Get Email Updates
To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address:
Volume 16, Number 8—August 2010
Volume 16, Number 8—August 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 4.27 MB - 151 pages]
Hantavirus Infections in Humans and Animals, China
PDF Version [PDF - 465 KB - 9 pages]
Y. Zhang et al.View Abstract
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a serious public health problem in the People’s Republic of China. Although 7 sero/genotypes of hantaviruses have been found in rodents, only Hantaan virus (carried by Apodemus agrarius mice) and Seoul virus (carried by Rattus norvegicus rats) reportedly cause disease in humans. During 1950–2007, a total of 1,557,622 cases of HFRS in humans and 46,427 deaths (3%) were reported in China. HFRS has been reported in 29 of 31 provinces in China. After implementation of comprehensive preventive measures, including vaccination, in the past decade in China, incidence of HFRS has dramatically decreased; only 11,248 HFRS cases were reported in 2007. Mortality rates also declined from the highest level of 14.2% in 1969 to ≈1% during 1995–2007. However, the numbers of HFRS cases and deaths in China remain the highest in the world.
Medscape CME Activity
Clostridium difficile Bacteremia, Taiwan PDF Version [PDF - 148 KB - 7 pages]N. Lee et al.View Abstract
To determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with Clostridium difficile bacteremia (CDB), we identified 12 patients with CDB in 2 medical centers in Taiwan; all had underlying systemic diseases. Five had gastrointestinal diseases or conditions, including pseudomembranous colitis (2 patients); 4 recalled diarrhea, but only 5 had recent exposure to antimicrobial drugs. Ten available isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Five isolates had C. difficile toxin A or B. Of 5 patients who died, 3 died of CDB. Of 8 patients treated with metronidazole or vancomycin, only 1 died, and all 4 patients treated with other drugs died (12.5% vs. 100%; p = 0.01). C. difficile bacteremia, although uncommon, is thus associated with substaintial illness and death rates.
Responses to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Australia
PDF Version [PDF - 153 KB - 6 pages]
K. Eastwood et al.View Abstract
In 2007, adults in Australia were interviewed about their willingness to comply with potential health interventions during a hypothetical influenza outbreak. After the first wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Australia, many of the same respondents were interviewed about behavior and protection measures they actually adopted. Of the original 1,155 respondents, follow-up interviews were conducted for 830 (71.9%). Overall, 20.4% of respondents in 2009 had recently experienced influenza-like illness, 77.7% perceived pandemic (H1N1) 2009 to be mild, and 77.8% reported low anxiety. Only 14.5% could correctly answer 4 questions about influenza virus transmission, symptoms, and infection control. Some reported increasing handwashing (46.6%) and covering coughs and sneezes (27.8%) to reduce transmission. Compared with intentions reported in 2007, stated compliance with quarantine or isolation measures in 2009 remained high. However, only respondents who perceived pandemic (H1N1) 2009 as serious or who had attained higher educational levels expressed intention to comply with social distancing measures.
Bat Coronaviruses and Experimental Infection of Bats, the Philippines
PDF Version [PDF - 276 KB - 7 pages]
S. Watanabe et al.View Abstract
Fifty-two bats captured during July 2008 in the Philippines were tested by reverse transcription–PCR to detect bat coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The overall prevalence of virus RNA was 55.8%. We found 2 groups of sequences that belonged to group 1 (genus Alphacoronavirus) and group 2 (genus Betacoronavirus) CoVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene showed that groups 1 and 2 CoVs were similar to Bat-CoV/China/A515/2005 (95% nt sequence identity) and Bat-CoV/HKU9–1/China/2007 (83% identity), respectively. To propagate group 2 CoVs obtained from a lesser dog-faced fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis), we administered intestine samples orally to Leschenault rousette bats (Rousettus leschenaulti) maintained in our laboratory. After virus replication in the bats was confirmed, an additional passage of the virus was made in Leschenault rousette bats, and bat pathogenesis was investigated. Fruit bats infected with virus did not show clinical signs of infection.
Multiyear Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus in Waterfowl from Wintering Grounds, Texas Coast, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 190 KB - 7 pages]
P. J. Ferro et al.View SummaryView Abstract
This surveillance can help in assessments of the prevalence of wild animal-to-human transmission.
We studied the prevalence of influenza A virus in wintering waterfowl from the Central Flyway on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Of 5,363 hunter-harvested migratory and resident waterfowl and wetland-associated game birds sampled during 3 consecutive hunting seasons (September–January 2006–07, 2007–08, and 2008–09), real-time reverse transcription–PCR detected influenza A matrix sequences in 8.5% of samples, H5 in 0.7%, and H7 in 0.6%. Virus isolation yielded 134 influenza A viruses, including N1–N9, H1–H7, H10, and H11 subtypes. Low-pathogenicity H7 subtype was isolated during January, September, and November 2007 and January 2008; low-pathogenicity H5 subtype was isolated during November and December 2007.
Outbreak of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum Infection in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, France
F. Bittar et al.View Abstract
An increasing body of evidence indicates that nondiphtheria corynebacteria may be responsible for respiratory tract infections. We report an outbreak of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum infection in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). To identify 18 C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains isolated from 13 French children with CF, we used molecular methods (partial rpoB gene sequencing) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Clinical symptoms were exhibited by 10 children (76.9%), including cough, rhinitis, and lung exacerbations. The results of MALDI-TOF identification matched perfectly with those obtained from molecular identification. Retrospective analysis of sputum specimens by using specific real-time PCR showed that ≈20% of children with CF were colonized with these bacteria, whereas children who did not have CF had negative test results. Our study reemphasizes the conclusion that correctly identifying bacteria at the species level facilitates detection of an outbreak of new or emerging infections in humans.
White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe
PDF Version [PDF - 234 KB - 6 pages]
G. Wibbelt et al.View Abstract
White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.
West Nile Virus Range Expansion into British Columbia
PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 8 pages]
D. Roth et al.View Abstract
In 2009, an expansion of West Nile virus (WNV) into the Canadian province of British Columbia was detected. Two locally acquired cases of infection in humans and 3 cases of infection in horses were detected by ELISA and plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Ten positive mosquito pools were detected by reverse transcription PCR. Most WNV activity in British Columbia in 2009 occurred in the hot and dry southern Okanagan Valley. Virus establishment and amplification in this region was likely facilitated by above average nightly temperatures and a rapid accumulation of degree-days in late summer. Estimated exposure dates for humans and initial detection of WNV-positive mosquitoes occurred concurrently with a late summer increase in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes (which spread western equine encephalitis) in the southern Okanagan Valley. The conditions present during this range expansion suggest that temperature and Cx. tarsalis mosquito abundance may be limiting factors for WNV transmission in this portion of the Pacific Northwest.
Medscape CME Activity
Correlation of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Viral Load with Disease Severity and Prolonged Viral Shedding in Children PDF Version [PDF - 295 KB - 8 pages]C. Li et al.View Abstract
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus causes severe illness, including pneumonia, which leads to hospitalization and even death. To characterize the kinetic changes in viral load and identify factors of influence, we analyzed variables that could potentially influence the viral shedding time in a hospital-based cohort of 1,052 patients. Viral load was inversely correlated with number of days after the onset of fever and was maintained at a high level over the first 3 days. Patients with pneumonia had higher viral loads than those with bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infection. Median viral shedding time after the onset of symptoms was 9 days. Patients <13 years of age had a longer median viral shedding time than those >13 years of age (11 days vs. 7 days). These results suggest that younger children may require a longer isolation period and that patients with pneumonia may require treatment that is more aggressive than standard therapy for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.
Scavenging Ducks and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Java, Indonesia
PDF Version [PDF - 290 KB - 7 pages]
J. Henning et al.View Abstract
In Java, Indonesia, during March 2007–March 2008, 96 farms with scavenging ducks that were not vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were monitored bimonthly. Bird-level (prevalence among individual birds) H5 seroprevalence was 2.6% for ducks and 0.5% for chickens in contact with ducks. At least 1 seropositive bird was detected during 19.5% and 2.0% of duck- and chicken-flock visits, respectively. Duck flocks were 12.4× more likely than chicken flocks to have seropositive birds. During 21.4% of farm visits, ≥1 sampled duck was H5 seropositive when all sampled in-contact chickens were seronegative. Subtype H5 virus was detected during 2.5% of duck-flock visits and 1.5% of chicken-flock visits. When deaths from HPAI infection occurred, H5 virus shedding occurred in apparently healthy birds on 68.8% of farms. Of 180 poultry deaths investigated, 43.9% were attributed to H5 virus. These longitudinal study results indicate that ducks are a source of infection for chickens and, potentially, for humans.
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance for Severe Illness and Response, New York, New York, USA, April–July 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 177 KB - 6 pages]
S. Balter et al.View Abstract
On April 23, 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) was notified of a school outbreak of respiratory illness; 2 days later the infection was identified as pandemic (H1N1) 2009. This was the first major outbreak of the illness in the United States. To guide decisions on the public health response, the DOHMH used active hospital-based surveillance and then enhanced passive reporting to collect data on demographics, risk conditions, and clinical severity. This surveillance identified 996 hospitalized patients with confirmed or probable pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection from April 24 to July 7; fifty percent lived in high-poverty neighborhoods. Nearly half were <18 years of age. Surveillance data were critical in guiding the DOHMH response. The DOHMH experience during this outbreak illustrates the need for the capacity to rapidly expand and modify surveillance to adapt to changing conditions.
Pearl Kendrick, Grace Eldering, and the Pertussis Vaccine
PDF Version [PDF - 164 KB - 6 pages]
C. G. Shapiro-ShapinView Abstract
In light of the reemergence of pertussis (whooping cough), the pioneering research of Pearl Kendrick and Grace Eldering is worth revisiting. In the 1930s, working in the Michigan Department of Health laboratory in Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, they began researching a pertussis vaccine. Their research offers an instructive case study of the creative public health research performed in state health department laboratories during the interwar years. State department of health laboratory directors actively promoted research by supporting advanced education; making facilities and funding available for individual projects; and, when possible, procuring new facilities. Using Michigan Department of Health resources and local and federal funding, Kendrick and Eldering developed standardized diagnostic tools; modified and improved extant vaccines; conducted the first successful, large-scale, controlled clinical trial of pertussis vaccine; and participated in international efforts to standardize and disseminate the vaccine. Their model may again offer a promising avenue for groundbreaking research.
Duck Hunters’ Perceptions of Risk for Avian Influenza, Georgia, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 178 KB - 3 pages]
H. O. Dishman et al.View Abstract
To determine duck hunters’ risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007–2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.
Amblyomma imitator Ticks as Vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii, Mexico
K. A. Oliveira et al.View Abstract
Real-time PCR of Amblyomma imitator tick egg masses obtained in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico, identified a Rickettsia species. Sequence analyses of 17-kD common antigen and outer membrane protein A and B gene fragments showed to it to be R. rickettsii, which suggested a potential new vector for this bacterium.
Bat Rabies in Massachusetts, USA, 1985–2009
PDF Version [PDF - 274 KB - 4 pages]
X. Wang et al.View Abstract
To investigate rabies in Massachusetts, we analyzed bat rabies test results before and after introduction of raccoon variant rabies and after release of revised 1999 US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Bat submissions were associated with level of rabies awareness and specific postexposure recommendations.
Lyme Borreliosis, Po River Valley, Italy
PDF Version [PDF - 235 KB - 3 pages]
D. Pistone et al.View Abstract
We aimed to determine the presence of Ixodes ricinus ticks in heavily populated areas of the Po River Valley after report of a Lyme disease case. Eighteen percent of ticks examined from 3 locations were positive for Lyme disease borreliae. Lyme disease was diagnosed for 3 workers at risk for tick bite.
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance in Marginalized Populations, Tijuana, Mexico
PDF Version [PDF - 292 KB - 4 pages]
T. C. Rodwell et al.View Abstract
To detect early cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection, in 2009 we surveyed 303 persons from marginalized populations of drug users, sex workers, and homeless persons in Tijuana, Mexico. Six confirmed cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were detected, and the use of rapid, mobile influenza testing was demonstrated.
Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Pathogen, M. mungi
PDF Version [PDF - 279 KB - 4 pages]
K. A. Alexander et al.View Abstract
Seven outbreaks involving increasing numbers of banded mongoose troops and high death rates have been documented. We identified a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex pathogen, M. mungi sp. nov., as the causative agent among banded mongooses that live near humans in Chobe District, Botswana. Host spectrum and transmission dynamics remain unknown.
Quarantine Methods and Prevention of Secondary Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 193 KB - 3 pages]
C. Chu et al.View Abstract
During the 2009 influenza (H1N1) pandemic, some countries used quarantine for containment or mitigation. Of 152 quarantined university students we studied, risk for illness was higher for students quarantined in a room with a person with a confirmed case; we found no difference between students quarantined in double or single rooms.
Picornavirus Salivirus/Klassevirus in Children with Diarrhea, China
PDF Version [PDF - 373 KB - 3 pages]
T. Shan et al.View Abstract
To learn more about salivirus/klassevirus, we tested feces of children with diarrhea in China during 2008–2009. We isolated the virus from 9/216 diarrhea samples and 0/96 control samples. The nearly full polyprotein of 1 isolate, SH1, showed 95% identity with a salivirus from Nigeria, indicating widespread distribution and association with diarrhea.
Human Rickettsia heilongjiangensis Infection, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 160 KB - 3 pages]
I. Takajo et al.View Abstract
A case of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis infection in Japan was identified in a 35-year-old man who had rash, fever, and eschars. Serum contained R. heilongjiangensis antibodies, and eschars contained R. heilongjiangensis DNA. R. heilongjiangensis was also isolated from ticks in the suspected geographic area of infection.
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccination and Class Suspensions after Outbreaks, Taipei City, Taiwan
PDF Version [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
P. Hsueh et al.View Abstract
In Taipei City, class suspensions were implemented beginning September 1, 2009 when transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection was suspected. The uptake rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination (starting on November 16, 2009) among students 7–18 years of age was 74.7%. Outbreaks were mitigated after late November 2009.
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Down Syndrome Patients
PDF Version [PDF - 235 KB - 3 pages]
R. Pérez-Padilla et al.View Abstract
We compared prevalence of hospitalization, endotracheal intubation, and death among case-patients with and without Down syndrome during pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Mexico. Likelihoods of hospitalization, intubation, and death were 16-fold, 8-fold, and 335-fold greater, respectively, for patients with Down syndrome. Vaccination and early antiviral drug treatment are recommended during such epidemics.
Household Effects of School Closure during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Pennsylvania, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 158 KB - 3 pages]
T. L. Gift et al.View Abstract
To determine the effects of school closure, we surveyed 214 households after a 1-week elementary school closure because of pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Students spent 77% of the closure days at home, 69% of students visited at least 1 other location, and 79% of households reported that adults missed no days of work to watch children.
Imported Human Rabies, the Philippines and Finland, 2007
PDF Version [PDF - 117 KB - 2 pages]
R. Rimhanen-Finne et al.
Eye-Opening Approach to Norovirus Surveillance
PDF Version [PDF - 200 KB - 3 pages]
A. Hulth et al.
Possible Recurrent Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection, Israel
PDF Version [PDF - 130 KB - 2 pages]
E. Kopel et al.
Novel Chlamydia-like Organisms as Cause of Bovine Abortions, UK
PDF Version [PDF - 177 KB - 2 pages]
N. Wheelhouse et al.
West Nile Virus Knowledge among Hispanics, San Diego County, California, USA, 2006
PDF Version [PDF - 125 KB - 3 pages]
J. W. Bethel and S. H. Waterman
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Man, Republic of Georgia, 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
K. Zakhashvili et al.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in Horses
PDF Version [PDF - 121 KB - 2 pages]
P. Kriz et al.
Lethal Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by an ST398 Staphylococcus aureus Strain
PDF Version [PDF - 109 KB - 1 page]
J. Rasigade et al.
Not-So-Novel Michigan Rabbit Calicivirus
PDF Version [PDF - 162 KB - 2 pages]
J. Abrantes and P. J. Esteves
Leptospira Serovar as Prognostic Factor
PDF Version [PDF - 117 KB - 1 page]
M. Suzuki and K. Ariyoshi
Books and Media
About the Cover
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online OnlyOne Health Approach to Influenza: Assessment of Critical Issues and OptionsT. F. Powdrill et al.
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
Get Email Updates
To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address:
- Page created: September 23, 2011
- Page last updated: September 23, 2011
- Page last reviewed: September 23, 2011
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Office of the Director (OD)