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Ebola Spotlight

Ebola, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola virus strains. Ebola can cause disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).

Ebola is caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus. There are five identified Ebola virus species, four of which are known to cause disease in humans. Ebola viruses are found in several African countries. Ebola was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Before the current situation, outbreaks have appeared sporadically in Africa.

The natural reservoir host of Ebola virus remains unknown. However, on the basis of evidence and the nature of similar viruses, researchers believe that the virus is animal-borne and that bats are the most likely reservoir. Four of the five virus strains occur in an animal host native to Africa.

The Emerging Infectious Diseases journal has published many articles on Ebola. The journal published its first Ebola article in 1995, volume 1, issue number 3. Reemergence of Ebola Virus in Africa

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Articles

October 2016

Pandemic
J. B. Nuzzo (2016 Volume 22, Number 10)

Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015
F. Fitzgerald et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 10)

September 2016

Secondary Infections with Ebola Virus in Rural Communities, Liberia and Guinea, 2014–2015
K. A. Lindblade et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 9)

Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014
C. Nanclares et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 9)

Clinical Features of and Risk Factors for Fatal Ebola Virus Disease, Moyamba District, Sierra Leone, December 2014–February 2015
Y. Haaskjold et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 9)

August 2016

Use of Unamplified RNA/cDNA–Hybrid Nanopore Sequencing for Rapid Detection and Characterization of RNA Viruses
A. Kilianski et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 8)

Assessment of Community Event–Based Surveillance for Ebola Virus Disease, Sierra Leone, 2015
R. Ratnayake et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 8)

Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone
H. Bower et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 8)

July 2016

Effective Chemical Inactivation of Ebola Virus
E. Haddock et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 7)

Pregnancy, Labor, and Delivery after Ebola Virus Disease and Implications for Infection Control in Obstetric Services, United States
A. Kamali et al. (2016Volume 22, Number 7)

June 2016

Post-Ebola Measles Outbreak in Lola, Guinea, January–June 2015
J. E. Suk et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 6)

Perspectives on West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, 2013–2016
J. R. Spengler et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 6)

April 2016

Post-Ebola Syndrome, Sierra Leone
Janet T. Scott et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 4)

March 2016

Effects of Response to 2014–2015 Ebola Outbreak on Deaths from Malaria, HIV/AIDS, and Tuberculosis, West Africa 
A. S. Parpia et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 3)

February 2016

Ebola and Its Control in Liberia, 2014–2015 
T. G. Nyenswah et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea 
A. Rico et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

Hospital Preparations for Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Patients and Experience Gained from Admission of an Ebola Patient 
J. Haverkort et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

Feasibility of Xpert Ebola Assay in Médecins Sans Frontières Ebola Program Guinea 
R. Van den Bergh et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival 
S. J. Crowe et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo 
R. J. Fischer et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa’s Environmental Conditions 
F. Janvier et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease 
J. R. Chancellor et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak 
E. de Wit et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

Nanopore Sequencing as a Rapidly Deployable Ebola Outbreak Tool 
T. Hoenen et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

Initial Costs of Ebola Treatment Centers in the United States 
J. J. Herstein et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

Responding to Ebola through Visual Poetry 
B. Breedlove (2016 Volume 22, Number 2)

January 2016

Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease 
A. J. Kucharski et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 1)

Ebola Virus Disease Complicated by Late-Onset Encephalitis and Polyarthritis, Sierra Leone 
P. Howlett et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 1)

Anticipated Negative Responses by Students to Possible Ebola Virus Outbreak, Guangzhou, China 
J. Lau et al. (2016 Volume 22, Number 1)

November 2015

Ebola in West Africa—CDC’s Role in Epidemic Detection, Control, and Prevention
T. R. Frieden and I. K. Damon (2015 Volume 21, Number 11)

Ebola Virus Outbreak Investigation, Sierra Leone, September 28–November 11, 2014
H. Lu et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 11)

Contact Tracing Activities during the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Kindia and Faranah, Guinea, 2014
M. G. Dixon et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 11)

Workplace Safety Concerns among Co-workers of Responder Returning from Ebola-Affected Country
B. P. Chan et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 11)

Celebrating the Fabric of Commonplace Society
B. Breedlove and N. M. M’ikanatha (2015 Volume 21, Number 11)

Liberia—Moving Beyond “Ebola Free”
H. Keys et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 11)

Etymologia: Ebola
(2015 Volume 21, Number 11)

October 2015

Decreased Ebola Transmission after Rapid Response to Outbreaks in Remote Areas, Liberia, 2014
K. A. Lindblade et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 10)

Utility of Oral Swab Sampling for Ebola Virus Detection in Guinea Pig Model
J. R. Spengler et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 10)

Delayed Disease Progression in Cynomolgus Macaques Infected with Ebola Virus Makona Strain
A. Marzi et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 10)

August 2015

Estimates of Outbreak Risk from New Introductions of Ebola with Immediate and Delayed Transmission Control
D. Toth et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 8)

Transmission Models of Historical Ebola Outbreaks
J. M. Drake et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 8)

Human–Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa
P. Anti et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 8)

July 2015

Estimating Ebola Treatment Needs, United States
G. Rainisch et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 7)

Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease, Bong and Montserrado Counties, Liberia
T. Nyenswah et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 7)

Ebola Virus Stability on Surfaces and in Fluids in Simulated Outbreak Environments
R. Fischer et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 7)

Monitoring of Ebola Virus Makona Evolution through Establishment of Advanced Genomic Capability in Liberia  J. R. Kugelman et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 7)

Readability of Ebola Information on Websites of Public Health Agencies, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Europe
E. Castro-Sánchez et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 7)

June 2015

Lack of Protection Against Ebola Virus from Chloroquine in Mice and Hamsters
D. Falzarano et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 6)

Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014 
N. Rübsamen et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 6)

May 2015

Ebola and Psychological Stress of Health Care Professionals
M. Lehmann et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 5)

April 2015

Evolution of Ebola Virus Disease from Exotic Infection to Global Health Priority, Liberia, Mid-2014
M. Arwady et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 4)

March 2015

Regional Spread of Ebola Virus, West Africa, 2014
Rainisch G, et al. (2015 Volume 21, Number 3)

Treatment of Ebola Virus Infection with Antibodies from Reconvalescent Donors
Kreil TR. (2015 Volume 21, Number 3)

February 2015

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses
Marzi A, et al. (2015, Volume 21, Number 2)

2014

Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease
McElroy AK, et al. (2014, Volume 20, Number 10)

Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone
Schoepp RJ, et al. (2014, Volume 20, Number 7)

Lifting the Impenetrable Veil: From Yellow Fever to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and SARS
Calisher CH. (2014, Volume 20, Number 3)

2013

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh  
Olival KJ, et al. (2013, Volume 19, Number 2)

2012

Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011  
Shoemaker T, et al. (2012, Volume 18, Number 9)

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Ghana, West Africa  
Hayman DTS, et al. (2012, Volume 18, Number 7)

2011

Reston Ebolavirus Antibodies in Bats, the Philippines   
Taniguchi S, et al. (2011, Volume 17, Number 8)

2010

Proportion of Deaths and Clinical Features in Bundibugyo Ebola Virus Infection, Uganda 
MacNeil A, et al. (2010, Volume 16, Number 12)

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Associated with Novel Virus Strain, Uganda, 2007–2008  
Wamala JF, et al. (2010, Volume 16, Number 7)

2009

Immunoglobulin G in Ebola Outbreak Survivors, Gabon  
Wauquier N et al. (2009, Volume 15, Number 7)

2008

Managing Potential Laboratory Exposure to Ebola Virus by Using a Patient Biocontainment Care Unit  
Kortepeter MG, et al. (2008, Volume 14, Number 6)

2005

Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs and Human Risk  
Allela L, et al. (2005, Volume 11, Number 3)

Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001–2003  
Rouquet P, et al. (2005, Volume 11, Number 2)

Pygmy Populations Seronegative for Marburg Virus  
Borchert M, et al. (2005, Volume 11, Number 1)

2004

Infectious Diseases and Maternal Morbidity and Mortality  
Finnegan LP, et al. (2004, Volume 10, Number 11)

New and Emerging Zoonoses  
Pappaioanou M, et al. (2004, Volume 10, Number 11)

Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy
Rollin PE. (2004, Volume 10, Number 8)

Ecologic and Geographic Distribution of Filovirus Disease  
Peterson AT, et al. (2004, Volume 10, Number 1)

2003

Cultural Contexts of Ebola in Northern Uganda  
Hewlett BS and Amola RP. (2003, Volume 9, Number 10)

2002

Ebola-Poe: A Modern-Day Parallel of the Red Death?  
Vora SK and Ramanan SV. (2002, Volume 8, Number 12)

Evaluation in Nonhuman Primates of Vaccines against Ebola Virus  
Geisbert TW, et al. (2002, Volume 8, Number 5)

1999

Risk for Ebola Virus Infection in Côte d'Ivoire  
Kunii O, et al. (1999, Volume 5, Number 2)

1998

Unrecognized Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever at Mosango Hospital during the 1995 Epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Bonnet M-J, et al. (1998, Volume 4, Number 3)

Ebola/Athens Revisited  
Olson PE, et al. (1998, Volume 4, Number 1)

1997

Isolation and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ebola Viruses Causing Different Outbreaks in Gabon  
Georges-Courbot M-C, et al.(1997, Volume 3, Number 1)

Immunostaining of Ebola Virus Antigens  
Zaki SR. (1997, Volume 3, Number 1)

1996

Experimental Inoculation of Plants and Animals with Ebola Virus  
Swanepoel SR, et al. (1996, Volume 2, Number 4)

DNA Vaccines for Emerging Infectious Diseases: What If?  
Whalen RG. (1996, Volume 2, Number 3)

The Thucydides Syndrome: Ebola Déjà Vu? (or Ebola Reemergent?)  
Olson PE, et al. (1996, Volume 2, Number 2)

1995

Reemergence of Ebola Virus in Africa  
Sanchez A, et al. (1995, Volume 1, Number 3)

Podcasts

Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease  
(2014, Volume 20, Number 10)

Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011  
(2012, Volume 18, Number 9)

Additional Resources

World Health Organization

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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