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Articles from Emerging Infectious Diseases

Synopses

Pseudomonas poae–Associated Fatal Septic Transfusion Reaction, Peoria, Illinois, USA, 2017 [PDF - 964 KB - 7 pages]
T. S. Woodring and J. J. Farrell

In the United States, fatal transfusion-transmitted infections from red blood cell units are rare. Although this pattern mostly reflects how inhospitable refrigerated red blood cell units are to contaminant growth, fatalities caused by microorganisms that can grow at storage temperature (4°C), but not in standard clinical blood cultures at 37°C, are probably underestimated. We analyzed a fatal red blood cell transfusion in Peoria, Illinois, USA, that occurred in 2017. Samples from the patient’s whole blood and the red blood cell unit remained culture-negative during the investigation, despite direct visualization of gram-negative bacilli within the unit immediately after transfusion. We identified the bacteria as Pseudomonas poae, a nonpathogenic pseudomonad carrying multiple cold-shock domain protein genes, and confirmed its cold tolerance and inability to grow at 37°C. Our work indicates transfusion reaction workups need to include testing for psychrophilic organisms, which could explain the cause of other apparently culture-negative transfusion reactions.

EID Woodring TS, Farrell JJ. Pseudomonas poae–Associated Fatal Septic Transfusion Reaction, Peoria, Illinois, USA, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1445-1451. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181936
AMA Woodring TS, Farrell JJ. Pseudomonas poae–Associated Fatal Septic Transfusion Reaction, Peoria, Illinois, USA, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1445-1451. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181936.
APA Woodring, T. S., & Farrell, J. J. (2019). Pseudomonas poae–Associated Fatal Septic Transfusion Reaction, Peoria, Illinois, USA, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1445-1451. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181936.

Medscape CME Activity
Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women, Yucatan, Mexico [PDF - 1.23 MB - 8 pages]
Y. Romer et al.

We report demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical findings for a prospective cohort of pregnant women during the initial phase of Zika virus introduction into Yucatan, Mexico. We monitored 115 pregnant women for signs of active or recent Zika virus infection. The estimated cumulative incidence of Zika virus infection was 0.31 and the ratio of symptomatic to asymptomatic cases was 1.7 (range 1.3–4.0 depending on age group). Exanthema was the most sensitive clinical sign but also the least specific. Conjunctival hyperemia, joint edema, and exanthema were the combination of signs that had the highest specificity but low sensitivity. We did not find evidence of vertical transmission or fetal anomalies, likely because of the low number of pregnant women tested. We also did not find evidence of congenital disease. Our findings emphasize the limited predictive value of clinical features in areas where Zika virus cocirculates with other flaviviruses.

EID Romer Y, Valadez-Gonzalez N, Contreras-Capetillo S, Manrique-Saide P, Vazquez-Prokopec G, Pavia-Ruz N. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women, Yucatan, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1452-1460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.180915
AMA Romer Y, Valadez-Gonzalez N, Contreras-Capetillo S, et al. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women, Yucatan, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1452-1460. doi:10.3201/eid2508.180915.
APA Romer, Y., Valadez-Gonzalez, N., Contreras-Capetillo, S., Manrique-Saide, P., Vazquez-Prokopec, G., & Pavia-Ruz, N. (2019). Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women, Yucatan, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1452-1460. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.180915.

Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Associated with Packaged Leafy Green Salads, United States and Canada, 2015–2016 [PDF - 583 KB - 8 pages]
J. L. Self et al.

We investigated an outbreak of listeriosis detected by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and associated with packaged leafy green salads. Nineteen cases were identified in the United States during July 5, 2015–January 31, 2016; isolates from case-patients were closely related (median difference 3 alleles, range 0–16 alleles). Of 16 case-patients interviewed, all reported salad consumption. Of 9 case-patients who recalled brand information, all reported brands processed at a common US facility. The Public Health Agency of Canada simultaneously investigated 14 cases of listeriosis associated with this outbreak. Isolates from the processing facility, packaged leafy green salads, and 9 case-patients from Canada were closely related to US clinical isolates (median difference 3 alleles, range 0–16 alleles). This investigation led to a recall of packaged leafy green salads made at the processing facility. Additional research is needed to identify best practices and effective policies to reduce the likelihood of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of fresh produce.

EID Self JL, Conrad A, Stroika S, Jackson A, Whitlock L, Jackson KA, et al. Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Associated with Packaged Leafy Green Salads, United States and Canada, 2015–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1461-1468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.180761
AMA Self JL, Conrad A, Stroika S, et al. Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Associated with Packaged Leafy Green Salads, United States and Canada, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1461-1468. doi:10.3201/eid2508.180761.
APA Self, J. L., Conrad, A., Stroika, S., Jackson, A., Whitlock, L., Jackson, K. A....Basler, C. (2019). Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Associated with Packaged Leafy Green Salads, United States and Canada, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1461-1468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.180761.
Research

Congenital Syphilis as a Measure of Maternal and Child Healthcare, Brazil [PDF - 2.25 MB - 8 pages]
M. Bezerra et al.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that has direct adverse effects on maternal and infant health through vertical Treponema pallidum transmission during early pregnancy. We evaluated congenital syphilis as a predictor of the quality of basic maternal and child healthcare in Brazil during 2010–2015. We investigated case rates and correlations with epidemiologic and socioeconomic indicators. We observed rising congenital syphilis incidence rates and increasing syphilis-associated perinatal and infant mortality rates in all regions. Case rates were highest in the Northeast, Southeast, and South, and congenital syphilis infant mortality rates were highest in the Northeast and Southeast. We observed correlations between congenital syphilis rates and infant death, spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), and stillbirth rates. We also noted correlations between rates of stillbirth caused by syphilis and inadequate prenatal care. Our study suggests gaps in basic healthcare for pregnant women and indicates the urgent need for measures to increase early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

EID Bezerra M, Fernandes F, de Oliveira Nunes J, de Araújo Baltar S, Randau K. Congenital Syphilis as a Measure of Maternal and Child Healthcare, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1469-1476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.180298
AMA Bezerra M, Fernandes F, de Oliveira Nunes J, et al. Congenital Syphilis as a Measure of Maternal and Child Healthcare, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1469-1476. doi:10.3201/eid2508.180298.
APA Bezerra, M., Fernandes, F., de Oliveira Nunes, J., de Araújo Baltar, S., & Randau, K. (2019). Congenital Syphilis as a Measure of Maternal and Child Healthcare, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1469-1476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.180298.

Natural Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus in Larval Aedes aegypti Populations, Morelos, Mexico [PDF - 2.75 MB - 8 pages]
M. Izquierdo-Suzán et al.

We characterized natural vertical transmission of Zika virus in pools of Aedes aegypti larvae hatched from eggs collected in Jojutla, Morelos, Mexico. Of the 151 pools analyzed, 17 tested positive for Zika virus RNA; infectious Zika virus was successfully isolated from 1 of the larvae pools (31N) in C6/36 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays confirmed the identity of the isolate, named Zika virus isolate 31N; plaque assays in Vero cells demonstrated the isolate’s infectivity in a mammalian cell line. We obtained the complete genome of Zika virus isolate 31N by next-generation sequencing and identified 3 single-nucleotide variants specific to Zika virus isolate 31N using the meta-CATS tool. These results demonstrate the occurrence of natural vertical transmission of Zika virus in wild Ae. aegypti mosquitoes and suggest that this transmission mode could aid in the spread and maintenance of Zika virus in nature.

EID Izquierdo-Suzán M, Zárate S, Torres-Flores J, Correa-Morales F, González-Acosta C, Sevilla-Reyes EE, et al. Natural Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus in Larval Aedes aegypti Populations, Morelos, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1477-1484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181533
AMA Izquierdo-Suzán M, Zárate S, Torres-Flores J, et al. Natural Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus in Larval Aedes aegypti Populations, Morelos, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1477-1484. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181533.
APA Izquierdo-Suzán, M., Zárate, S., Torres-Flores, J., Correa-Morales, F., González-Acosta, C., Sevilla-Reyes, E. E....Yocupicio-Monroy, M. (2019). Natural Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus in Larval Aedes aegypti Populations, Morelos, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1477-1484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181533.

Cross-Protection of Dengue Virus Infection against Congenital Zika Syndrome, Northeastern Brazil [PDF - 2.23 MB - 9 pages]
C. Pedroso et al.

The Zika virus outbreak in Latin America resulted in congenital malformations, called congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). For unknown reasons, CZS incidence was highest in northeastern Brazil; one potential explanation is that dengue virus (DENV)–mediated immune enhancement may promote CZS development. In contrast, our analyses of historical DENV genomic data refuted the hypothesis that unique genome signatures for northeastern Brazil explain the uneven dispersion of CZS cases. To confirm our findings, we performed serotype-specific DENV neutralization tests in a case–control framework in northeastern Brazil among 29 Zika virus–seropositive mothers of neonates with CZS and 108 Zika virus–seropositive control mothers. Neutralization titers did not differ significantly between groups. In contrast, DENV seroprevalence and median number of neutralized serotypes were significantly lower among the mothers of neonates with CZS. Supported by model analyses, our results suggest that multitypic DENV infection may protect from, rather than enhance, development of CZS.

EID Pedroso C, Fischer C, Feldmann M, Sarno M, Luz E, Moreira-Soto A, et al. Cross-Protection of Dengue Virus Infection against Congenital Zika Syndrome, Northeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1485-1493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190113
AMA Pedroso C, Fischer C, Feldmann M, et al. Cross-Protection of Dengue Virus Infection against Congenital Zika Syndrome, Northeastern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1485-1493. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190113.
APA Pedroso, C., Fischer, C., Feldmann, M., Sarno, M., Luz, E., Moreira-Soto, A....Drexler, J. (2019). Cross-Protection of Dengue Virus Infection against Congenital Zika Syndrome, Northeastern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1485-1493. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190113.

Medscape CME Activity
Retrospective Cohort Study of Lassa Fever in Pregnancy, Southern Nigeria [PDF - 757 KB - 7 pages]
S. Okogbenin et al.

Lassa fever in pregnancy causes high rates of maternal and fetal death, but limited data are available to guide clinicians. We retrospectively studied 30 pregnant Lassa fever patients treated with early ribavirin therapy and a conservative obstetric approach at a teaching hospital in southern Nigeria during January 2009–March 2018. Eleven (36.7%) of 30 women died, and 20/31 (64.5%) pregnancies ended in fetal or perinatal loss. On initial evaluation, 17/30 (56.6%) women had a dead fetus; 10/17 (58.8%) of these patients died, compared with 1/13 (7.7%) of women with a live fetus. Extravaginal bleeding, convulsions, and oliguria each were independently associated with maternal and fetal or perinatal death, whereas seeking care in the third trimester was not. For women with a live fetus at initial evaluation, the positive outcomes observed contrast with previous reports, and they support a conservative approach to obstetric management of Lassa fever in pregnancy in Nigeria.

EID Okogbenin S, Okoeguale J, Akpede G, Colubri A, Barnes KG, Mehta S, et al. Retrospective Cohort Study of Lassa Fever in Pregnancy, Southern Nigeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1494-1500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181299
AMA Okogbenin S, Okoeguale J, Akpede G, et al. Retrospective Cohort Study of Lassa Fever in Pregnancy, Southern Nigeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1494-1500. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181299.
APA Okogbenin, S., Okoeguale, J., Akpede, G., Colubri, A., Barnes, K. G., Mehta, S....Ogbaini-Emovon, E. (2019). Retrospective Cohort Study of Lassa Fever in Pregnancy, Southern Nigeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1494-1500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181299.

Direct Medical Costs of 3 Reportable Travel-Related Infections in Ontario, Canada, 2012–2014 [PDF - 735 KB - 10 pages]
R. D. Savage et al.

Immigrants traveling to their birth countries to visit friends or relatives are disproportionately affected by travel-related infections, in part because most preventive travel health services are not publicly funded. To help identify cost-effective policies to reduce this disparity, we measured the medical costs (in 2015 Canadian dollars) of 3 reportable travel-related infectious diseases (hepatitis A, malaria, and enteric fever) that accrued during a 3-year period (2012–2014) in an ethnoculturally diverse region of Canada (Peel, Ontario) by linking reportable disease surveillance and health administrative data. In total, 318 case-patients were included, each matched with 2 controls. Most spending accrued in inpatient settings. Direct healthcare spending totaled $2,058,196; the mean attributable cost per case was $6,098 (95% CI $5,328–$6,868) but varied by disease (range $4,558–$7,852). Costs were greatest for enteric fever. Policies that address financial barriers to preventive health services for high-risk groups should be evaluated.

EID Savage RD, Rosella LC, Crowcroft NS, Horn M, Khan K, Holder L, et al. Direct Medical Costs of 3 Reportable Travel-Related Infections in Ontario, Canada, 2012–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1501-1510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190222
AMA Savage RD, Rosella LC, Crowcroft NS, et al. Direct Medical Costs of 3 Reportable Travel-Related Infections in Ontario, Canada, 2012–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1501-1510. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190222.
APA Savage, R. D., Rosella, L. C., Crowcroft, N. S., Horn, M., Khan, K., Holder, L....Varia, M. (2019). Direct Medical Costs of 3 Reportable Travel-Related Infections in Ontario, Canada, 2012–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1501-1510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190222.

17DD Yellow Fever Revaccination and Heightened Long-Term Immunity in Populations of Disease-Endemic Areas, Brazil [PDF - 2.03 MB - 11 pages]
O. Martins-Filho et al.

We evaluated the duration of neutralizing antibodies and the status of 17DD vaccine–specific T- and B-cell memory following primary and revaccination regimens for yellow fever (YF) in Brazil. We observed progressive decline of plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) seropositivity and of the levels of effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as interferon-γ+CD8+ T cells, 10 years after primary vaccination. Revaccination restored PRNT seropositivity as well as the levels of effector memory CD4+, CD8+, and interferon-γ+CD8+ T cells. Moreover, secondary or multiple vaccinations guarantee long-term persistence of PRNT positivity and cell-mediated memory 10 years after booster vaccination. These findings support the relevance of booster doses to heighten the 17DD-YF–specific immune response to guarantee the long-term persistence of memory components. Secondary or multiple vaccinations improved the correlates of protection triggered by 17DD-YF primary vaccination, indicating that booster regimens are needed to achieve efficient immunity in areas with high risk for virus transmission.

EID Martins-Filho O, Peruhype-Magalhāes V, Coelho-dos-Reis J, Antonelli L, Costa-Pereira C, Speziali E, et al. 17DD Yellow Fever Revaccination and Heightened Long-Term Immunity in Populations of Disease-Endemic Areas, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1511-1521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181432
AMA Martins-Filho O, Peruhype-Magalhāes V, Coelho-dos-Reis J, et al. 17DD Yellow Fever Revaccination and Heightened Long-Term Immunity in Populations of Disease-Endemic Areas, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1511-1521. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181432.
APA Martins-Filho, O., Peruhype-Magalhāes, V., Coelho-dos-Reis, J., Antonelli, L., Costa-Pereira, C., Speziali, E....Campi-Azevedo, A. (2019). 17DD Yellow Fever Revaccination and Heightened Long-Term Immunity in Populations of Disease-Endemic Areas, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1511-1521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181432.
Historical Review

Lessons Learned from Dengue Surveillance and Research, Puerto Rico, 1899–2013 [PDF - 1.22 MB - 9 pages]
T. M. Sharp et al.

Dengue was first reported in Puerto Rico in 1899 and sporadically thereafter. Following outbreaks in 1963 and 1969, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked closely with the Puerto Rico Department of Health to monitor and reduce the public health burden of dengue. During that time, evolving epidemiologic scenarios have provided opportunities to establish, improve, and expand disease surveillance and interventional research projects. These initiatives have enriched the tools available to the global public health community to understand and combat dengue, including diagnostic tests, methods for disease and vector surveillance, and vector control techniques. Our review serves as a guide to organizations seeking to establish dengue surveillance and research programs by highlighting accomplishments, challenges, and lessons learned during more than a century of dengue surveillance and research conducted in Puerto Rico.

EID Sharp TM, Ryff KR, Santiago GA, Margolis HS, Waterman SH. Lessons Learned from Dengue Surveillance and Research, Puerto Rico, 1899–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1522-1530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190089
AMA Sharp TM, Ryff KR, Santiago GA, et al. Lessons Learned from Dengue Surveillance and Research, Puerto Rico, 1899–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1522-1530. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190089.
APA Sharp, T. M., Ryff, K. R., Santiago, G. A., Margolis, H. S., & Waterman, S. H. (2019). Lessons Learned from Dengue Surveillance and Research, Puerto Rico, 1899–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1522-1530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190089.
Dispatches

Case Series Study of Melioidosis, Colombia [PDF - 1.03 MB - 4 pages]
J. Y. Rodríguez et al.

We report 7 cases of melioidosis in Colombia and comparision of 4 commercial systems for identifying Burkholderia pseudomallei. Phoenix systems were not a definitive method for identifying B. pseudomallei. For accurate identification, we recommend including this bacterium in the library databases of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry systems in Latin America.

EID Rodríguez JY, Morales-López SE, Rodríguez GJ, Álvarez-Moreno CA, Esquea K, Pinzon H, et al. Case Series Study of Melioidosis, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.170786
AMA Rodríguez JY, Morales-López SE, Rodríguez GJ, et al. Case Series Study of Melioidosis, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1534. doi:10.3201/eid2508.170786.
APA Rodríguez, J. Y., Morales-López, S. E., Rodríguez, G. J., Álvarez-Moreno, C. A., Esquea, K., Pinzon, H....Cepeda, M. L. (2019). Case Series Study of Melioidosis, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.170786.

Sustained Low-Level Transmission of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses after Emergence in the Fiji Islands [PDF - 815 KB - 4 pages]
M. Kama et al.

Zika and chikungunya viruses were first detected in Fiji in 2015. Examining surveillance and phylogenetic and serologic data, we found evidence of low-level transmission of Zika and chikungunya viruses during 2013–2017, in contrast to the major outbreaks caused by closely related virus strains in other Pacific Island countries.

EID Kama M, Aubry M, Naivalu T, Vanhomwegen J, Mariteragi-Helle T, Teissier A, et al. Sustained Low-Level Transmission of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses after Emergence in the Fiji Islands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1535-1538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.180524
AMA Kama M, Aubry M, Naivalu T, et al. Sustained Low-Level Transmission of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses after Emergence in the Fiji Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1535-1538. doi:10.3201/eid2508.180524.
APA Kama, M., Aubry, M., Naivalu, T., Vanhomwegen, J., Mariteragi-Helle, T., Teissier, A....Cao-Lormeau, V. (2019). Sustained Low-Level Transmission of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses after Emergence in the Fiji Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1535-1538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.180524.

Lethal Encephalitis in Seals with Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, China, 2017 [PDF - 1.42 MB - 4 pages]
X. Li et al.

We isolated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) from brain samples of 2 seals with lethal encephalitis at Weihai Aquarium, Weihai, China, in 2017. We confirmed our findings by immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis showed this virus was genotype I. Our findings suggest that JEV might disseminate though infected zoo animals.

EID Li X, Qiao M, Deng X, Chen X, Sun S, Zhang Q, et al. Lethal Encephalitis in Seals with Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, China, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1539-1542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181663
AMA Li X, Qiao M, Deng X, et al. Lethal Encephalitis in Seals with Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1539-1542. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181663.
APA Li, X., Qiao, M., Deng, X., Chen, X., Sun, S., Zhang, Q....Tian, K. (2019). Lethal Encephalitis in Seals with Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1539-1542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181663.

Emergent Invasive Group A Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, United States, 2015–2018 [PDF - 1.97 MB - 5 pages]
S. Chochua et al.

The term group A Streptococcus is considered synonymous for the species Streptococcus pyogenes. We describe an emergent invasive S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis lineage that obtained the group A antigen through a single ancestral recombination event between a group C S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain and a group A S. pyogenes strain.

EID Chochua S, Rivers J, Mathis S, Li Z, Velusamy S, McGee L, et al. Emergent Invasive Group A Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, United States, 2015–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1543-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181758
AMA Chochua S, Rivers J, Mathis S, et al. Emergent Invasive Group A Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, United States, 2015–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1543-1547. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181758.
APA Chochua, S., Rivers, J., Mathis, S., Li, Z., Velusamy, S., McGee, L....Beall, B. (2019). Emergent Invasive Group A Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, United States, 2015–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1543-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181758.

Novel Virus Related to Kaposi’s Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus from Colobus Monkey [PDF - 1.25 MB - 4 pages]
A. Dhingra et al.

We determined the complete genome sequence of a virus isolated from a mantled guereza that died of primary effusion lymphoma. The virus is closely related to Kaposi’s sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV) but lacks some genes implicated in KSHV pathogenesis. This finding may help determine how KSHV causes primary effusion lymphoma in humans.

EID Dhingra A, Ganzenmueller T, Hage E, Suárez NM, Mätz-Rensing K, Widmer D, et al. Novel Virus Related to Kaposi’s Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus from Colobus Monkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1548-1551. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181802
AMA Dhingra A, Ganzenmueller T, Hage E, et al. Novel Virus Related to Kaposi’s Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus from Colobus Monkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1548-1551. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181802.
APA Dhingra, A., Ganzenmueller, T., Hage, E., Suárez, N. M., Mätz-Rensing, K., Widmer, D....Kaul, A. (2019). Novel Virus Related to Kaposi’s Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus from Colobus Monkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1548-1551. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181802.

Kaposi Sarcoma in Mantled Guereza [PDF - 2.03 MB - 4 pages]
A. Grewer et al.

We identified a novel Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus–related rhadinovirus (Colobine gammaherpesvirus 1) in a mantled guereza (Colobus guereza kikuyensis). The animal had multiple oral tumors characterized by proliferation of latent nuclear antigen 1–positive spindle cells and was not co-infected with immunosuppressive simian viruses, suggesting that it had Kaposi sarcoma caused by this novel rhadinovirus.

EID Grewer A, Bleyer M, Mätz-Rensing K, Hahn AS, Rüggeberg T, Babaryka G, et al. Kaposi Sarcoma in Mantled Guereza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1552-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181804
AMA Grewer A, Bleyer M, Mätz-Rensing K, et al. Kaposi Sarcoma in Mantled Guereza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1552-1555. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181804.
APA Grewer, A., Bleyer, M., Mätz-Rensing, K., Hahn, A. S., Rüggeberg, T., Babaryka, G....Kaul, A. (2019). Kaposi Sarcoma in Mantled Guereza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1552-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181804.

Emergence of a Novel Recombinant Norovirus GII.P16-GII.12 Strain Causing Gastroenteritis, Alberta, Canada [PDF - 878 KB - 4 pages]
K. Pabbaraju et al.

We identified a novel recombinant GII.P16-GII.12 norovirus associated with epidemic and endemic gastroenteritis during March 1, 2018–February 12, 2019, in Alberta, Canada. GII.12 viruses have not been detected in Alberta since 2000. Comparing the full genome of this strain to previously published sequences revealed this virus to be a novel recombinant strain.

EID Pabbaraju K, Wong AA, Tipples GA, Pang Xi. Emergence of a Novel Recombinant Norovirus GII.P16-GII.12 Strain Causing Gastroenteritis, Alberta, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1556-1559. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190059
AMA Pabbaraju K, Wong AA, Tipples GA, et al. Emergence of a Novel Recombinant Norovirus GII.P16-GII.12 Strain Causing Gastroenteritis, Alberta, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1556-1559. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190059.
APA Pabbaraju, K., Wong, A. A., Tipples, G. A., & Pang, X. i. (2019). Emergence of a Novel Recombinant Norovirus GII.P16-GII.12 Strain Causing Gastroenteritis, Alberta, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1556-1559. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190059.

Underreporting of Fatal Congenital Zika Syndrome, Mexico, 2016–2017 [PDF - 445 KB - 3 pages]
V. M. Cardenas et al.

To determine completeness of fatal congenital Zika syndrome reporting in Mexico, we examined data from the Mexican National Institute of Statistics and Geography. We found that an estimated 50% more infants died from microcephaly attributable to congenital Zika syndrome during 2016–2017 than were reported by the existing surveillance system.

EID Cardenas VM, Paternina-Caicedo A, Salvatierra E. Underreporting of Fatal Congenital Zika Syndrome, Mexico, 2016–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1560-1562. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190106
AMA Cardenas VM, Paternina-Caicedo A, Salvatierra E. Underreporting of Fatal Congenital Zika Syndrome, Mexico, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1560-1562. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190106.
APA Cardenas, V. M., Paternina-Caicedo, A., & Salvatierra, E. (2019). Underreporting of Fatal Congenital Zika Syndrome, Mexico, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1560-1562. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190106.

Evaluating Temperature Sensitivity of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines [PDF - 1.68 MB - 4 pages]
D. R. Stein et al.

Use of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)–based Ebola virus vaccine during outbreaks and the potential use of a similar VSV-based Lassa virus vaccine has raised questions about the vaccines’ stability should the cold chain fail. We demonstrated that current cold chain conditions might tolerate significant variances without affecting efficacy.

EID Stein DR, Sroga P, Warner BM, Deschambault Y, Poliquin G, Safronetz D. Evaluating Temperature Sensitivity of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1563-1566. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190281
AMA Stein DR, Sroga P, Warner BM, et al. Evaluating Temperature Sensitivity of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1563-1566. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190281.
APA Stein, D. R., Sroga, P., Warner, B. M., Deschambault, Y., Poliquin, G., & Safronetz, D. (2019). Evaluating Temperature Sensitivity of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1563-1566. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190281.

Wild-Type Yellow Fever Virus RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Child [PDF - 1.11 MB - 4 pages]
P. Marinho et al.

We report a 3-year-old child who was hospitalized because of severe manifestations of the central nervous system. The child died after 6 days of hospitalization. Analysis of postmortem cerebrospinal fluid showed the presence of yellow fever virus RNA. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed that the virus was wild-type yellow fever virus.

EID Marinho P, Alvarenga P, Crispim A, Candiani T, Alvarenga AM, Bechler IM, et al. Wild-Type Yellow Fever Virus RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Child. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1567-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181479
AMA Marinho P, Alvarenga P, Crispim A, et al. Wild-Type Yellow Fever Virus RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1567-1570. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181479.
APA Marinho, P., Alvarenga, P., Crispim, A., Candiani, T., Alvarenga, A. M., Bechler, I. M....Kroon, E. G. (2019). Wild-Type Yellow Fever Virus RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1567-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181479.

Artyfechinostomum sufrartyfex Trematode Infections in Children, Bihar, India [PDF - 972 KB - 3 pages]
Y. K. Prasad et al.

Eating raw or insufficiently cooked mollusks is a known risk factor for human echinostomiasis. We confirmed identification of Artyfechinostomum sufrartyfex trematodes as the causative agent of disease among 170 children in northern Bihar, India. We also identified the snail Pila globosa as a potential source of infections in the study area.

EID Prasad YK, Dahal S, Saikia B, Bordoloi B, Tandon V, Ghatani S. Artyfechinostomum sufrartyfex Trematode Infections in Children, Bihar, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1571-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181427
AMA Prasad YK, Dahal S, Saikia B, et al. Artyfechinostomum sufrartyfex Trematode Infections in Children, Bihar, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1571-1573. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181427.
APA Prasad, Y. K., Dahal, S., Saikia, B., Bordoloi, B., Tandon, V., & Ghatani, S. (2019). Artyfechinostomum sufrartyfex Trematode Infections in Children, Bihar, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1571-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181427.

Efficacy of High-Dose Albendazole with Ivermectin for Treating Imported Loiasis, Italy [PDF - 424 KB - 3 pages]
F. Gobbi et al.

We describe the outcomes of 16 cases of imported loiasis in Italy. Patients had microfilaremia <20,000/mL and were treated with high-dose albendazole for 28 days and a single dose of ivermectin. This combination might be an effective treatment option in nonendemic areas, when diethylcarbamazine, the drug of choice, is not available.

EID Gobbi F, Buonfrate D, Tamarozzi F, Degani M, Angheben A, Bisoffi Z. Efficacy of High-Dose Albendazole with Ivermectin for Treating Imported Loiasis, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1574-1576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190011
AMA Gobbi F, Buonfrate D, Tamarozzi F, et al. Efficacy of High-Dose Albendazole with Ivermectin for Treating Imported Loiasis, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1574-1576. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190011.
APA Gobbi, F., Buonfrate, D., Tamarozzi, F., Degani, M., Angheben, A., & Bisoffi, Z. (2019). Efficacy of High-Dose Albendazole with Ivermectin for Treating Imported Loiasis, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1574-1576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190011.

Marburgvirus in Egyptian Fruit Bats, Zambia [PDF - 854 KB - 4 pages]
M. Kajihara et al.

We detected Marburg virus genome in Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) captured in Zambia in September 2018. The virus was closely related phylogenetically to the viruses that previously caused Marburg outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This finding demonstrates that Zambia is at risk for Marburg virus disease.

EID Kajihara M, Hang’ombe BM, Changula K, Harima H, Isono M, Okuya K, et al. Marburgvirus in Egyptian Fruit Bats, Zambia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1577-1580. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190268
AMA Kajihara M, Hang’ombe BM, Changula K, et al. Marburgvirus in Egyptian Fruit Bats, Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1577-1580. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190268.
APA Kajihara, M., Hang’ombe, B. M., Changula, K., Harima, H., Isono, M., Okuya, K....Takada, A. (2019). Marburgvirus in Egyptian Fruit Bats, Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1577-1580. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190268.
Research Letters

Bejel, a Nonvenereal Treponematosis, among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Japan [PDF - 408 KB - 3 pages]
T. Kawahata et al.

Bejel, an endemic treponematosis caused by infection with Treponema pallidum subspecies endemicum, has not been reported in eastern Asia and the Pacific region. We report local spread of bejel among men who have sex with men in Japan. Spread was complicated by venereal syphilis.

EID Kawahata T, Kojima Y, Furubayashi K, Shinohara K, Shimizu T, Komano J, et al. Bejel, a Nonvenereal Treponematosis, among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1581-1583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181690
AMA Kawahata T, Kojima Y, Furubayashi K, et al. Bejel, a Nonvenereal Treponematosis, among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1581-1583. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181690.
APA Kawahata, T., Kojima, Y., Furubayashi, K., Shinohara, K., Shimizu, T., Komano, J....Motomura, K. (2019). Bejel, a Nonvenereal Treponematosis, among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1581-1583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181690.

Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 in Traveler Returning from Puerto Rico to Dominican Republic [PDF - 600 KB - 3 pages]
R. Rojas et al.

We report blaKPC-2–harboring carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in an emerging sequence type 307 lineage in a traveler returning from Puerto Rico to the Dominican Republic. Phylogenetic analyses indicate regional dissemination of this highly drug-resistant clone across the Americas, underscoring the need for adequate surveillance and infection control efforts to prevent further spread.

EID Rojas R, Macesic N, Tolari G, Guzman A, Uhlemann A. Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 in Traveler Returning from Puerto Rico to Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1583-1585. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.171730
AMA Rojas R, Macesic N, Tolari G, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 in Traveler Returning from Puerto Rico to Dominican Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1583-1585. doi:10.3201/eid2508.171730.
APA Rojas, R., Macesic, N., Tolari, G., Guzman, A., & Uhlemann, A. (2019). Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 in Traveler Returning from Puerto Rico to Dominican Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1583-1585. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.171730.

Feast of Sacrifice and Orf, Milan, Italy, 2015–2018 [PDF - 361 KB - 2 pages]
S. Veraldi et al.

Orf (ecthyma contagiosum) is an infection of the skin caused by a DNA virus belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus. We recently observed 7 cases of orf in Muslim men living in the metropolitan area of Milan, Italy, who acquired the infection after the Feast of Sacrifice.

EID Veraldi S, Esposito L, Pontini P, Vaira F, Nazzaro G. Feast of Sacrifice and Orf, Milan, Italy, 2015–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1585-1586. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181063
AMA Veraldi S, Esposito L, Pontini P, et al. Feast of Sacrifice and Orf, Milan, Italy, 2015–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1585-1586. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181063.
APA Veraldi, S., Esposito, L., Pontini, P., Vaira, F., & Nazzaro, G. (2019). Feast of Sacrifice and Orf, Milan, Italy, 2015–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1585-1586. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181063.

Erwinia billingiae as Unusual Cause of Septic Arthritis, France, 2017 [PDF - 421 KB - 3 pages]
I. Bonnet et al.

In 2017 in France, we treated a patient with knee septic arthritis caused by Erwinia billingiae after trauma involving a palm tree. This rare pathogen could only be identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. For bacterial infections after injuries with plants, 16S rRNA gene sequencing might be required for species identification.

EID Bonnet I, Bozzi B, Fourniols E, Mitrovic S, Soulier-Escrihuela O, Brossier F, et al. Erwinia billingiae as Unusual Cause of Septic Arthritis, France, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1587-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181073
AMA Bonnet I, Bozzi B, Fourniols E, et al. Erwinia billingiae as Unusual Cause of Septic Arthritis, France, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1587-1589. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181073.
APA Bonnet, I., Bozzi, B., Fourniols, E., Mitrovic, S., Soulier-Escrihuela, O., Brossier, F....Aubry, A. (2019). Erwinia billingiae as Unusual Cause of Septic Arthritis, France, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1587-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181073.

Chikungunya Fever Outbreak, Zhejiang Province, China, 2017
J. Pan et al.

We report a disease outbreak caused by chikungunya virus in Zhejiang Province, China, in August 2017. Phylogenic analysis indicated that this virus belonged to the Indian Ocean clade of the East/Central/South African genotype and was imported by a traveler returning from Bangladesh.

EID Pan J, Fang C, Yan J, Yan H, Zhan B, Sun Y, et al. Chikungunya Fever Outbreak, Zhejiang Province, China, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1589-1591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181212
AMA Pan J, Fang C, Yan J, et al. Chikungunya Fever Outbreak, Zhejiang Province, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1589-1591. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181212.
APA Pan, J., Fang, C., Yan, J., Yan, H., Zhan, B., Sun, Y....Chen, E. (2019). Chikungunya Fever Outbreak, Zhejiang Province, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1589-1591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181212.

Early Questing by Lone Star Tick Larvae, New York and Massachusetts, USA, 2018 [PDF - 658 KB - 2 pages]
S. R. Telford et al.

Subtropical lone star tick larvae typically emerge in late summer. We found clusters of host-seeking lone star tick larvae during early June 2018 in New York and Massachusetts, USA. Invasion and persistence of this tick in more northern locations may have been promoted by adaptation to an accelerated life cycle.

EID Telford SR, Buchthal J, Elias P. Early Questing by Lone Star Tick Larvae, New York and Massachusetts, USA, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1592-1593. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181293
AMA Telford SR, Buchthal J, Elias P. Early Questing by Lone Star Tick Larvae, New York and Massachusetts, USA, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1592-1593. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181293.
APA Telford, S. R., Buchthal, J., & Elias, P. (2019). Early Questing by Lone Star Tick Larvae, New York and Massachusetts, USA, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1592-1593. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181293.

Molecular Genotyping of Hepatitis A Virus, California, USA, 2017–2018 [PDF - 432 KB - 3 pages]
W. S. Probert et al.

We implemented subgenomic and whole-genome sequencing to support the investigation of a large hepatitis A virus outbreak among persons experiencing homelessness, users of illicit drugs, or both in California, USA, during 2017–2018. Genotyping data helped confirm case-patients, track chains of transmission, and monitor the effectiveness of public health control measures.

EID Probert WS, Gonzalez C, Espinosa A, Hacker JK. Molecular Genotyping of Hepatitis A Virus, California, USA, 2017–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1594-1596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181489
AMA Probert WS, Gonzalez C, Espinosa A, et al. Molecular Genotyping of Hepatitis A Virus, California, USA, 2017–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1594-1596. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181489.
APA Probert, W. S., Gonzalez, C., Espinosa, A., & Hacker, J. K. (2019). Molecular Genotyping of Hepatitis A Virus, California, USA, 2017–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1594-1596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181489.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Herat Province, Afghanistan, 2017 [PDF - 338 KB - 3 pages]
A. Niazi et al.

We studied the clinical and epidemiologic features of an outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Herat Province, Afghanistan. The study comprised 63 patients hospitalized in 2017. The overall case-fatality rate was 22.2%; fatal outcome was significantly associated with a negative IgM test result, longer prothrombin time, and nausea.

EID Niazi A, Jawad M, Amirnajad A, Durr PA, Williams DT. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Herat Province, Afghanistan, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1596-1598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181491
AMA Niazi A, Jawad M, Amirnajad A, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Herat Province, Afghanistan, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1596-1598. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181491.
APA Niazi, A., Jawad, M., Amirnajad, A., Durr, P. A., & Williams, D. T. (2019). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Herat Province, Afghanistan, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1596-1598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181491.

Prolonged Zika Virus RNA Detection in Semen of Immunosuppressed Patient [PDF - 369 KB - 3 pages]
C. Petridou et al.

Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen samples collected <370 days after symptom onset. We report unusual persistence of Zika virus RNA in semen, confirmed by sequencing at 515 days after symptom onset and detectable for >900 days, in a patient with immunosuppression.

EID Petridou C, Bonsall D, Ahmed A, Roberts M, Bell C, de Cesare M, et al. Prolonged Zika Virus RNA Detection in Semen of Immunosuppressed Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1598-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181543
AMA Petridou C, Bonsall D, Ahmed A, et al. Prolonged Zika Virus RNA Detection in Semen of Immunosuppressed Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1598-1600. doi:10.3201/eid2508.181543.
APA Petridou, C., Bonsall, D., Ahmed, A., Roberts, M., Bell, C., de Cesare, M....Aarons, E. (2019). Prolonged Zika Virus RNA Detection in Semen of Immunosuppressed Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1598-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.181543.

No Evidence for Role of Cutavirus in Malignant Melanoma [PDF - 350 KB - 3 pages]
U. Wieland et al.

Cutavirus was previously found in cutaneous melanoma. We detected cutavirus DNA in only 2/185 melanoma biopsies and in 0/52 melanoma metastases from patients in Germany. Viral DNA was localized in the upper epidermal layers. Swab specimens from healthy skin were cutavirus positive for 3.8% (9/237) of immunocompetent and 17.1% (35/205) of HIV-positive men.

EID Wieland U, Silling S, Hufbauer M, Mauch C, Zigrino P, Oellig F, et al. No Evidence for Role of Cutavirus in Malignant Melanoma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1600-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190096
AMA Wieland U, Silling S, Hufbauer M, et al. No Evidence for Role of Cutavirus in Malignant Melanoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1600-1602. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190096.
APA Wieland, U., Silling, S., Hufbauer, M., Mauch, C., Zigrino, P., Oellig, F....Akgül, B. (2019). No Evidence for Role of Cutavirus in Malignant Melanoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1600-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190096.

Intrafamily Transmission of Monkeypox Virus, Central African Republic, 2018 [PDF - 373 KB - 3 pages]
C. Besombes et al.

Monkeypox is a rare viral zoonotic disease; primary infections are reported from remote forest areas of Central and West Africa. We report an investigation of a monkeypox outbreak in Lobaye, southwest Central African Republic, in October 2018.

EID Besombes C, Gonofio E, Konamna X, Selekon B, Gessain A, Berthet N, et al. Intrafamily Transmission of Monkeypox Virus, Central African Republic, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1602-1604. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190112
AMA Besombes C, Gonofio E, Konamna X, et al. Intrafamily Transmission of Monkeypox Virus, Central African Republic, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1602-1604. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190112.
APA Besombes, C., Gonofio, E., Konamna, X., Selekon, B., Gessain, A., Berthet, N....Nakouné, E. (2019). Intrafamily Transmission of Monkeypox Virus, Central African Republic, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1602-1604. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190112.

Intact Mycobacterium leprae Isolated from Placenta of a Pregnant Woman, China [PDF - 1.54 MB - 4 pages]
Z. Chen et al.

Whether Mycobacterium leprae transmits from placenta to fetus remains unknown. We describe the case of a pregnant woman with untreated histoid leproma. Although her newborn was healthy, laboratory examination revealed intact M. leprae present in the placenta, suggesting that the placental barrier might prevent vertical dissemination of M. leprae.

EID Chen Z, Kuang Y, Jiang H, Zhang W, Shi Y, Chokkakula S, et al. Intact Mycobacterium leprae Isolated from Placenta of a Pregnant Woman, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1604-1607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190114
AMA Chen Z, Kuang Y, Jiang H, et al. Intact Mycobacterium leprae Isolated from Placenta of a Pregnant Woman, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1604-1607. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190114.
APA Chen, Z., Kuang, Y., Jiang, H., Zhang, W., Shi, Y., Chokkakula, S....Wang, H. (2019). Intact Mycobacterium leprae Isolated from Placenta of a Pregnant Woman, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1604-1607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190114.

Zoonotic Virus Seroprevalence among Bank Voles, Poland, 2002–2010 [PDF - 434 KB - 3 pages]
M. Grzybek et al.

Bank voles in Poland are reservoirs of zoonotic viruses. To determine seroprevalence of hantavirus, arenavirus, and cowpox virus and factors affecting seroprevalence, we screened for antibodies against these viruses over 9 years. Cowpox virus was most prevalent and affected by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Long-term and multisite surveillance is crucial.

EID Grzybek M, Sironen T, Mäki S, Tołkacz K, Alsarraf M, Strachecka A, et al. Zoonotic Virus Seroprevalence among Bank Voles, Poland, 2002–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1607-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190217
AMA Grzybek M, Sironen T, Mäki S, et al. Zoonotic Virus Seroprevalence among Bank Voles, Poland, 2002–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1607-1609. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190217.
APA Grzybek, M., Sironen, T., Mäki, S., Tołkacz, K., Alsarraf, M., Strachecka, A....Bajer, A. (2019). Zoonotic Virus Seroprevalence among Bank Voles, Poland, 2002–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1607-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190217.

Polio-Like Manifestation of Powassan Virus Infection with Anterior Horn Cell Involvement, Canada [PDF - 585 KB - 3 pages]
C. Picheca et al.

Evidence of spinal cord involvement in Powassan virus infection is largely limited to mouse models. We report a case of a polio-like illness caused by Powassan virus infection in a 62-year-old man in Canada. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T2 hyperintensities in the anterior horns of the cervical spinal cord.

EID Picheca C, Yogendrakumar V, Brooks JI, Torres C, Pringle E, Zwicker J. Polio-Like Manifestation of Powassan Virus Infection with Anterior Horn Cell Involvement, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1609-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190399
AMA Picheca C, Yogendrakumar V, Brooks JI, et al. Polio-Like Manifestation of Powassan Virus Infection with Anterior Horn Cell Involvement, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1609-1611. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190399.
APA Picheca, C., Yogendrakumar, V., Brooks, J. I., Torres, C., Pringle, E., & Zwicker, J. (2019). Polio-Like Manifestation of Powassan Virus Infection with Anterior Horn Cell Involvement, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1609-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190399.

Recombinant GII.Pe-GII.4 Norovirus, Thailand, 2017–2018 [PDF - 872 KB - 3 pages]
W. Chuchaona et al.

During June 2017–December 2018, norovirus was responsible for 10.9% of acute gastroenteritis cases in Thailand. Genogroup I (GI) was found in 14% of samples, of which 12 were co-infected with genogroup II (GII). In 35.8% of samples, GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney predominated. Diverse recombinant strains of GI and GII norovirus co-circulated year-round.

EID Chuchaona W, Chansaenroj J, Wanlapakorn N, Vongpunsawad S, Poovorawan Y. Recombinant GII.Pe-GII.4 Norovirus, Thailand, 2017–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1612-1614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190365
AMA Chuchaona W, Chansaenroj J, Wanlapakorn N, et al. Recombinant GII.Pe-GII.4 Norovirus, Thailand, 2017–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1612-1614. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190365.
APA Chuchaona, W., Chansaenroj, J., Wanlapakorn, N., Vongpunsawad, S., & Poovorawan, Y. (2019). Recombinant GII.Pe-GII.4 Norovirus, Thailand, 2017–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1612-1614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190365.

Sneathia amnii and Maternal Chorioamnionitis and Stillbirth, Mozambique [PDF - 1.67 MB - 3 pages]
P. Vitorino et al.

We report a case of Sneathia amnii as the causative agent of maternal chorioamnionitis and congenital pneumonia resulting in a late fetal death in Mozambique, with strong supportive postmortem molecular and histopathologic confirmation. This rare, fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus has been reported to infrequently cause abortions, stillbirths, and neonatal infections.

EID Vitorino P, Varo R, Castillo P, Hurtado J, Fernandes F, Valente A, et al. Sneathia amnii and Maternal Chorioamnionitis and Stillbirth, Mozambique. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1614-1616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190526
AMA Vitorino P, Varo R, Castillo P, et al. Sneathia amnii and Maternal Chorioamnionitis and Stillbirth, Mozambique. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1614-1616. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190526.
APA Vitorino, P., Varo, R., Castillo, P., Hurtado, J., Fernandes, F., Valente, A....Bassat, Q. (2019). Sneathia amnii and Maternal Chorioamnionitis and Stillbirth, Mozambique. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1614-1616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190526.
In Memoriam

In Memoriam: Myron Gilbert Schultz (1935–2016) [PDF - 414 KB - 3 pages]
D. M. Morens and R. A. Chitale
EID Morens DM, Chitale RA. In Memoriam: Myron Gilbert Schultz (1935–2016). Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1617-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190356
AMA Morens DM, Chitale RA. In Memoriam: Myron Gilbert Schultz (1935–2016). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1617-1619. doi:10.3201/eid2508.190356.
APA Morens, D. M., & Chitale, R. A. (2019). In Memoriam: Myron Gilbert Schultz (1935–2016). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1617-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.190356.
About the Cover

The Power of First Steps [PDF - 1.62 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove and K. Gensheimer
EID Breedlove B, Gensheimer K. The Power of First Steps. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1620-1621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.ac2508
AMA Breedlove B, Gensheimer K. The Power of First Steps. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1620-1621. doi:10.3201/eid2508.ac2508.
APA Breedlove, B., & Gensheimer, K. (2019). The Power of First Steps. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1620-1621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.ac2508.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Poliomyelitis [PDF - 406 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry
EID Henry R. Etymologia: Poliomyelitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.et2508
AMA Henry R. Etymologia: Poliomyelitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1611. doi:10.3201/eid2508.et2508.
APA Henry, R. (2019). Etymologia: Poliomyelitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.et2508.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 25, No. 6 [PDF - 349 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 25, No. 6. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.c22508
AMA Correction: Vol. 25, No. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1622. doi:10.3201/eid2508.c22508.
APA (2019). Correction: Vol. 25, No. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.c22508.

Correction: Vol. 18, No. 1 [PDF - 349 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 18, No. 1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.c12508
AMA Correction: Vol. 18, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1622. doi:10.3201/eid2508.c12508.
APA (2019). Correction: Vol. 18, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(8), 1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2508.c12508.
Page created: July 17, 2019
Page updated: July 17, 2019
Page reviewed: July 17, 2019
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