and polymerase chain reaction were performed on blood and swab samples from different rodent species trapped at the sanctuary during the outbreak. Sequence comparison and serologic results showed that brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) transmitted the virus to monkeys.

        Cite This Article
    EID Martina B, van Doornum G, Dorrestein GM, Niesters H, Stittelaar KJ, Wolters M, et al. Cowpox Virus Transmission from Rats to Monkeys, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1005-1007. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051513
    AMA Martina B, van Doornum G, Dorrestein GM, et al. Cowpox Virus Transmission from Rats to Monkeys, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1005-1007. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051513.
    APA Martina, B., van Doornum, G., Dorrestein, G. M., Niesters, H., Stittelaar, K. J., Wolters, M....Osterhaus, A. (2006). Cowpox Virus Transmission from Rats to Monkeys, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1005-1007. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051513.
  • Hantaviruses in Serbia and Montenegro PDF Version [PDF - 155 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Papa et al.
        View Abstract

    Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkan Peninsula. An outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurred in 2002 in Serbia and Montenegro. The epidemiologic characteristics and genetic relatedness of Dobrava/Belgrade virus strains responsible for most cases are described.

        Cite This Article
    EID Papa A, Bojovič B, Antoniadis A. Hantaviruses in Serbia and Montenegro. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1015-1018. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051564
    AMA Papa A, Bojovič B, Antoniadis A. Hantaviruses in Serbia and Montenegro. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1015-1018. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051564.
    APA Papa, A., Bojovič, B., & Antoniadis, A. (2006). Hantaviruses in Serbia and Montenegro. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1015-1018. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051564.
  • Preventing Zoonotic Influenza Virus Infection PDF Version [PDF - 115 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Ramirez et al.
        View Abstract

    We evaluated 49 swine industry workers and 79 nonexposed controls for antibodies to swine influenza viruses. Multivariate modeling showed that workers who seldom used gloves (odds ratio [OR] 30.3) or who smoked (OR 18.7) most frequently had evidence of previous H1N1 swine virus. These findings may be valuable in planning for pandemic influenza.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ramirez A, Capuano AW, Wellman DA, Lesher KA, Setterquist SF, Gray GC, et al. Preventing Zoonotic Influenza Virus Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):997-1000. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051576
    AMA Ramirez A, Capuano AW, Wellman DA, et al. Preventing Zoonotic Influenza Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):997-1000. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051576.
    APA Ramirez, A., Capuano, A. W., Wellman, D. A., Lesher, K. A., Setterquist, S. F., & Gray, G. C. (2006). Preventing Zoonotic Influenza Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 997-1000. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051576.
  • Class 1 Integrons in Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., US Hospitals PDF Version [PDF - 246 KB - 4 pages]
    A. N. Rao et al.
        View Abstract

    We examined Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. from US hospitals for class 1 integrons. Of 320 isolates, 181 (57%) were positive; association of integrons with resistance varied by drug and organism. Thus, determining integron epidemiology will improve understanding of how antibacterial resistance determinants spread in the United States.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rao AN, Barlow M, Clark L, Boring JR, Tenover FC, McGowan JE, et al. Class 1 Integrons in Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., US Hospitals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1011-1014. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051596
    AMA Rao AN, Barlow M, Clark L, et al. Class 1 Integrons in Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., US Hospitals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1011-1014. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051596.
    APA Rao, A. N., Barlow, M., Clark, L., Boring, J. R., Tenover, F. C., & McGowan, J. E. (2006). Class 1 Integrons in Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., US Hospitals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1011-1014. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051596.
  • Mixed Cryptosporidium Infections and HIV PDF Version [PDF - 181 KB - 4 pages]
    V. Cama et al.
        View Abstract

    Mixed Cryptosporidium infections were detected in 7 of 21 patients with a diagnosis of rare Cryptosporidium canis or C. felis infections; 6 patients were infected with 2 Cryptosporidium spp. and 1 patient with 3 species. Mixed infections may occur more frequently than previously believed and should be considered when assessing cryptosporidiosis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cama V, Gilman RH, Vivar A, Ticona E, Ortega Y, Bern C, et al. Mixed Cryptosporidium Infections and HIV. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1025-1028. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060015
    AMA Cama V, Gilman RH, Vivar A, et al. Mixed Cryptosporidium Infections and HIV. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1025-1028. doi:10.3201/eid1206.060015.
    APA Cama, V., Gilman, R. H., Vivar, A., Ticona, E., Ortega, Y., Bern, C....Xiao, L. (2006). Mixed Cryptosporidium Infections and HIV. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1025-1028. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060015.
  • Acanthamoeba Encephalitis in Patient with Systemic Lupus, India PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
    C. G. Shirwadkar et al.
        View Abstract

    We report a fatal case of encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba in a 24-year-old woman from India with systemic lupus erythematosus. Diagnosis was made by identification of amebas in brain sections by immunofluorescence analysis and confirmed by demonstrating Acanthamoeba mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene DNA in brain tissue sections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Shirwadkar CG, Samant R, Sankhe M, Deshpande R, Yagi S, Schuster FL, et al. Acanthamoeba Encephalitis in Patient with Systemic Lupus, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):984-986. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060087
    AMA Shirwadkar CG, Samant R, Sankhe M, et al. Acanthamoeba Encephalitis in Patient with Systemic Lupus, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):984-986. doi:10.3201/eid1206.060087.
    APA Shirwadkar, C. G., Samant, R., Sankhe, M., Deshpande, R., Yagi, S., Schuster, F. L....Visvesvara, G. S. (2006). Acanthamoeba Encephalitis in Patient with Systemic Lupus, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 984-986. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060087.

Commentaries

  • Pets in Voluntary Household Quarantine PDF Version [PDF - 51 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Weese and S. A. Kruth
            Cite This Article
    EID Weese J, Kruth SA. Pets in Voluntary Household Quarantine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1029-1030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051548
    AMA Weese J, Kruth SA. Pets in Voluntary Household Quarantine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1029-1030. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051548.
    APA Weese, J., & Kruth, S. A. (2006). Pets in Voluntary Household Quarantine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1029-1030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051548.

Another Dimension

  • Weeds PDF Version [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
    R. O. Valdiserri
            Cite This Article
    EID Valdiserri RO. Weeds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1031-1032. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.AD1206
    AMA Valdiserri RO. Weeds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1031-1032. doi:10.3201/eid1206.AD1206.
    APA Valdiserri, R. O. (2006). Weeds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1031-1032. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.AD1206.

Letters

  • Linguatuliasis in Germany PDF Version [PDF - 108 KB - 3 pages]
    D. Tappe et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Tappe D, Winzer R, Büttner DW, Ströbel P, Stich A, Klinker H, et al. Linguatuliasis in Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1034-1036. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051413
    AMA Tappe D, Winzer R, Büttner DW, et al. Linguatuliasis in Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1034-1036. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051413.
    APA Tappe, D., Winzer, R., Büttner, D. W., Ströbel, P., Stich, A., Klinker, H....Frosch, M. (2006). Linguatuliasis in Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1034-1036. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051413.
  • Simple Respiratory Mask PDF Version [PDF - 48 KB - 2 pages]
    V. M. Dato et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Dato VM, Hostler D, Hahn ME. Simple Respiratory Mask. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1033-1034. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051468
    AMA Dato VM, Hostler D, Hahn ME. Simple Respiratory Mask. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1033-1034. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051468.
    APA Dato, V. M., Hostler, D., & Hahn, M. E. (2006). Simple Respiratory Mask. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1033-1034. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051468.
  • West Nile Virus in Horses, Guatemala PDF Version [PDF - 54 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Morales-Betoulle et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Morales-Betoulle M, Morales H, Blitvich BJ, Powers AM, Davis E, Klein R, et al. West Nile Virus in Horses, Guatemala. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1038-1039. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051615
    AMA Morales-Betoulle M, Morales H, Blitvich BJ, et al. West Nile Virus in Horses, Guatemala. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1038-1039. doi:10.3201/eid1206.051615.
    APA Morales-Betoulle, M., Morales, H., Blitvich, B. J., Powers, A. M., Davis, E., Klein, R....Cordón-Rosales, C. (2006). West Nile Virus in Horses, Guatemala. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1038-1039. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.051615.
  • Streptobacillus moniliformis Endocarditis PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
    N. Balakrishnan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Balakrishnan N, Menon T, Shanmugasundaram S, Alagesan R. Streptobacillus moniliformis Endocarditis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1037-1038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060069
    AMA Balakrishnan N, Menon T, Shanmugasundaram S, et al. Streptobacillus moniliformis Endocarditis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1037-1038. doi:10.3201/eid1206.060069.
    APA Balakrishnan, N., Menon, T., Shanmugasundaram, S., & Alagesan, R. (2006). Streptobacillus moniliformis Endocarditis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1037-1038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060069.
  • Epidemic Clostridium difficile Strain in Hospital Visitation Dog PDF Version [PDF - 27 KB - 2 pages]
    S. L. Lefebvre et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Lefebvre SL, Arroyo LG, Weese J. Epidemic Clostridium difficile Strain in Hospital Visitation Dog. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1036-1037. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060115
    AMA Lefebvre SL, Arroyo LG, Weese J. Epidemic Clostridium difficile Strain in Hospital Visitation Dog. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1036-1037. doi:10.3201/eid1206.060115.
    APA Lefebvre, S. L., Arroyo, L. G., & Weese, J. (2006). Epidemic Clostridium difficile Strain in Hospital Visitation Dog. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1036-1037. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060115.
  • Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Chicago Area PDF Version [PDF - 93 KB - 3 pages]
    D. A. Jobe et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Jobe DA, Lovrich SD, Nelson JA, Velat TC, Anchor C, Koeune T, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Chicago Area. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1039-1041. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060306
    AMA Jobe DA, Lovrich SD, Nelson JA, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Chicago Area. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1039-1041. doi:10.3201/eid1206.060306.
    APA Jobe, D. A., Lovrich, S. D., Nelson, J. A., Velat, T. C., Anchor, C., Koeune, T....Martin, S. (2006). Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Chicago Area. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1039-1041. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060306.
  • H5N1 Influenza A Virus and Infected Human Plasma PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Chutinimitkul et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Chutinimitkul S, Bhattarakosol P, Srisuratanon S, Eiamudomkan A, Kongsomboon K, Damrongwatanapokin S, et al. H5N1 Influenza A Virus and Infected Human Plasma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1041-1043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060227
    AMA Chutinimitkul S, Bhattarakosol P, Srisuratanon S, et al. H5N1 Influenza A Virus and Infected Human Plasma. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1041-1043. doi:10.3201/eid1206.060227.
    APA Chutinimitkul, S., Bhattarakosol, P., Srisuratanon, S., Eiamudomkan, A., Kongsomboon, K., Damrongwatanapokin, S....Poovorawan, Y. (2006). H5N1 Influenza A Virus and Infected Human Plasma. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1041-1043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060227.

Books and Media

  • Infectious Diseases: A Clinical Approach, 2nd Edition PDF Version [PDF - 42 KB - 1 page]
    D. L. Paterson
            Cite This Article
    EID Paterson DL. Infectious Diseases: A Clinical Approach, 2nd Edition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1044. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060296
    AMA Paterson DL. Infectious Diseases: A Clinical Approach, 2nd Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1044. doi:10.3201/eid1206.060296.
    APA Paterson, D. L. (2006). Infectious Diseases: A Clinical Approach, 2nd Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1044. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.060296.

About the Cover

  • "Il Faut Cultiver Notre Jardin" PDF Version [PDF - 86 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. "Il Faut Cultiver Notre Jardin". Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):1045-1046. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.AC1206
    AMA Potter P. "Il Faut Cultiver Notre Jardin". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1045-1046. doi:10.3201/eid1206.AC1206.
    APA Potter, P. (2006). "Il Faut Cultiver Notre Jardin". Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 1045-1046. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.AC1206.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: dengue PDF Version [PDF - 60 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Etymologia: dengue. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):893. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.ET1206
    AMA Etymologia: dengue. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):893. doi:10.3201/eid1206.ET1206.
    APA (2006). Etymologia: dengue. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(6), 893. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1206.ET1206.

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