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Volume 16, Number 6—June 2010
Volume 16, Number 6—June 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 4.05 MB - 151 pages]
Evolution of Northeastern and Midwestern Borrelia burgdorferi, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 299 KB - 7 pages]
D. Brisson et al.View Abstract
The per capita incidence of human Lyme disease in the northeastern United States is more than twice that in the Midwest. However, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in the tick vector is nearly identical in the 2 regions. The disparity in human Lyme disease incidence may result from a disparity in the human invasiveness of the bacteria in the Northeast and Midwest caused by fundamentally different evolutionary histories. B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest are geographically isolated, enabling evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness. However, we found that B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest shared a recent common ancestor, which suggests that substantial evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness has not occurred. We propose that differences in either animal ecology or human behavior are the root cause of the differences in human incidence between the 2 regions.
Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Viruses A (H1N1) during 2007–2009 Influenza Seasons, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 684 KB - 10 pages]
M. Ujike et al.View Abstract
To monitor oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1) (ORVs) with H275Y in neuraminidase (NA) in Japan during 2 influenza seasons, we analyzed 3,216 clinical samples by NA sequencing and/or NA inhibition assay. The total frequency of ORVs was 2.6% (45/1,734) during the 2007–08 season and 99.7% (1,477/1,482) during the 2008–09 season, indicating a marked increase in ORVs in Japan during 1 influenza season. The NA gene of ORVs in the 2007–08 season fell into 2 distinct lineages by D354G substitution, whereas that of ORVs in the 2008–09 season fell into 1 lineage. NA inhibition assay and M2 sequencing showed that almost all the ORVs were sensitive to zanamivir and amantadine. The hemagglutination inhibition test showed that ORVs were antigenetically similar to the 2008–09 vaccine strain A/Brisbane/59/2007. Our data indicate that the current vaccine or zanamivir and amantadine are effective against recent ORVs, but continuous surveillance remains necessary.
Increased Prevalence of Trichinella spp., Northeastern Germany, 2008
PDF Version [PDF - 213 KB - 7 pages]
G. Pannwitz et al.View Abstract
In 2008, a Trichinella spp. outbreak occurred on a small family-owned pig farm in Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania in northeastern Germany. To obtain epidemiologic information on this outbreak, we determined that after 2005 the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boars has increased in this region of Germany. We discuss the potential role of the raccoon dog in the increase in Trichinella spp. prevalence in the sylvatic cycle in this region. We believe that this increase could pose a threat to pigs kept in back yard conditions, and we provide recommendations to ensure public health safety.
New Measles Virus Genotype Associated with Outbreak, China
PDF Version [PDF - 145 KB - 5 pages]
L. Wang et al.View Abstract
To determine the origin of the virus associated with a measles outbreak in Menglian County, Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China, in 2009, we conducted genetic analyses. Phylogenetic analyses based on nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) gene sequences showed that these Menglian viruses were not closely related to sequences of any World Health Organization (WHO) reference strains representing the 23 currently recognized genotypes. The minimum nucleotide divergence between the Menglian viruses and the most closely related reference strain, genotype D7, was 3.3% for the N gene and 3.0% for the H gene. A search of the databases of GenBank, WHO, and the Health Protection Agency Measles Nucleotide Surveillance showed that the Menglian viruses, together with the 2 older non-Menglian viruses, could be members of a new proposed measles genotype, d11. The new genotype designation will allow for better description of measles transmission patterns, especially in the Southeast Asian and Western Pacific regions.
Clonal Expansion of Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 154 KB - 7 pages]
Y. Murase et al.View Abstract
The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) has raised public health concern about global control of TB. To estimate the transmission dynamics of MDR and XDR TB, we conducted a DNA fingerprinting analysis of 55 MDR/XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from TB patients throughout Japan in 2002. Twenty-one (38%) of the strains were classified into 9 clusters with geographic links, which suggests that community transmission of MDR/XDR TB is ongoing. Furthermore, the XDR M. tuberculosis strains were more likely than the non–XDR MDR strains to be clustered (71% vs. 24%; p = 0.003), suggesting that transmission plays a critical role in the new incidence of XDR TB. These findings highlight the difficulty of preventing community transmission of XDR TB by conventional TB control programs and indicate an urgent need for a more appropriate strategy to contain highly developed drug-resistant TB.
Increase in Pilus Islet 2–encoded Pili among Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 258 KB - 8 pages]
D. Zähner et al.View Abstract
To define the prevalence of pilus islet 2 (PI-2)–encoded pili in Streptococcus pneumoniae in a geographically defined area, we examined 590 S. pneumoniae isolates from population-based surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 1994–2006. In 2006, PI-2 was present in 21% of all invasive isolates, including serotypes 1 (100%), 7F (89%), 11A (21%), 19A (40%), and 19F (75%). Only serotype 19F is included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that is in use worldwide. In 1999, PI-2-containing isolates were of the same serotypes but accounted for only 3.6% of all invasive isolates. The increase of PI-2 in 2006 resulted predominantly from the emergence of serotype 19A isolates of sequence type 320 and the expansion of serotype 7F isolates. The increase in PI-2-containing isolates and the finding that isolates of all identified serotypes expressed highly conserved PI-2 pili supports their potential as a vaccine candidate.
Rift Valley Fever during Rainy Seasons, Madagascar, 2008 and 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 328 KB - 8 pages]
S. F. Andriamandimby et al.View Abstract
During 2 successive rainy seasons, January 2008 through May 2008 and November 2008 through March 2009, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) caused outbreaks in Madagascar. Human and animal infections were confirmed on the northern and southern coasts and in the central highlands. Analysis of partial sequences from RVFV strains showed that all were similar to the strains circulating in Kenya during 2006–2007. A national cross-sectional serologic survey among slaughterhouse workers at high risk showed that RVFV circulation during the 2008 outbreaks included all of the Malagasy regions and that the virus has circulated in at least 92 of Madagascar’s 111 districts. To better predict and respond to RVF outbreaks in Madagascar, further epidemiologic studies are needed, such as RVFV complete genome analysis, ruminant movement mapping, and surveillance implementation.
Astrovirus Encephalitis in Boy with X-linked Agammaglobulinemia
PDF Version [PDF - 396 KB - 8 pages]
P. Quan et al.View Abstract
Encephalitis is a major cause of death worldwide. Although >100 pathogens have been identified as causative agents, the pathogen is not determined for up to 75% of cases. This diagnostic failure impedes effective treatment and underscores the need for better tools and new approaches for detecting novel pathogens or determining new manifestations of known pathogens. Although astroviruses are commonly associated with gastroenteritis, they have not been associated with central nervous system disease. Using unbiased pyrosequencing, we detected an astrovirus as the causative agent for encephalitis in a 15-year-old boy with agammaglobulinemia; several laboratories had failed to identify the agent. Our findings expand the spectrum of causative agents associated with encephalitis and highlight unbiased molecular technology as a valuable tool for differential diagnosis of unexplained disease.
Medscape CME Activity
Invasive Aspergillosis after Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 3 pages]A. Lat et al.View Abstract
We report 2 patients with invasive aspergillosis after infection with pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Influenza viruses are known to cause immunologic defects and impair ciliary clearance. These defects, combined with high-dose corticosteroids prescribed during influenza-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome, may be novel risk factors predisposing otherwise immunocompetent patients to invasive aspergillosis.
Causes of Infection after Earthquake, China, 2008
PDF Version [PDF - 117 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Wang et al.View Abstract
To determine which organisms most commonly cause infection after natural disasters, we cultured specimens from injured earthquake survivors in Wenchuan, China, 2008. Of 123 cultures, 46 (59%) grew only 1 type of pathogenic bacteria. Smear was more effective than culture for early diagnosis of gas gangrene. Early diagnosis and treatment of wounds are crucial.
Vaccinia Virus Infection in Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon
PDF Version [PDF - 293 KB - 4 pages]
J. S. Abrahão et al.View Abstract
To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil.
Novel Norovirus in Dogs with Diarrhea
PDF Version [PDF - 184 KB - 3 pages]
J. R. Mesquita et al.View Abstract
To identify the prevalence and genetic variability of noroviruses in dogs, we tested fecal samples by using reverse transcription–PCR. We found canine norovirus in 40% and 9% of dogs with and without diarrhea, respectively. The virus was genetically unrelated to other noroviruses and constitutes a tentative new genogroup.
Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis for Salmonella Infection Surveillance, Texas, USA, 2007
PDF Version [PDF - 125 KB - 3 pages]
S. G. Long et al.View Abstract
To identify sources of transmission for area clusters, in 2007 the Houston Department of Health and Human Services conducted an 8-month study of enhanced surveillance of Salmonella infection. Protocol included patient interviews and linking the results of interviews to clusters of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns detected by the local PulseNet laboratory.
Novel Betaherpesvirus in Bats
PDF Version [PDF - 265 KB - 3 pages]
S. Watanabe et al.View Abstract
Because bats are associated with emerging zoonoses, identification and characterization of novel viruses from bats is needed. Using a modified rapid determination system for viral RNA/DNA sequences, we identified a novel bat betaherpesvirus 2 not detected by herpesvirus consensus PCR. This modified system is useful for detecting unknown viruses.
Dengue Virus 3 Genotype I in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes and Eggs, Brazil, 2005–2006
PDF Version [PDF - 298 KB - 4 pages]
A. P. Vilela et al.View Abstract
Dengue virus type 3 genotype I was detected in Brazil during epidemics in 2002–2004. To confirm this finding, we identified this virus genotype in naturally infected field-caught Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and eggs. Results showed usefulness of virus investigations in vectors as a component of active epidemiologic surveillance.
Pneumovirus in Dogs with Acute Respiratory Disease
PDF Version [PDF - 178 KB - 3 pages]
R. W. Renshaw et al.View Abstract
To determine which respiratory viruses circulate among confined dogs, we analyzed nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens from shelter dogs with acute respiratory disease. An unknown virus was isolated. Monoclonal antibody testing indicated that it was probably a pneumovirus. PCR and sequence analysis indicated that it was closely related to murine pneumovirus.
Rhinovirus C and Respiratory Exacerbations in Children with Cystic Fibrosis
PDF Version [PDF - 195 KB - 4 pages]
M. B. de Almeida et al.View Abstract
To investigate a possible role for human rhinovirus C in respiratory exacerbations of children with cystic fibrosis, we conducted microbiologic testing on respiratory specimens from 103 such patients in São Paulo, Brazil, during 2006–2007. A significant association was found between the presence of human rhinovirus C and respiratory exacerbations.
Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus–related Gammaretrovirus in Respiratory Tract
PDF Version [PDF - 151 KB - 3 pages]
N. Fischer et al.View Abstract
Xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related gammaretrovirus (XMRV) has been recently associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. To identify nucleic acid sequences, we examined respiratory secretions by using PCR. XMRV-specific sequences were detected in 2%–3% of samples from 168 immunocompetent carriers and ≈10% of samples from 161 immunocompromised patients.
Variations in Human Herpesvirus Type 8 Seroprevalence in Native Americans, South America
PDF Version [PDF - 217 KB - 4 pages]
V. A. Souza et al.View Abstract
To determine the epidemiology of human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) among non-Amazonian native populations, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraquay. Our data show striking ethnic and geographic variations in the distribution of HHV-8 seroprevalences in Amazonian (77%) and non-Amazonian native populations (range 0%–83%).
Genetic Evidence for a Tacaribe Serocomplex Virus, Mexico
PDF Version [PDF - 217 KB - 4 pages]
C. C. Inizan et al.View Abstract
We isolated arenavirus RNA from white-toothed woodrats (Neotoma leucodon) captured in a region of Mexico in which woodrats are food for humans. Analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data indicated that the woodrats were infected with a novel Tacaribe serocomplex virus, proposed name Real de Catorce virus.
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Shanghai, China
PDF Version [PDF - 199 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Shen and H. LuView Abstract
To understand the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection, we retrospectively reviewed medical records of 237 patients with laboratory-confirmed cases reported in Shanghai, China, during May–July 2009. Surveillance activities effectively contained the outbreak and provided useful epidemiologic data for future strategies.
Transfer of Carbapenem-Resistant Plasmid from Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 to Escherichia coli in Patient
PDF Version [PDF - 459 KB - 4 pages]
M. G. Goren et al.View Abstract
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) 3–producing Escherichia coli was isolated from a carrier of KPC-3–producing K. pneumoniae. The KPC-3 plasmid was identical in isolates of both species. The patient's gut flora contained a carbapenem-susceptible E. coli strain isogenic with the KPC-3–producing isolate, which suggests horizontal interspecies plasmid transfer.
Enterovirus Genotype EV-104 in Humans, Italy, 2008–2009
PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 4 pages]
A. Piralla et al.View Abstract
In an epidemiologic investigation of respiratory infections in Italy, October 2008–September 2009, we tested samples from patients for respiratory viruses. Human enterovirus genotype EV-104 (identified in Switzerland) was found in 3 immunocompromised and 2 immunocompetent patients. EV-104 is closely related to human rhinoviruses; thus, both types of viruses should be sought in respiratory syndromes.
Whence Feral Vaccinia?
PDF Version [PDF - 109 KB - 1 page]
R. C. Condit
The Wages of Original Antigenic Sin
PDF Version [PDF - 138 KB - 2 pages]
D. M. Morens et al.
Original Antigenic Sin and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 98 KB - 2 pages]
A. A. Adalja and D. Henderson
Swine Influenza A Vaccines, Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, and Cross-Reactivity
PDF Version [PDF - 75 KB - 2 pages]
R. Dürrwald et al.
Human Anaplasmosis and Anaplasma ovis Variant
PDF Version [PDF - 136 KB - 2 pages]
D. Chochlakis et al.
Diagnostic Difficulties with Plasmodium knowlesi Infection in Humans
PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 2 pages]
E. Sulistyaningsih et al.
Toscana Virus Infection Imported from Elba into Switzerland
PDF Version [PDF - 142 KB - 3 pages]
M. Gabriel et al.
Imported Mollusks and Dissemination of Human Enteric Viruses
PDF Version [PDF - 94 KB - 3 pages]
D. Polo et al.
Atypical Chikungunya Virus Infections in Immunocompromised Patients
PDF Version [PDF - 141 KB - 3 pages]
A. C. Kee et al.
Lassa Fever, Nigeria, 2005–2008
PDF Version [PDF - 103 KB - 2 pages]
D. U. Ehichioya et al.
Laboratory Diagnosis of Lassa Fever, Liberia
PDF Version [PDF - 122 KB - 3 pages]
M. Panning et al.
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Skunks, Canada
PDF Version [PDF - 95 KB - 3 pages]
A. P. Britton et al.
Community-acquired Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Child, Israel
PDF Version [PDF - 78 KB - 2 pages]
Z. Zonis et al.
Human Infection with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 78 KB - 2 pages]
L. L. Barton
Increasing Incidence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Taiwan, 2000–2008
PDF Version [PDF - 88 KB - 2 pages]
E. Hernández-Garduño and R. K. Elwood
Food Reservoir for Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infections
PDF Version [PDF - 99 KB - 2 pages]
M. Giufrè et al.
Books and Media
Human-Animal Medicine: Clinical Approaches to Zoonoses, Toxicants and Other Shared Health Risks
Who’s in Charge? Leadership during Epidemics, Bioterror Attacks, and Other Public Health Crises
PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 2 pages]
P. J. McConnon
About the Cover
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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- Page created: May 29, 2012
- Page last updated: May 29, 2012
- Page last reviewed: May 29, 2012
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