Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Ebola

Ebola, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola virus strains. Ebola can cause disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).

Ebola is caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus. There are five identified Ebola virus species, four of which are known to cause disease in humans. Ebola viruses are found in several African countries. Ebola was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Before the current situation, outbreaks have appeared sporadically in Africa.

The natural reservoir host of Ebola virus remains unknown. However, on the basis of evidence and the nature of similar viruses, researchers believe that the virus is animal-borne and that bats are the most likely reservoir. Four of the five virus strains occur in an animal host native to Africa.

The Emerging Infectious Diseases journal has published many articles on Ebola. The journal published its first Ebola article in 1995, volume 1, issue number 3. Reemergence of Ebola Virus in Africa

2018

Survey of Ebola Viruses in Frugivorous and Insectivorous Bats in Guinea, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2015–2017
Helene M. De Nys et al. (Volume 24, Number 12) Travelers’ Actual and Subjective Knowledge about Risk for Ebola Virus Disease
Isabelle Régner et al. (Volume 24, Number 9) World Health Organization Methodology to Prioritize Emerging Infectious Diseases in Need of Research and Development
Massinissa Si Mehand et al. (Volume 24, Number 9) Case Series of Severe Neurologic Sequelae of Ebola Virus Disease during Epidemic, Sierra Leone
Patrick J. Howlett et al. (Volume 24, Number 8) Reemergence of Reston ebolavirus in Cynomolgus Monkeys, the Philippines, 2015
Catalino Demetria et al. (Volume 24, Number 7) Symptom-Based Ebola Risk Score for Ebola Virus Disease, Conakry, Guinea
Brecht Ingelbeen et al. (Volume 24, Number 6) Development of a Pediatric Ebola Predictive Score, Sierra Leone1
Felicity Fitzgerald et al. (Volume 24, Number 2) Risk Communication and Ebola-Specific Knowledge and Behavior during 2014–2015 Outbreak, Sierra Leone
Maike Winters et al. (Volume 24, Number 2) Emergence of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses during Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, Guinea, 2014–2015
Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia et al. (Volume 24, Number 1) Sensitivity and Specificity of Suspected Case Definition Used during West Africa Ebola Epidemic
Christopher H. Hsu et al. (Volume 24, Number 1) Serologic Evidence of Fruit Bat Exposure to Filoviruses, Singapore, 2011–2016
Eric D. Laing et al. (Volume 24, Number 1) Two-Center Evaluation of Disinfectant Efficacy against Ebola Virus in Clinical and Laboratory Matrices
Sophie J. Smither et al. (Volume 24, Number 1)

2017

CDC Safety Training Course for Ebola Virus Disease Healthcare Workers
Rupa Narra et al. (Volume 23, Number 13) Ebola Response Impact on Public Health Programs, West Africa, 2014–2017
Barbara J. Marston et al. (Volume 23, Number 13) Establishment of CDC Global Rapid Response Team to Ensure Global Health Security
Tasha Stehling-Ariza et al. (Volume 23, Number 13) Lessons Learned from Emergency Response Vaccination Efforts for Cholera, Typhoid, Yellow Fever, and Ebola
Jenny A. Walldorf et al. (Volume 23, Number 13) Surveillance Training for Ebola Preparedness in Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Mali
Victor M. Cáceres et al. (Volume 23, Number 13) Unseen Faces, Lingering Storylines
Byron Breedlove et al. (Volume 23, Number 13) US Federal Travel Restrictions for Persons with Higher-Risk Exposures to Communicable Diseases of Public Health Concern
Laura A. Vonnahme et al. (Volume 23, Number 13) Incentives for Bushmeat Consumption and Importation among West African Immigrants, Minnesota, USA
Emily Walz et al. (Volume 23, Number 12) Lack of Secondary Transmission of Ebola Virus from Healthcare Worker to 238 Contacts, United Kingdom, December 2014
Paul Crook et al. (Volume 23, Number 12) Ebola: Profile of a Killer Virus
Stephen S. Morse et al. (Volume 23, Number 11) Symptom- and Laboratory-Based Ebola Risk Scores to Differentiate Likely Ebola Infections
Shefali Oza et al. (Volume 23, Number 11) The Breadth of Viruses in Human Semen
Alex P. Salam et al. (Volume 23, Number 11) The Politics of Fear: Médecins Sans Frontières and the West African Ebola Epidemic
Keith Hamilton et al. (Volume 23, Number 11) Clinical Laboratory Values as Early Indicators of Ebola Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates
Ronald B. Reisler et al. (Volume 23, Number 8) Occupational Exposures to Ebola Virus in Ebola Treatment Center, Conakry, Guinea
Hélène Savini et al. (Volume 23, Number 8) Novel Retinal Lesion in Ebola Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2016
Paul J. Steptoe et al. (Volume 23, Number 7) Operational Research during the Ebola Emergency
Gabriel Fitzpatrick et al. (Volume 23, Number 7) Ebola Virus Imported from Guinea to Senegal, 2014
Daye Ka et al. (Volume 23, Number 6) Measles Cases during Ebola Outbreak, West Africa, 2013–2106
Francesca Colavita et al. (Volume 23, Number 6) Sustainability of High-Level Isolation Capabilities among US Ebola Treatment Centers
Jocelyn J. Herstein et al. (Volume 23, Number 6) Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola
Lawrence J. Purpura et al. (Volume 23, Number 4) Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias
Frauke Rudolf et al. (Volume 23, Number 4) Spatiotemporal Fluctuations and Triggers of Ebola Virus Spillover
John Paul Schmidt et al. (Volume 23, Number 3) Media Messages and Perception of Risk for Ebola Virus Infection, United States
Tara Kirk Sell et al. (Volume 23, Number 1) Sequelae and Other Conditions in Ebola Virus Disease Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2015
Hamish Mohammed et al. (Volume 23, Number 1)

2016

Electrolyte and Metabolic Disturbances in Ebola Patients during a Clinical Trial, Guinea, 2015
Johan van Griensven et al. (Volume 22, Number 12) Enhancement of Ebola Preparedness across Africa
Chloe E. Morozoff et al. (Volume 22, Number 12) Unusual Ebola Virus Chain of Transmission, Conakry, Guinea, 2014–2015
Mory Keita et al. (Volume 22, Number 12) Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015
Felicity Fitzgerald et al. (Volume 22, Number 10) Pandemic
Jennifer B. Nuzzo et al. (Volume 22, Number 10) Clinical Features of and Risk Factors for Fatal Ebola Virus Disease, Moyamba District, Sierra Leone, December 2014–February 2015
Yngvar Lunde Haaskjold et al. (Volume 22, Number 9) Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014
Carolina Nanclares et al. (Volume 22, Number 9) Secondary Infections with Ebola Virus in Rural Communities, Liberia and Guinea, 2014–2015
Kim A. Lindblade et al. (Volume 22, Number 9) Assessment of Community Event–Based Surveillance for Ebola Virus Disease, Sierra Leone, 2015
Ruwan Ratnayake et al. (Volume 22, Number 8) Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone
Hilary Bower et al. (Volume 22, Number 8) Use of Unamplified RNA/cDNA–Hybrid Nanopore Sequencing for Rapid Detection and Characterization of RNA Viruses
Andy Kilianski et al. (Volume 22, Number 8) Effective Chemical Inactivation of Ebola Virus
Elaine Haddock et al. (Volume 22, Number 7) Podcast Pregnancy, Labor, and Delivery after Ebola Virus Disease and Implications for Infection Control in Obstetric Services, United States
Amanda Kamali et al. (Volume 22, Number 7) Listen to the podcast Perspectives on West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, 2013–2016
Jessica R. Spengler et al. (Volume 22, Number 6) Post-Ebola Measles Outbreak in Lola, Guinea, January–June 20151
Jonathan E. Suk et al. (Volume 22, Number 6) Health Precautions Taken by Travelers to Countries with Ebola Virus Disease
Ifeoma Ezeoke et al. (Volume 22, Number 5) Ebola Virus in Breast Milk in an Ebola Virus–Positive Mother with Twin Babies, Guinea, 2015
Helena Nordenstedt et al. (Volume 22, Number 4) Follow-up of Ebola Patient, 2014–2015
Venkatesh Srinivas et al. (Volume 22, Number 4) Post-Ebola Syndrome, Sierra Leone
Janet T. Scott et al. (Volume 22, Number 4) Effects of Response to 2014–2015 Ebola Outbreak on Deaths from Malaria, HIV/AIDS, and Tuberculosis, West Africa
Alyssa S. Parpia et al. (Volume 22, Number 3) Ebola and Its Control in Liberia, 2014–2015
Tolbert G. Nyenswah et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo
Robert J. Fischer et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa’s Environmental Conditions
Frédéric Janvier et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014–2015
Adriana Rico et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Feasibility of Xpert Ebola Assay in Médecins Sans Frontières Ebola Program, Guinea
Rafael Van den Bergh et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Hospital Preparations for Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Patients and Experience Gained from Admission of an Ebola Patient
J.J. Mark Haverkort et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Initial Costs of Ebola Treatment Centers in the United States
Jocelyn J. Herstein et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Nanopore Sequencing as a Rapidly Deployable Ebola Outbreak Tool
Thomas Hoenen et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival
Samuel J. Crowe et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Responding to Ebola through Visual Poetry
Byron Breedlove et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak
Emmie de Wit et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease
John R. Chancellor et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Vectorborne Infections, Mali
David Safronetz et al. (Volume 22, Number 2) Anticipated Negative Responses by Students to Possible Ebola Virus Outbreak, Guangzhou, China
Joseph T.F. Lau et al. (Volume 22, Number 1) Ebola Virus Disease Complicated by Late-Onset Encephalitis and Polyarthritis, Sierra Leone
Patrick Howlett et al. (Volume 22, Number 1) Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease
Adam J. Kucharski et al. (Volume 22, Number 1)

2015

Surveillance for Ebola Virus in Wildlife, Thailand
Supaporn Wacharapluesadee et al. (Volume 21, Number 12) Use of Capture–Recapture to Estimate Underreporting of Ebola Virus Disease, Montserrado County, Liberia
Etienne Gignoux et al. (Volume 21, Number 12) Celebrating the Fabric of Commonplace Society
Byron Breedlove et al. (Volume 21, Number 11) Contact Tracing Activities during the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Kindia and Faranah, Guinea, 2014
Meredith G. Dixon et al. (Volume 21, Number 11) Ebola in West Africa—CDC’s Role in Epidemic Detection, Control, and Prevention
Thomas R. Frieden et al. (Volume 21, Number 11) Ebola Virus Outbreak Investigation, Sierra Leone, September 28–November 11, 2014
Hui-Jun Lu et al. (Volume 21, Number 11) Etymologia: Ebola
(Volume 21, Number 11) Liberia—Moving Beyond “Ebola Free”
Hunter Keys et al. (Volume 21, Number 11) Workplace Safety Concerns among Co-workers of Responder Returning from Ebola-Affected Country
Benjamin P. Chan et al. (Volume 21, Number 11) Decreased Ebola Transmission after Rapid Response to Outbreaks in Remote Areas, Liberia, 2014
Kim A. Lindblade et al. (Volume 21, Number 10) Delayed Disease Progression in Cynomolgus Macaques Infected with Ebola Virus Makona Strain
Andrea Marzi et al. (Volume 21, Number 10) Utility of Oral Swab Sampling for Ebola Virus Detection in Guinea Pig Model
Jessica R. Spengler et al. (Volume 21, Number 10) Estimates of Outbreak Risk from New Introductions of Ebola with Immediate and Delayed Transmission Control
Damon J.A. Toth et al. (Volume 21, Number 8) Human–Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa
Priscilla Anti et al. (Volume 21, Number 8) Transmission Models of Historical Ebola Outbreaks
John M. Drake et al. (Volume 21, Number 8) Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease, Bong and Montserrado Counties, Liberia
Tolbert G. Nyenswah et al. (Volume 21, Number 7) Ebola Virus Stability on Surfaces and in Fluids in Simulated Outbreak Environments
Robert J. Fischer et al. (Volume 21, Number 7) Estimating Ebola Treatment Needs, United States
Gabriel Rainisch et al. (Volume 21, Number 7) Monitoring of Ebola Virus Makona Evolution through Establishment of Advanced Genomic Capability in Liberia
Jeffrey R. Kugelman et al. (Volume 21, Number 7) Readability of Ebola Information on Websites of Public Health Agencies, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Europe
Enrique Castro-Sánchez et al. (Volume 21, Number 7) Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014
Nicole Rübsamen et al. (Volume 21, Number 6) Lack of Protection Against Ebola Virus from Chloroquine in Mice and Hamsters
Darryl Falzarano et al. (Volume 21, Number 6) Ebola and Psychological Stress of Health Care Professionals
Marco Lehmann et al. (Volume 21, Number 5) Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus
Joseph B. Prescott et al. (Volume 21, Number 5) Using Lessons Learned from Previous Ebola Outbreaks to Inform Current Risk Management
Petra Dickmann et al. (Volume 21, Number 5) Evolution of Ebola Virus Disease from Exotic Infection to Global Health Priority, Liberia, Mid-2014
M. Allison Arwady et al. (Volume 21, Number 4) Safety of Recombinant VSV–Ebola Virus Vaccine Vector in Pigs
Emmie de Wit et al. (Volume 21, Number 4) Evaluation of the Benefits and Risks of Introducing Ebola Community Care Centers, Sierra Leone
Adam J. Kucharski et al. (Volume 21, Number 3) Lack of Effect of Lamivudine on Ebola Virus Replication
Lisa Hensley et al. (Volume 21, Number 3) Regional Spread of Ebola Virus, West Africa, 2014
Gabriel Rainisch et al. (Volume 21, Number 3) Treatment of Ebola Virus Infection with Antibodies from Reconvalescent Donors
Thomas R. Kreil et al. (Volume 21, Number 3) Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses
Andrea Marzi et al. (Volume 21, Number 2) Delicacy and Durability: The Microbiological Sublime
Byron Breedlove et al. (Volume 21, Number 1)

2014

Podcast Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease
Anita K. McElroy et al. (Volume 20, Number 10) Listen to the podcast Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone
Randal J. Schoepp et al. (Volume 20, Number 7) Lifting the Impenetrable Veil: From Yellow Fever to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and SARS
Sharon Bloom et al. (Volume 20, Number 3)

2013

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh
Kevin J. Olival et al. (Volume 19, Number 2)

2012

Podcast Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011
Trevor Shoemaker et al. (Volume 18, Number 9) Listen to the podcast Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Ghana, West Africa
David T.S. Hayman et al. (Volume 18, Number 7)

2011

Reston Ebolavirus Antibodies in Bats, the Philippines
Satoshi Taniguchi et al. (Volume 17, Number 8)

2010

Proportion of Deaths and Clinical Features in Bundibugyo Ebola Virus Infection, Uganda
Adam MacNeil et al. (Volume 16, Number 12) Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Associated with Novel Virus Strain, Uganda, 2007–2008
Joseph F. Wamala et al. (Volume 16, Number 7)

2009

Filoviruses: A Compendium of 40 Years of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Studies
Pierre E. Rollin et al. (Volume 15, Number 12) Immunoglobulin G in Ebola Outbreak Survivors, Gabon
Nadia Wauquier et al. (Volume 15, Number 7)

2008

Managing Potential Laboratory Exposure to Ebola Virus by Using a Patient Biocontainment Care Unit1
Mark G. Kortepeter et al. (Volume 14, Number 6)

2007

Immune Cell Apoptosis Prevention as Potential Therapy for Severe Infections
Janie Parrino et al. (Volume 13, Number 2)

2005

Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs and Human Risk
Loïs Allela et al. (Volume 11, Number 3) Optics and Biologic Connectedness
Polyxeni Potter et al. (Volume 11, Number 3) Hazards of Travel—Who Will Free the Contemporary Traveler?
Polyxeni Potter et al. (Volume 11, Number 2) Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001–2003
Pierre Rouquet et al. (Volume 11, Number 2) Pygmy Populations Seronegative for Marburg Virus
Matthias Borchert et al. (Volume 11, Number 1)

2004

Infectious Diseases and Maternal Morbidity and Mortality1
Loretta P. Finnegan et al. (Volume 10, Number 11) New and Emerging Zoonoses1
Marguerite Pappaioanou et al. (Volume 10, Number 11) Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy
Pierre E. Rollin et al. (Volume 10, Number 8) Ecologic and Geographic Distribution of Filovirus Disease
A. Townsend Peterson et al. (Volume 10, Number 1)

2003

Cultural Contexts of Ebola in Northern Uganda
Barry S. Hewlett et al. (Volume 9, Number 10)

2002

Ebola-Poe: A Modern-Day Parallel of the Red Death?
Setu K. Vora et al. (Volume 8, Number 12) Evaluation in Nonhuman Primates of Vaccines against Ebola Virus
Thomas W. Geisbert et al. (Volume 8, Number 5)

1999

Risk for Ebola Virus Infection in Côte d'Ivoire
Osamu Kunii et al. (Volume 5, Number 2)

1998

Unrecognized Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever at Mosango Hospital during the 1995 Epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Marie-Jo Bonnet et al. (Volume 4, Number 3) Ebola/Athens Revisited
P.E. Olson et al. (Volume 4, Number 1)

1997

Immunostaining of Ebola Virus Antigens
(Volume 3, Number 1) Isolation and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ebola Viruses Causing Different Outbreaks in Gabon
Marie-Claude Georges-Courbot et al. (Volume 3, Number 1)

1996

Experimental Inoculation of Plants and Animals with Ebola Virus
Robert Swanepoel et al. (Volume 2, Number 4) DNA Vaccines for Emerging Infectious Diseases: What If?
Robert G. Whalen et al. (Volume 2, Number 3) The Thucydides Syndrome: Ebola Déjà Vu? (or Ebola Reemergent?)
P. E. Olson et al. (Volume 2, Number 2)

1995

Reemergence of Ebola Virus in Africa
Anthony Sanchez et al. (Volume 1, Number 3)

Other Resources

World Health Organization

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

TOP