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Rabies

Rabies is a deadly virus that is most often spread by the bite of a rabid animal. Each year around the world, rabies results in more than 59,000 deaths – approximately one death every 9 minutes. Most deaths are reported from Africa and Asia with almost 50% of the victims being children under the age of 15. Safe and effective vaccines are available to reduce the impact of human and animal rabies and help prevent the disease in animals. Every year, an estimated 40,000 people in the United States receive a series of shots known as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) due to potential exposure to rabies. In addition, the US public health cost associated with rabies is more than $300 million a year. Dog vaccination is one important strategy to prevent rabies in dogs in the U.S. and abroad.

2019

A Fanciful Juxtaposition, a Reimagined Farm
Byron Breedlove et al. (Volume 25, Number 12) Rabies Acquired through Mucosal Exposure, China, 2013
Hong Zhao et al. (Volume 25, Number 5)

2018

Podcast Commemorating Misadventures, Celebrating Collaborations
Byron Breedlove et al. (Volume 24, Number 2) presentation_01Listen to the podcast Investigation of Canine-Mediated Human Rabies Death, Haiti, 2015
Cuc H. Tran et al. (Volume 24, Number 1)

2017

Rabies and Distemper Outbreaks in Smallest Ethiopian Wolf Population
Jorgelina Marino et al. (Volume 23, Number 12) Tool for Eliminating Dog-Mediated Human Rabies through Mass Dog Vaccination Campaigns
Eduardo A. Undurraga et al. (Volume 23, Number 12) Etymologia: Negri Bodies
Ronnie Henry et al. (Volume 23, Number 9) Podcast Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US–Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography
Hannah Trewby et al. (Volume 23, Number 9) presentation_01Listen to the podcast Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015–2016
Shuilian Chen et al. (Volume 23, Number 9)

2016

Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Death, Haiti, 2016
Ryan M. Wallace et al. (Volume 22, Number 11) Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka
Panduka S. Gunawardena et al. (Volume 22, Number 8) Podcast Probable Rabies Virus Transmission through Organ Transplantation, China, 2015
Hang Zhou et al. (Volume 22, Number 8) presentation_01Listen to the podcast Travel-Associated Rabies in Pets and Residual Rabies Risk, Western Europe
Florence Ribadeau-Dumas et al. (Volume 22, Number 7) Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006–2013
Abdallah Traoré et al. (Volume 22, Number 5) Suspected Rabies in Humans and Animals, Laikipia County, Kenya
Mark Obonyo et al. (Volume 22, Number 3)

2015

Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis for Travelers Injured by Nonhuman Primates, Marseille, France, 2001–2014
Agathe Blaise et al. (Volume 21, Number 8) Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves
Christopher H. Gordon et al. (Volume 21, Number 5) Animal-Associated Exposure to Rabies Virus among Travelers, 1997–2012
Philippe Gautret et al. (Volume 21, Number 4)

2014

Podcast Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013
Sridhar V. Basavaraju et al. (Volume 20, Number 9) presentation_01Listen to the podcast Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China
Hai-Lin Zhang et al. (Volume 20, Number 9) Molecular Characterization of Cryptically Circulating Rabies Virus from Ferret Badgers, Taiwan
Hue-Ying Chiou et al. (Volume 20, Number 5) Regional Variation in Travel-related Illness acquired in Africa, March 1997–May 2011
Marc Mendelson et al. (Volume 20, Number 4) Podcast Low-Incidence, High-Consequence Pathogens
Ermias D. Belay et al. (Volume 20, Number 2) presentation_01Listen to the podcast Rabies in Henan Province, China, 2010–2012
Guo-Wei Li et al. (Volume 20, Number 2) Recurrence of Animal Rabies, Greece, 2012
Konstantia E. Tasioudi et al. (Volume 20, Number 2) Bat Lyssaviruses, Northern Vietnam
Anh Thi Kieu Nguyen et al. (Volume 20, Number 1) Tour Leaders’ Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Rabies Vaccination, Taiwan
Chiao-Yu Huang et al. (Volume 20, Number 1)

2013

Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States
Terry Fei Fan Ng et al. (Volume 19, Number 12) Enzootic and Epizootic Rabies Associated with Vampire Bats, Peru
Rene Edgar Condori-Condori et al. (Volume 19, Number 9) Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain
Nidia Aréchiga Ceballos et al. (Volume 19, Number 5) Podcast Zombies—A Pop Culture Resource for Public Health Awareness
Melissa Nasiruddin et al. (Volume 19, Number 5) presentation_01Listen to the podcast Discrepancies in Data Reporting for Rabies, Africa
Louis H. Nel et al. (Volume 19, Number 4) Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011
Luke E. Mease et al. (Volume 19, Number 4) Rabies Update for Latin America and the Caribbean
Marco A.N. Vigilato et al. (Volume 19, Number 4) Response to a Rabies Epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008–2011
Anak Agung Gde Putra et al. (Volume 19, Number 4) Serosurvey of Dogs for Human, Livestock, and Wildlife Pathogens, Uganda
Javier Millán et al. (Volume 19, Number 4)

2012

Arctic-like Rabies Virus, Bangladesh
Khondoker Mahbuba Jamil et al. (Volume 18, Number 12) Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011
Luke E. Mease et al. (Volume 18, Number 10) Inadequate Antibody Response to Rabies Vaccine in Immunocompromised Patient
Eran Kopel et al. (Volume 18, Number 9) Etymologia: Rabies
(Volume 18, Number 7) Exposure of US Travelers to Rabid Zebra, Kenya, 2011
Emily W. Lankau et al. (Volume 18, Number 7) Trap-Vaccinate-Release Program to Control Raccoon Rabies, New York, USA
Sally Slavinski et al. (Volume 18, Number 7) Community Survey after Rabies Outbreaks, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
Andrea M. McCollum et al. (Volume 18, Number 6) Ikoma Lyssavirus, Highly Divergent Novel Lyssavirus in an African Civet1
Denise A. Marston et al. (Volume 18, Number 4) Podcast Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010
Brett W. Petersen et al. (Volume 18, Number 1) presentation_01Listen to the podcast

2011

Bat Rabies and Human Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, USA
Millicent Eidson et al. (Volume 17, Number 12) Novel Sylvatic Rabies Virus Variant in Endangered Golden Palm Civet, Sri Lanka
Takashi Matsumoto et al. (Volume 17, Number 12) Risk for Rabies Importation from North Africa
Philippe Gautret et al. (Volume 17, Number 12) Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany
Conrad M. Freuling et al. (Volume 17, Number 8) Effect of Media Warnings on Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, France
Philippe Gautret et al. (Volume 17, Number 6) Rabies Immunization Status of Dogs, Beijing, China
Chao Wang et al. (Volume 17, Number 6) Imported Rabies, European Union and Switzerland, 2001–2010
Nicholas Johnson et al. (Volume 17, Number 4) Phylogeny of European Bat Lyssavirus 1 in Eptesicus isabellinus Bats, Spain
Sonia Vázquez-Morón et al. (Volume 17, Number 3)

2010

Rabies Virus RNA in Naturally Infected Vampire Bats, Northeastern Brazil
Aroldo J.B. Carneiro et al. (Volume 16, Number 12) Reemergence of Rabies in Chhukha District, Bhutan, 2008
Basant Sharma et al. (Volume 16, Number 12) Bat Rabies in Massachusetts, USA, 1985–2009
Xingtai Wang et al. (Volume 16, Number 8) Imported Human Rabies, the Philippines and Finland, 2007
Ruska Rimhanen-Finne et al. (Volume 16, Number 8) Podcast Terrestrial Rabies and Human Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, USA
Millicent Eidson et al. (Volume 16, Number 3) presentation_01Listen to the podcast Aggression and Rabid Coyotes, Massachusetts, USA
Xingtai Wang et al. (Volume 16, Number 2)

2009

Rabies in Foxes, Aegean Region, Turkey
Ad Vos et al. (Volume 15, Number 10) For the world does not yet censure Those who tread the paths of dreams
Polyxeni Potter et al. (Volume 15, Number 8) Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007
Gabriela Salmón-Mulanovich et al. (Volume 15, Number 8) In Memoriam: George Martin Baer (1936–2009)
Brian W.J. Mahy et al. (Volume 15, Number 8) Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies in Southern People’s Republic of China
Xiao-Yan Tao et al. (Volume 15, Number 8) Reemerging Rabies and Lack of Systemic Surveillance in People’s Republic of China
Xianfu Wu et al. (Volume 15, Number 8) Tactics and Economics of Wildlife Oral Rabies Vaccination, Canada and the United States
Ray T. Sterner et al. (Volume 15, Number 8) Rabies in Ferret Badgers, Southeastern China
Shoufeng Zhang et al. (Volume 15, Number 6) Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: The Neglected Tropical Diseases and Their Impact on Global Health and Development
Charles Ben Beard et al. (Volume 15, Number 3) European Bat Lyssavirus Transmission among Cats, Europe
Laurent Dacheux et al. (Volume 15, Number 2)

2008

Podcast Enzootic Rabies Elimination from Dogs and Reemergence in Wild Terrestrial Carnivores, United States
Andrés Velasco-Villa et al. (Volume 14, Number 12) presentation_01Listen to the podcast Identification of New Rabies Virus Variant in Mexican Immigrant
Andrés Velasco-Villa et al. (Volume 14, Number 12) Reexamination of Human Rabies Case with Long Incubation, Australia
Nicholas Johnson et al. (Volume 14, Number 12) Owner Valuation of Rabies Vaccination of Dogs, Chad
Salome Dürr et al. (Volume 14, Number 10) Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, Marseille, France, 1994–2005
Philippe Gautret et al. (Volume 14, Number 9) Regulatory Systems for Prevention and Control of Rabies, Japan
Hiromi Takahashi-Omoe et al. (Volume 14, Number 9) Endemic Circulation of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in Serotine Bats, Spain
Sonia Vázquez-Morón et al. (Volume 14, Number 8) Antibodies against Lagos Bat Virus in Megachiroptera from West Africa
David T.S. Hayman et al. (Volume 14, Number 6) Rabies Virus in Raccoons, Ohio, 2004
J. Caroline Henderson et al. (Volume 14, Number 4)

2007

Epidemiology and Molecular Virus Characterization of Reemerging Rabies, South Africa
Stefano Tempia et al. (Volume 13, Number 12) Human Rabies Cluster Following Badger Bites, People’s Republic of China
Gong Zhenyu et al. (Volume 13, Number 12) Mokola Virus in Domestic Mammals, South Africa
Claude T. Sabeta et al. (Volume 13, Number 9) Podcast Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control
Jakob Zinsstag et al. (Volume 13, Number 4) presentation_01Listen to the podcast Elimination of Arctic Variant Rabies in Red Foxes, Metropolitan Toronto
R. C. Rosatte et al. (Volume 13, Number 1) Emergence of Arctic-like Rabies Lineage in India
Susan A. Nadin-Davis et al. (Volume 13, Number 1) Rabies Encephalitis in Malaria-Endemic Area, Malawi, Africa
Macpherson Mallewa et al. (Volume 13, Number 1)

2006

Fatal Human Infection with Rabies-related Duvenhage Virus, South Africa
Janusz T. Paweska et al. (Volume 12, Number 12) Isolation of Lagos Bat Virus from Water Mongoose
Wanda Markotter et al. (Volume 12, Number 12) Rabies Virus Maintained by Dogs in Humans and Terrestrial Wildlife, Ceará State, Brazil
Silvana R. Favoretto et al. (Volume 12, Number 12) Bat-associated Rabies Virus in Skunks
Mira J. Leslie et al. (Volume 12, Number 8) Bat-transmitted Human Rabies Outbreaks, Brazilian Amazon
Elizabeth S.T. da Rosa et al. (Volume 12, Number 8) European Bat Lyssavirus Type 2 RNA in Myotis daubentonii
Nicholas Johnson et al. (Volume 12, Number 7) Postmortem Confirmation of Human Rabies Source
Rafael Oliveira et al. (Volume 12, Number 5) Lagos Bat Virus, South Africa
Wanda Markotter et al. (Volume 12, Number 3) Lyssavirus Surveillance in Bats, Bangladesh
Ivan V. Kuzmin et al. (Volume 12, Number 3) Evaluation of a Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for Rabies Diagnosis
Tiziana Lembo et al. (Volume 12, Number 2)

2005

Human Rabies in China
Yong-Zhen Zhang et al. (Volume 11, Number 12) Pivotal Role of Dogs in Rabies Transmission, China
Xianchun Tang et al. (Volume 11, Number 12) Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, 1995–2000
Jesse D. Blanton et al. (Volume 11, Number 12) Rabies Vaccine Baits, Pennsylvania
Virginia M. Dato et al. (Volume 11, Number 12) New and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases
Uriel Kitron et al. (Volume 11, Number 10) Canine Rabies Ecology in Southern Africa
John Bingham et al. (Volume 11, Number 9) Travel-associated Rabies in Austrian Man
Robert Krause et al. (Volume 11, Number 5) Bat Incidents at Children’s Camps, New York State, 1998–2002
Amy Robbins et al. (Volume 11, Number 2) Survey for Bat Lyssaviruses, Thailand
Boonlert Lumlertdacha et al. (Volume 11, Number 2)

2004

Rabies in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves
Deborah A. Randall et al. (Volume 10, Number 12) Bat Rabies, Texas, 1996–2000
Rodney E. Rohde et al. (Volume 10, Number 5) Estimating the Public Health Impact of Rabies
Paul G. Coleman et al. (Volume 10, Number 1)

2003

Novel Lyssaviruses Isolated from Bats in Russia
Alexandr D. Botvinkin et al. (Volume 9, Number 12) Skunk and Raccoon Rabies in the Eastern United States: Temporal and Spatial Analysis
Marta A. Guerra et al. (Volume 9, Number 9) Human Rabies: A Reemerging Disease in Costa Rica?
Xiomara Badilla et al. (Volume 9, Number 6) Rabies in Sri Lanka: Splendid Isolation
Susilakanthi Nanayakkara et al. (Volume 9, Number 3) Emerging Pattern of Rabies Deaths and Increased Viral Infectivity
Sharon L. Messenger et al. (Volume 9, Number 2) Geographic Translocation of Bats: Known and Potential Problems
Denny G. Constantine et al. (Volume 9, Number 1)

2002

Public Health Impact of Reemergence of Rabies, New York
Hwa-Gan H. Chang et al. (Volume 8, Number 9) Epidemiology of Urban Canine Rabies, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 1972–1997
Marc-Alain Widdowson et al. (Volume 8, Number 5) Knowledge of Bat Rabies and Human Exposure Among United States Cavers
Robert V. Gibbons et al. (Volume 8, Number 5) Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines
Paul M. Arguin et al. (Volume 8, Number 3) Postexposure Treatment and Animal Rabies, Ontario, 1958-2000
Christopher P. Nunan et al. (Volume 8, Number 2) First Case of Human Rabies in Chile Caused by an Insectivorous Bat Virus Variant
Myriam Favi et al. (Volume 8, Number 1)

2001

Rabies in Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), Ceará, Brazil
Silvana R. Favoretto et al. (Volume 7, Number 6)

Other Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

World Rabies Day

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