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Rabies Spotlight

Rabies is a deadly virus that is most often spread by the bite of a rabid animal. Each year around the world, rabies results in more than 59,000 deaths – approximately one death every 9 minutes. Most deaths are reported from Africa and Asia with almost 50% of the victims being children under the age of 15. Safe and effective vaccines are available to reduce the impact of human and animal rabies and help prevent the disease in animals. Every year, an estimated 40,000 people in the United States receive a series of shots known as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) due to potential exposure to rabies. In addition, the US public health cost associated with rabies is more than $300 million a year. Dog vaccination is one important strategy to prevent rabies in dogs in the U.S. and abroad.

2020

Current Issue Inappropriate Administration of Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, Cook County, Illinois, USA
Hannah D. Steinberg et al. Volume 26, Number 10—October 2020 Bat and Lyssavirus Exposure among Humans in Area that Celebrates Bat Festival, Nigeria, 2010 and 2013
Neil M. Vora et al. Volume 26, Number 7—July 2020 Origin of 3 Rabid Terrestrial Animals in Raccoon Rabies Virus–Free Zone, Long Island, New York, USA, 2016–2017
Scott Brunt et al. Volume 26, Number 6—June 2020

2019

A Fanciful Juxtaposition, a Reimagined Farm
Byron Breedlove Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 Rabies Acquired through Mucosal Exposure, China, 2013
Hong Zhao et al. Volume 25, Number 5—May 2019

2018

Podcast Commemorating Misadventures, Celebrating Collaborations
Byron Breedlove Volume 24, Number 2—February 2018 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Investigation of Canine-Mediated Human Rabies Death, Haiti, 2015
Cuc H. Tran et al. Volume 24, Number 1—January 2018

2017

Tool for Eliminating Dog-Mediated Human Rabies through Mass Dog Vaccination Campaigns
Eduardo A. Undurraga et al. Volume 23, Number 12—December 2017 Rabies and Distemper Outbreaks in Smallest Ethiopian Wolf Population
Jorgelina Marino et al. Volume 23, Number 12—December 2017 Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015–2016
Shuilian Chen et al. Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017 Podcast Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US–Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography
Hannah Trewby et al. Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Etymologia: Negri Bodies
Ronnie Henry et al. Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017

2016

Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Death, Haiti, 2016
Ryan M. Wallace et al. Volume 22, Number 11—November 2016 Podcast Probable Rabies Virus Transmission through Organ Transplantation, China, 2015
Hang Zhou et al. Volume 22, Number 8—August 2016 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka
Panduka S. Gunawardena et al. Volume 22, Number 8—August 2016 Travel-Associated Rabies in Pets and Residual Rabies Risk, Western Europe
Florence Ribadeau-Dumas et al. Volume 22, Number 7—July 2016 Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006–2013
Abdallah Traoré et al. Volume 22, Number 5—May 2016 Suspected Rabies in Humans and Animals, Laikipia County, Kenya
Mark Obonyo et al. Volume 22, Number 3—March 2016

2015

Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis for Travelers Injured by Nonhuman Primates, Marseille, France, 2001–2014
Agathe Blaise et al. Volume 21, Number 8—August 2015 Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves
Christopher H. Gordon et al. Volume 21, Number 5—May 2015 Animal-Associated Exposure to Rabies Virus among Travelers, 1997–2012
Philippe Gautret et al. Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015

2014

Podcast Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013
Sridhar V. Basavaraju et al. Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China
Hai-Lin Zhang et al. Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 Molecular Characterization of Cryptically Circulating Rabies Virus from Ferret Badgers, Taiwan
Hue-Ying Chiou et al. Volume 20, Number 5—May 2014 Regional Variation in Travel-related Illness acquired in Africa, March 1997–May 2011
Marc Mendelson et al. Volume 20, Number 4—April 2014 Recurrence of Animal Rabies, Greece, 2012
Konstantia E. Tasioudi et al. Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014 Podcast Low-Incidence, High-Consequence Pathogens
Ermias D. Belay et al. Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Rabies in Henan Province, China, 2010–2012
Guo-Wei Li et al. Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014 Tour Leaders’ Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Rabies Vaccination, Taiwan
Chiao-Yu Huang et al. Volume 20, Number 1—January 2014 Bat Lyssaviruses, Northern Vietnam
Anh Thi Kieu Nguyen et al. Volume 20, Number 1—January 2014

2013

Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States
Terry Fei Fan Ng et al. Volume 19, Number 12—December 2013 Enzootic and Epizootic Rabies Associated with Vampire Bats, Peru
Rene Edgar Condori-Condori et al. Volume 19, Number 9—September 2013 Podcast Zombies—A Pop Culture Resource for Public Health Awareness
Melissa Nasiruddin et al. Volume 19, Number 5—May 2013 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain
Nidia Aréchiga Ceballos et al. Volume 19, Number 5—May 2013 Discrepancies in Data Reporting for Rabies, Africa
Louis H. Nel Volume 19, Number 4—April 2013 Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011
Luke E. Mease et al. Volume 19, Number 4—April 2013 Rabies Update for Latin America and the Caribbean
Marco A.N. Vigilato et al. Volume 19, Number 4—April 2013 Serosurvey of Dogs for Human, Livestock, and Wildlife Pathogens, Uganda
Javier Millán et al. Volume 19, Number 4—April 2013 Response to a Rabies Epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008–2011
Anak Agung Gde Putra et al. Volume 19, Number 4—April 2013

2012

Arctic-like Rabies Virus, Bangladesh
Khondoker Mahbuba Jamil et al. Volume 18, Number 12—December 2012 Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011
Luke E. Mease et al. Volume 18, Number 10—October 2012 Inadequate Antibody Response to Rabies Vaccine in Immunocompromised Patient
Eran Kopel et al. Volume 18, Number 9—September 2012 Etymologia: Rabies
Volume 18, Number 7—July 2012 Exposure of US Travelers to Rabid Zebra, Kenya, 2011
Emily W. Lankau et al. Volume 18, Number 7—July 2012 Trap-Vaccinate-Release Program to Control Raccoon Rabies, New York, USA
Sally Slavinski et al. Volume 18, Number 7—July 2012 Community Survey after Rabies Outbreaks, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
Andrea M. McCollum et al. Volume 18, Number 6—June 2012 Ikoma Lyssavirus, Highly Divergent Novel Lyssavirus in an African Civet
Denise A. Marston et al. Volume 18, Number 4—April 2012 Podcast Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010
Brett W. Petersen et al. Volume 18, Number 1—January 2012 presentation_01Listen to the podcast

2011

Novel Sylvatic Rabies Virus Variant in Endangered Golden Palm Civet, Sri Lanka
Takashi Matsumoto et al. Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011 Bat Rabies and Human Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, USA
Millicent Eidson et al. Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011 Risk for Rabies Importation from North Africa
Philippe Gautret et al. Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011 Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany
Conrad M. Freuling et al. Volume 17, Number 8—August 2011 Effect of Media Warnings on Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, France
Philippe Gautret et al. Volume 17, Number 6—June 2011 Rabies Immunization Status of Dogs, Beijing, China
Chao Wang et al. Volume 17, Number 6—June 2011 Imported Rabies, European Union and Switzerland, 2001–2010
Nicholas Johnson et al. Volume 17, Number 4—April 2011 Phylogeny of European Bat Lyssavirus 1 in Eptesicus isabellinus Bats, Spain
Sonia Vázquez-Morón et al. Volume 17, Number 3—March 2011

2010

Reemergence of Rabies in Chhukha District, Bhutan, 2008
Basant Sharma et al. Volume 16, Number 12—December 2010 Rabies Virus RNA in Naturally Infected Vampire Bats, Northeastern Brazil
Aroldo J.B. Carneiro et al. Volume 16, Number 12—December 2010 Imported Human Rabies, the Philippines and Finland, 2007
Ruska Rimhanen-Finne et al. Volume 16, Number 8—August 2010 Bat Rabies in Massachusetts, USA, 1985–2009
Xingtai Wang et al. Volume 16, Number 8—August 2010 Podcast Terrestrial Rabies and Human Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, USA
Millicent Eidson et al. Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Aggression and Rabid Coyotes, Massachusetts, USA
Xingtai Wang et al. Volume 16, Number 2—February 2010

2009

Rabies in Foxes, Aegean Region, Turkey
Ad Vos et al. Volume 15, Number 10—October 2009 For the world does not yet censure Those who tread the paths of dreams
Polyxeni Potter Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009 In Memoriam: George Martin Baer (1936–2009)
Brian W.J. Mahy Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009 Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies in Southern People’s Republic of China
Xiao-Yan Tao et al. Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009 Tactics and Economics of Wildlife Oral Rabies Vaccination, Canada and the United States
Ray T. Sterner et al. Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009 Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007
Gabriela Salmón-Mulanovich et al. Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009 Reemerging Rabies and Lack of Systemic Surveillance in People’s Republic of China
Xianfu Wu et al. Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009 Rabies in Ferret Badgers, Southeastern China
Shoufeng Zhang et al. Volume 15, Number 6—June 2009 Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: The Neglected Tropical Diseases and Their Impact on Global Health and Development
Charles Ben Beard Volume 15, Number 3—March 2009 European Bat Lyssavirus Transmission among Cats, Europe
Laurent Dacheux et al. Volume 15, Number 2—February 2009

2008

Reexamination of Human Rabies Case with Long Incubation, Australia
Nicholas Johnson et al. Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008 Identification of New Rabies Virus Variant in Mexican Immigrant
Andrés Velasco-Villa et al. Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008 Podcast Enzootic Rabies Elimination from Dogs and Reemergence in Wild Terrestrial Carnivores, United States
Andrés Velasco-Villa et al. Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Owner Valuation of Rabies Vaccination of Dogs, Chad
Salome Dürr et al. Volume 14, Number 10—October 2008 Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, Marseille, France, 1994–2005
Philippe Gautret et al. Volume 14, Number 9—September 2008 Regulatory Systems for Prevention and Control of Rabies, Japan
Hiromi Takahashi-Omoe et al. Volume 14, Number 9—September 2008 Endemic Circulation of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in Serotine Bats, Spain
Sonia Vázquez-Morón et al. Volume 14, Number 8—August 2008 Antibodies against Lagos Bat Virus in Megachiroptera from West Africa
David T.S. Hayman et al. Volume 14, Number 6—June 2008 Rabies Virus in Raccoons, Ohio, 2004
J. Caroline Henderson et al. Volume 14, Number 4—April 2008

2007

Human Rabies Cluster Following Badger Bites, People’s Republic of China
Gong Zhenyu et al. Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007 Epidemiology and Molecular Virus Characterization of Reemerging Rabies, South Africa
Stefano Tempia et al. Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007 Mokola Virus in Domestic Mammals, South Africa
Claude T. Sabeta et al. Volume 13, Number 9—September 2007 Podcast Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control
Jakob Zinsstag et al. Volume 13, Number 4—April 2007 presentation_01Listen to the podcast Emergence of Arctic-like Rabies Lineage in India
Susan A. Nadin-Davis et al. Volume 13, Number 1—January 2007 Elimination of Arctic Variant Rabies in Red Foxes, Metropolitan Toronto
R. C. Rosatte et al. Volume 13, Number 1—January 2007 Rabies Encephalitis in Malaria-Endemic Area, Malawi, Africa
Macpherson Mallewa et al. Volume 13, Number 1—January 2007

2006

Isolation of Lagos Bat Virus from Water Mongoose
Wanda Markotter et al. Volume 12, Number 12—December 2006 Fatal Human Infection with Rabies-related Duvenhage Virus, South Africa
Janusz T. Paweska et al. Volume 12, Number 12—December 2006 Rabies Virus Maintained by Dogs in Humans and Terrestrial Wildlife, Ceará State, Brazil
Silvana R. Favoretto et al. Volume 12, Number 12—December 2006 Bat-transmitted Human Rabies Outbreaks, Brazilian Amazon
Elizabeth S.T. da Rosa et al. Volume 12, Number 8—August 2006 Bat-associated Rabies Virus in Skunks
Mira J. Leslie et al. Volume 12, Number 8—August 2006 European Bat Lyssavirus Type 2 RNA in Myotis daubentonii
Nicholas Johnson et al. Volume 12, Number 7—July 2006 Postmortem Confirmation of Human Rabies Source
Rafael Oliveira et al. Volume 12, Number 5—May 2006 Lyssavirus Surveillance in Bats, Bangladesh
Ivan V. Kuzmin et al. Volume 12, Number 3—March 2006 Lagos Bat Virus, South Africa
Wanda Markotter et al. Volume 12, Number 3—March 2006 Evaluation of a Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for Rabies Diagnosis
Tiziana Lembo et al. Volume 12, Number 2—February 2006

2005

Rabies Vaccine Baits, Pennsylvania
Virginia M. Dato et al. Volume 11, Number 12—December 2005 Human Rabies in China
Yong-Zhen Zhang et al. Volume 11, Number 12—December 2005 Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, 1995–2000
Jesse D. Blanton et al. Volume 11, Number 12—December 2005 Pivotal Role of Dogs in Rabies Transmission, China
Xianchun Tang et al. Volume 11, Number 12—December 2005 New and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases
Uriel Kitron et al. Volume 11, Number 10—October 2005 Canine Rabies Ecology in Southern Africa
John Bingham Volume 11, Number 9—September 2005 Travel-associated Rabies in Austrian Man
Robert Krause et al. Volume 11, Number 5—May 2005 Survey for Bat Lyssaviruses, Thailand
Boonlert Lumlertdacha et al. Volume 11, Number 2—February 2005 Bat Incidents at Children’s Camps, New York State, 1998–2002
Amy Robbins et al. Volume 11, Number 2—February 2005

2004

Rabies in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves
Deborah A. Randall et al. Volume 10, Number 12—December 2004 Bat Rabies, Texas, 1996–2000
Rodney E. Rohde et al. Volume 10, Number 5—May 2004 Estimating the Public Health Impact of Rabies
Paul G. Coleman et al. Volume 10, Number 1—January 2004

2003

Novel Lyssaviruses Isolated from Bats in Russia
Alexandr D. Botvinkin et al. Volume 9, Number 12—December 2003 Skunk and Raccoon Rabies in the Eastern United States: Temporal and Spatial Analysis
Marta A. Guerra et al. Volume 9, Number 9—September 2003 Human Rabies: A Reemerging Disease in Costa Rica?
Xiomara Badilla et al. Volume 9, Number 6—June 2003 Rabies in Sri Lanka: Splendid Isolation
Susilakanthi Nanayakkara et al. Volume 9, Number 3—March 2003 Emerging Pattern of Rabies Deaths and Increased Viral Infectivity
Sharon L. Messenger et al. Volume 9, Number 2—February 2003 Geographic Translocation of Bats: Known and Potential Problems
Denny G. Constantine Volume 9, Number 1—January 2003

2002

Public Health Impact of Reemergence of Rabies, New York
Hwa-Gan H. Chang et al. Volume 8, Number 9—September 2002 Epidemiology of Urban Canine Rabies, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 1972–1997
Marc-Alain Widdowson et al. Volume 8, Number 5—May 2002 Knowledge of Bat Rabies and Human Exposure Among United States Cavers
Robert V. Gibbons et al. Volume 8, Number 5—May 2002 Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines
Paul M. Arguin et al. Volume 8, Number 3—March 2002 Postexposure Treatment and Animal Rabies, Ontario, 1958-2000
Christopher P. Nunan et al. Volume 8, Number 2—February 2002 First Case of Human Rabies in Chile Caused by an Insectivorous Bat Virus Variant
Myriam Favi et al. Volume 8, Number 1—January 2002

2001

Rabies in Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), Ceará, Brazil
Silvana R. Favoretto et al. Volume 7, Number 6—December 2001

Other Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

World Rabies Day

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