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Articles from Emerging Infectious Diseases

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Cross-Sectional Study of Clinical Predictors of Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA [PDF - 724 KB - 10 pages]
F. A. Ramadan et al.

Demographic and clinical indicators have been described to support identification of coccidioidomycosis; however, the interplay of these conditions has not been explored in a clinical setting. In 2019, we enrolled 392 participants in a cross-sectional study for suspected coccidioidomycosis in emergency departments and inpatient units in Coccidioides-endemic regions. We aimed to develop a predictive model among participants with suspected coccidioidomycosis. We applied a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator to specific coccidioidomycosis predictors and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Univariable models identified elevated eosinophil count as a statistically significant predictive feature of coccidioidomycosis in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Our multivariable outpatient model also identified rash (adjusted odds ratio 9.74 [95% CI 1.03–92.24]; p = 0.047) as a predictor. Our results suggest preliminary support for developing a coccidioidomycosis prediction model for use in clinical settings.

EID Ramadan FA, Ellingson KD, Canales RA, Bedrick EJ, Galgiani JN, Donovan FM. Cross-Sectional Study of Clinical Predictors of Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1091-1100. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212311
AMA Ramadan FA, Ellingson KD, Canales RA, et al. Cross-Sectional Study of Clinical Predictors of Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1091-1100. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212311.
APA Ramadan, F. A., Ellingson, K. D., Canales, R. A., Bedrick, E. J., Galgiani, J. N., & Donovan, F. M. (2022). Cross-Sectional Study of Clinical Predictors of Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1091-1100. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212311.

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 (Beta) Variant through Wastewater Surveillance before Case Detection in a Community, Oregon, USA [PDF - 1.95 MB - 9 pages]
M. Sutton et al.

Genomic surveillance has emerged as a critical monitoring tool during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Wastewater surveillance has the potential to identify and track SARS-CoV-2 variants in the community, including emerging variants. We demonstrate the novel use of multilocus sequence typing to identify SARS-CoV-2 variants in wastewater. Using this technique, we observed the emergence of the B.1.351 (Beta) variant in Linn County, Oregon, USA, in wastewater 12 days before this variant was identified in individual clinical specimens. During the study period, we identified 42 B.1.351 clinical specimens that clustered into 3 phylogenetic clades. Eighteen of the 19 clinical specimens and all wastewater B.1.351 specimens from Linn County clustered into clade 1. Our results provide further evidence of the reliability of wastewater surveillance to report localized SARS-CoV-2 sequence information.

EID Sutton M, Radniecki TS, Kaya D, Alegre D, Geniza M, Girard A, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 (Beta) Variant through Wastewater Surveillance before Case Detection in a Community, Oregon, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1101-1109. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211821
AMA Sutton M, Radniecki TS, Kaya D, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 (Beta) Variant through Wastewater Surveillance before Case Detection in a Community, Oregon, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1101-1109. doi:10.3201/eid2806.211821.
APA Sutton, M., Radniecki, T. S., Kaya, D., Alegre, D., Geniza, M., Girard, A....Tyler, B. M. (2022). Detection of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 (Beta) Variant through Wastewater Surveillance before Case Detection in a Community, Oregon, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1101-1109. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211821.

Foodborne Illness Outbreaks Reported to National Surveillance, United States, 2009–2018 [PDF - 2.90 MB - 11 pages]
A. E. White et al.

Foodborne outbreaks reported to national surveillance systems represent a subset of all outbreaks in the United States; not all outbreaks are detected, investigated, and reported. We described the structural factors and outbreak characteristics of outbreaks reported during 2009–2018. We categorized states (plus DC) as high (highest quintile), middle (middle 3 quintiles), or low (lowest quintile) reporters on the basis of the number of reported outbreaks per 10 million population. Analysis revealed considerable variation across states in the number and types of foodborne outbreaks reported. High-reporting states reported 4 times more outbreaks than low reporters. Low reporters were more likely than high reporters to report larger outbreaks and less likely to implicate a setting or food vehicle; however, we did not observe a significant difference in the types of food vehicles identified. Per capita funding was strongly associated with increased reporting. Investments in public health programming have a measurable effect on outbreak reporting.

EID White AE, Tillman AR, Hedberg C, Bruce BB, Batz M, Seys SA, et al. Foodborne Illness Outbreaks Reported to National Surveillance, United States, 2009–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1117-1127. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211555
AMA White AE, Tillman AR, Hedberg C, et al. Foodborne Illness Outbreaks Reported to National Surveillance, United States, 2009–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1117-1127. doi:10.3201/eid2806.211555.
APA White, A. E., Tillman, A. R., Hedberg, C., Bruce, B. B., Batz, M., Seys, S. A....Walter, E. (2022). Foodborne Illness Outbreaks Reported to National Surveillance, United States, 2009–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1117-1127. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211555.

Medscape CME Activity
Antimicrobial-Resistant Shigella spp. in San Diego, California, USA, 2017–2020 [PDF - 1.11 MB - 7 pages]
T. Gaufin et al.

Annually, Shigella spp. cause ≈188 million cases of diarrheal disease globally, including 500,000 cases in the United States; rates of antimicrobial resistance are increasing. To determine antimicrobial resistance and risk factors in San Diego, California, USA, we retrospectively reviewed cases of diarrheal disease caused by Shigella flexneri and S. sonnei diagnosed during 2017–2020. Of 128 evaluable cases, S. flexneri was slightly more common than S. sonnei; most cases were in persons who were gay or bisexual cisgender men, were living with HIV, were unhoused, or used methamphetamines. Overall, rates of resistance to azithromycin, fluoroquinolones, ampicillin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were comparable to the most recent national data reported from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 55% of isolates were resistant to azithromycin, 23% to fluoroquinolones, 70% to ampicillin, and 83% to TMP/SMX. The rates that we found for TMP/SMX were slightly higher than those in national data.

EID Gaufin T, Blumenthal J, Ramirez-Sanchez C, Mehta S, Pride DT, Fierer J, et al. Antimicrobial-Resistant Shigella spp. in San Diego, California, USA, 2017–2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1110-1116. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220131
AMA Gaufin T, Blumenthal J, Ramirez-Sanchez C, et al. Antimicrobial-Resistant Shigella spp. in San Diego, California, USA, 2017–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1110-1116. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220131.
APA Gaufin, T., Blumenthal, J., Ramirez-Sanchez, C., Mehta, S., Pride, D. T., Fierer, J....Jenks, J. D. (2022). Antimicrobial-Resistant Shigella spp. in San Diego, California, USA, 2017–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1110-1116. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220131.
Research

Characterization of Healthcare-Associated and Community-Associated Clostridioides difficile Infections among Adults, Canada, 2015–2019 [PDF - 1.47 MB - 9 pages]
T. Du et al.

We investigated epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of healthcare-associated (HA) and community-associated (CA) Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) among adult patients in Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program hospitals during 2015–2019. The study encompassed 18,455 CDI cases, 13,735 (74.4%) HA and 4,720 (25.6%) CA. During 2015–2019, HA CDI rates decreased by 23.8%, whereas CA decreased by 18.8%. HA CDI was significantly associated with increased 30-day all-cause mortality as compared with CA CDI (p<0.01). Of 2,506 isolates analyzed, the most common ribotypes (RTs) were RT027, RT106, RT014, and RT020. RT027 was more often associated with CDI-attributable death than was non-RT027, regardless of acquisition type. Overall resistance C. difficile rates were similar for all drugs tested except moxifloxacin. Adult HA and CA CDI rates have declined, coinciding with changes in prevalence of RT027 and RT106. Infection prevention and control and continued national surveillance are integral to clarifying CDI epidemiology, investigation, and control.

EID Du T, Choi KB, Silva A, Golding GR, Pelude L, Hizon R, et al. Characterization of Healthcare-Associated and Community-Associated Clostridioides difficile Infections among Adults, Canada, 2015–2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1128-1136. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212262
AMA Du T, Choi KB, Silva A, et al. Characterization of Healthcare-Associated and Community-Associated Clostridioides difficile Infections among Adults, Canada, 2015–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1128-1136. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212262.
APA Du, T., Choi, K. B., Silva, A., Golding, G. R., Pelude, L., Hizon, R....Hota, S. S. (2022). Characterization of Healthcare-Associated and Community-Associated Clostridioides difficile Infections among Adults, Canada, 2015–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1128-1136. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212262.

Divergent Rabies Virus Variant of Probable Bat Origin in 2 Gray Foxes, New Mexico, USA [PDF - 2.19 MB - 9 pages]
R. E. Condori et al.

In the Western Hemisphere, bat-associated rabies viruses (RABVs) have established independent transmission cycles in multiple mammal hosts, forming genetically distinct lineages. In New Mexico, USA, skunks, bats, and gray foxes are rabies reservoir hosts and represent a public health risk because of encounters with humans. During 2015 and 2019, two previously undescribed RABVs were detected in 2 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in Lincoln County, New Mexico. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein gene indicated that the isolates are a novel RABV variant. These 2 cases probably represent repeated spillover events from an unknown bat reservoir to gray foxes. Molecular analysis of rabies cases across New Mexico identified that other cross-species transmission events were the result of viral variants previously known to be enzootic to New Mexico. Despite a robust rabies public health surveillance system in the United States, advances in testing and surveillance techniques continue to identify previously unrecognized zoonotic pathogens.

EID Condori RE, Aragon A, Breckenridge M, Pesko K, Mower K, Ettestad P, et al. Divergent Rabies Virus Variant of Probable Bat Origin in 2 Gray Foxes, New Mexico, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1137-1145. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211718
AMA Condori RE, Aragon A, Breckenridge M, et al. Divergent Rabies Virus Variant of Probable Bat Origin in 2 Gray Foxes, New Mexico, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1137-1145. doi:10.3201/eid2806.211718.
APA Condori, R. E., Aragon, A., Breckenridge, M., Pesko, K., Mower, K., Ettestad, P....Li, Y. (2022). Divergent Rabies Virus Variant of Probable Bat Origin in 2 Gray Foxes, New Mexico, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1137-1145. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211718.

Effects of Acute Dengue Infection on Sperm and Virus Clearance in Body Fluids of Men [PDF - 1.73 MB - 8 pages]
J. Mons et al.

We investigated the effects of dengue virus (DENV) on semen using samples collected 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days after symptom onset from 10 infected volunteers on Réunion Island. We assessed characteristics of semen and reproductive hormones and isolated motile spermatozoa from semen. We assayed semen for DENV using reverse transcription PCR and searched for DENV RNA by virus isolation in Vero E6 cell cultures. Four volunteers had >1 DENV RNA-positive semen samples; 2 volunteers had DENV RNA–positive semen at day 15 and 1 at day 30. No motile sperm were DENV positive. After exposure to positive semen, few Vero E6 cells stained positive for DENV antigens, indicating low levels of replicative virus. We found DENV had shorter duration in semen than in blood. These findings support the possibilities that DENV is sexually transmissible for a short period after acute dengue illness and that acute dengue induces reversible alterations in sperm.

EID Mons J, Mahé-Poiron D, Mansuy J, Lheureux H, Nigon D, Moinard N, et al. Effects of Acute Dengue Infection on Sperm and Virus Clearance in Body Fluids of Men. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1146-1153. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212317
AMA Mons J, Mahé-Poiron D, Mansuy J, et al. Effects of Acute Dengue Infection on Sperm and Virus Clearance in Body Fluids of Men. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1146-1153. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212317.
APA Mons, J., Mahé-Poiron, D., Mansuy, J., Lheureux, H., Nigon, D., Moinard, N....Bujan, L. (2022). Effects of Acute Dengue Infection on Sperm and Virus Clearance in Body Fluids of Men. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1146-1153. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212317.

Risk Factors for SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Illness in Cats and Dogs [PDF - 1.51 MB - 9 pages]
D. Bienzle et al.

We tested swab specimens from pets in households in Ontario, Canada, with human COVID-19 cases by quantitative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 and surveyed pet owners for risk factors associated with infection and seropositivity. We tested serum samples for spike protein IgG and IgM in household pets and also in animals from shelters and low-cost neuter clinics. Among household pets, 2% (1/49) of swab specimens from dogs and 7.7% (5/65) from cats were PCR positive, but 41% of dog serum samples and 52% of cat serum samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG or IgM. The likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in pet samples was higher for cats but not dogs that slept on owners’ beds and for dogs and cats that contracted a new illness. Seropositivity in neuter-clinic samples was 16% (35/221); in shelter samples, 9.3% (7/75). Our findings indicate a high likelihood for pets in households of humans with COVID-19 to seroconvert and become ill.

EID Bienzle D, Rousseau J, Marom D, MacNicol J, Jacobson L, Sparling S, et al. Risk Factors for SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Illness in Cats and Dogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1154-1162. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220423
AMA Bienzle D, Rousseau J, Marom D, et al. Risk Factors for SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Illness in Cats and Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1154-1162. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220423.
APA Bienzle, D., Rousseau, J., Marom, D., MacNicol, J., Jacobson, L., Sparling, S....Weese, J. (2022). Risk Factors for SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Illness in Cats and Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1154-1162. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220423.

Angiostrongylus cantonensis Nematode Invasion Pathway, Mallorca, Spain [PDF - 2.48 MB - 7 pages]
S. Delgado-Serra et al.

Neural angiostrongyliasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. In humans, infection with this nematode often results in eosinophilic meningitis and other severe disorders of the central nervous system. Europe was deemed a nonendemic region until 2018, when A. cantonensis worms were detected on the Mediterranean island of Mallorca, Spain, a tourism hotspot. Since that time, a sentinel surveillance system and a molecular approach have been used to follow the invasion path of the rat lungworm on the island. A. cantonensis worms have been found in animals from 8 locations on the island over 3 consecutive years. Our preliminary results show a recognizable pattern of clinical signs in infected hedgehogs and a single mitochondrial haplotype circulating in Mallorca. We present strong evidence confirming that the rat lungworm has successfully established and colonized an island in Europe and discuss observations and possible strategies for its early detection across continental Europe.

EID Delgado-Serra S, Sola J, Negre N, Paredes-Esquivel C. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Nematode Invasion Pathway, Mallorca, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1163-1169. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212344
AMA Delgado-Serra S, Sola J, Negre N, et al. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Nematode Invasion Pathway, Mallorca, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1163-1169. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212344.
APA Delgado-Serra, S., Sola, J., Negre, N., & Paredes-Esquivel, C. (2022). Angiostrongylus cantonensis Nematode Invasion Pathway, Mallorca, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1163-1169. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212344.

Economic Burden of Reported Lyme Disease in High-Incidence Areas, United States, 2014–2016 [PDF - 1.59 MB - 10 pages]
S. A. Hook et al.

Approximately 476,000 cases of Lyme disease are diagnosed in the United States annually, yet comprehensive economic evaluations are lacking. In a prospective study among reported cases in Lyme disease–endemic states, we estimated the total patient cost and total societal cost of the disease. In addition, we evaluated disease and demographic factors associated with total societal cost. Participants had a mean patient cost of ≈$1,200 (median $240) and a mean societal cost of ≈$2,000 (median $700). Patients with confirmed disseminated disease or probable disease had approximately double the societal cost of those with confirmed localized disease. The annual, aggregate cost of diagnosed Lyme disease could be $345–968 million (2016 US dollars) to US society. Our findings emphasize the importance of effective prevention and early diagnosis to reduce illness and associated costs. These results can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses of current and future prevention methods, such as a vaccine.

EID Hook SA, Jeon S, Niesobecki SA, Hansen AP, Meek JI, Bjork J, et al. Economic Burden of Reported Lyme Disease in High-Incidence Areas, United States, 2014–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1170-1179. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211335
AMA Hook SA, Jeon S, Niesobecki SA, et al. Economic Burden of Reported Lyme Disease in High-Incidence Areas, United States, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1170-1179. doi:10.3201/eid2806.211335.
APA Hook, S. A., Jeon, S., Niesobecki, S. A., Hansen, A. P., Meek, J. I., Bjork, J....Hinckley, A. F. (2022). Economic Burden of Reported Lyme Disease in High-Incidence Areas, United States, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1170-1179. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211335.

Effect of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Zaire Ebola Virus Vaccination on Ebola Virus Disease Illness and Death, Democratic Republic of the Congo [PDF - 1.45 MB - 9 pages]
N. Rupani et al.

We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the effect vaccination with the live-attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus–Zaire Ebola virus vaccine had on deaths among patients who had laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD). We included EVD-positive patients coming to an Ebola Treatment Center in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo during 2018–2020. Overall, 25% of patients vaccinated before symptom onset died compared with 63% of unvaccinated patients. Vaccinated patients reported fewer EVD-associated symptoms, had reduced time to clearance of viral load, and had reduced length of stay at the Ebola Treatment Center. After controlling for confounders, vaccination was strongly associated with decreased deaths. Reduction in deaths was not affected by timing of vaccination before or after EVD exposure. These findings support use of preexposure and postexposure recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus–Zaire Ebola virus vaccine as an intervention associated with improved death rates, illness, and recovery time among patients with EVD.

EID Rupani N, Ngole M, Lee J, Aluisio AR, Gainey M, Perera SM, et al. Effect of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Zaire Ebola Virus Vaccination on Ebola Virus Disease Illness and Death, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1180-1188. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212223
AMA Rupani N, Ngole M, Lee J, et al. Effect of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Zaire Ebola Virus Vaccination on Ebola Virus Disease Illness and Death, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1180-1188. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212223.
APA Rupani, N., Ngole, M., Lee, J., Aluisio, A. R., Gainey, M., Perera, S. M....Kearney, A. S. (2022). Effect of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Zaire Ebola Virus Vaccination on Ebola Virus Disease Illness and Death, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1180-1188. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212223.

Risk Prediction Score for Pediatric Patients with Suspected Ebola Virus Disease [PDF - 2.13 MB - 9 pages]
A. E. Genisca et al.

Rapid diagnostic tools for children with Ebola virus disease (EVD) are needed to expedite isolation and treatment. To evaluate a predictive diagnostic tool, we examined retrospective data (2014–2015) from the International Medical Corps Ebola Treatment Centers in West Africa. We incorporated statistically derived candidate predictors into a 7-point Pediatric Ebola Risk Score. Evidence of bleeding or having known or no known Ebola contacts was positively associated with an EVD diagnosis, whereas abdominal pain was negatively associated. Model discrimination using area under the curve (AUC) was 0.87, which outperforms the World Health Organization criteria (AUC 0.56). External validation, performed by using data from International Medical Corps Ebola Treatment Centers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 2018–2019, showed an AUC of 0.70. External validation showed that discrimination achieved by using World Health Organization criteria was similar; however, the Pediatric Ebola Risk Score is simpler to use.

EID Genisca AE, Chu T, Huang L, Gainey M, Adeniji M, Mbong EN, et al. Risk Prediction Score for Pediatric Patients with Suspected Ebola Virus Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1189-1197. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212265
AMA Genisca AE, Chu T, Huang L, et al. Risk Prediction Score for Pediatric Patients with Suspected Ebola Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1189-1197. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212265.
APA Genisca, A. E., Chu, T., Huang, L., Gainey, M., Adeniji, M., Mbong, E. N....Michelow, I. C. (2022). Risk Prediction Score for Pediatric Patients with Suspected Ebola Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1189-1197. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212265.

Retrospective Genomic Characterization of a 2017 Dengue Virus Outbreak, Burkina Faso [PDF - 8.51 MB - 13 pages]
A. G. Letizia et al.

Knowledge of contemporary genetic composition of dengue virus (DENV) in Africa is lacking. By using next-generation sequencing of samples from the 2017 DENV outbreak in Burkina Faso, we isolated 29 DENV genomes (5 serotype 1, 16 serotype 2 [DENV-2], and 8 serotype 3). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the endemic nature of DENV-2 in Burkina Faso. We noted discordant diagnostic results, probably related to genetic divergence between these genomes and the Trioplex PCR. Forward and reverse1 primers had a single mismatch when mapped to the DENV-2 genomes, probably explaining the insensitivity of the molecular test. Although we observed considerable homogeneity between the Dengvaxia and TetraVax-DV-TV003 vaccine strains as well as B cell epitopes compared with these genomes, we noted unique divergence. Continual surveillance of dengue virus in Africa is needed to clarify the ongoing novel evolutionary dynamics of circulating virus populations and support the development of effective diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive countermeasures.

EID Letizia AG, Pratt CB, Wiley MR, Fox AT, Mosore M, Agbodzi B, et al. Retrospective Genomic Characterization of a 2017 Dengue Virus Outbreak, Burkina Faso. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1198-1210. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212491
AMA Letizia AG, Pratt CB, Wiley MR, et al. Retrospective Genomic Characterization of a 2017 Dengue Virus Outbreak, Burkina Faso. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1198-1210. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212491.
APA Letizia, A. G., Pratt, C. B., Wiley, M. R., Fox, A. T., Mosore, M., Agbodzi, B....Sangaré, L. (2022). Retrospective Genomic Characterization of a 2017 Dengue Virus Outbreak, Burkina Faso. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1198-1210. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212491.

Geographic Origin and Vertical Transmission of Leishmania infantum Parasites in Hunting Hounds, United States [PDF - 6.03 MB - 13 pages]
S. U. Franssen et al.

Vertical transmission of leishmaniasis is common but is difficult to study against the background of pervasive vector transmission. We present genomic data from dogs in the United States infected with Leishmania infantum parasites; these infections have persisted in the apparent absence of vector transmission. We demonstrate that these parasites were introduced from the Old World separately and more recently than L. infantum from South America. The parasite population shows unusual genetics consistent with a lack of meiosis: a high level of heterozygous sites shared across all isolates and no decrease in linkage with genomic distance between variants. Our data confirm that this parasite population has been evolving with little or no sexual reproduction. This demonstration of vertical transmission has profound implications for the population genetics of Leishmania parasites. When investigating transmission in complex natural settings, considering vertical transmission alongside vector transmission is vital.

EID Franssen SU, Sanders MJ, Berriman M, Petersen CA, Cotton JA. Geographic Origin and Vertical Transmission of Leishmania infantum Parasites in Hunting Hounds, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1211-1223. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211746
AMA Franssen SU, Sanders MJ, Berriman M, et al. Geographic Origin and Vertical Transmission of Leishmania infantum Parasites in Hunting Hounds, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1211-1223. doi:10.3201/eid2806.211746.
APA Franssen, S. U., Sanders, M. J., Berriman, M., Petersen, C. A., & Cotton, J. A. (2022). Geographic Origin and Vertical Transmission of Leishmania infantum Parasites in Hunting Hounds, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1211-1223. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211746.
Dispatches

Secondary Attack Rate, Transmission and Incubation Periods, and Serial Interval of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant, Spain [PDF - 1020 KB - 5 pages]
J. Del Águila-Mejía et al.

Contact tracing data of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant cases during December 2021 in Cantabria, Spain, showed increased transmission (secondary attack rate 39%) compared with Delta cases (secondary attack rate 26%), uninfluenced by vaccination status. Incubation and serial interval periods were also reduced. Half of Omicron transmissions happened before symptom onset in the index case-patient.

EID Del Águila-Mejía J, Wallmann R, Calvo-Montes J, Rodríguez-Lozano J, Valle-Madrazo T, Aginagalde-Llorente A. Secondary Attack Rate, Transmission and Incubation Periods, and Serial Interval of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1224-1228. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220158
AMA Del Águila-Mejía J, Wallmann R, Calvo-Montes J, et al. Secondary Attack Rate, Transmission and Incubation Periods, and Serial Interval of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1224-1228. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220158.
APA Del Águila-Mejía, J., Wallmann, R., Calvo-Montes, J., Rodríguez-Lozano, J., Valle-Madrazo, T., & Aginagalde-Llorente, A. (2022). Secondary Attack Rate, Transmission and Incubation Periods, and Serial Interval of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1224-1228. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220158.

Introduction and Rapid Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant and Dynamics of BA.1 and BA.1.1 Sublineages, Finland, December 2021 [PDF - 1.20 MB - 4 pages]
H. Vauhkonen et al.

Multiple introductions of SARS-COV-2 Omicron variant BA.1 and BA.1.1. lineages to Finland were detected in early December 2021. Within 3 weeks, Omicron overtook Delta as the most common variant in the capital region. Sequence analysis demonstrated the emergence and spread through community transmission of a large cluster of BA.1.1 virus.

EID Vauhkonen H, Nguyen P, Kant R, Plyusnin I, Erdin M, Kurkela S, et al. Introduction and Rapid Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant and Dynamics of BA.1 and BA.1.1 Sublineages, Finland, December 2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1229-1232. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220515
AMA Vauhkonen H, Nguyen P, Kant R, et al. Introduction and Rapid Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant and Dynamics of BA.1 and BA.1.1 Sublineages, Finland, December 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1229-1232. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220515.
APA Vauhkonen, H., Nguyen, P., Kant, R., Plyusnin, I., Erdin, M., Kurkela, S....Vapalahti, O. (2022). Introduction and Rapid Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant and Dynamics of BA.1 and BA.1.1 Sublineages, Finland, December 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1229-1232. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220515.

Rapid Increase of Community SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence during Second Wave of COVID-19, Yaoundé, Cameroon [PDF - 369 KB - 4 pages]
F. Ndongo et al.

We conducted 2 independent population-based SARS-CoV-2 serosurveys in Yaoundé, Cameroon, during January 27–February 6 and April 24–May 19, 2021. Overall age-standardized SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence increased from 18.6% in the first survey to 51.3% in the second (p<0.001). This finding illustrates high community transmission during the second wave of COVID-19.

EID Ndongo F, Guichet E, Mimbé E, Ndié J, Pelloquin R, Varloteaux M, et al. Rapid Increase of Community SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence during Second Wave of COVID-19, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1233-1236. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212580
AMA Ndongo F, Guichet E, Mimbé E, et al. Rapid Increase of Community SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence during Second Wave of COVID-19, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1233-1236. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212580.
APA Ndongo, F., Guichet, E., Mimbé, E., Ndié, J., Pelloquin, R., Varloteaux, M....Mpoudi-Ngolé, E. (2022). Rapid Increase of Community SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence during Second Wave of COVID-19, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1233-1236. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212580.

Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response to CoronaVac followed by Booster Dose of BNT162b2 Vaccine [PDF - 1.62 MB - 4 pages]
M. Fonseca et al.

We evaluated the longitudinal dynamics of antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine CoronaVac and the effect of a booster dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. We found a robust antibody response after the second dose of CoronaVac that wanes over time. The response was recovered by BNT162b2, which boosted anti-spike antibody titers.

EID Fonseca M, Pinto A, Silva M, de Melo A, Vasconcelos G, dos Santos E, et al. Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response to CoronaVac followed by Booster Dose of BNT162b2 Vaccine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1237-1240. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220061
AMA Fonseca M, Pinto A, Silva M, et al. Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response to CoronaVac followed by Booster Dose of BNT162b2 Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1237-1240. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220061.
APA Fonseca, M., Pinto, A., Silva, M., de Melo, A., Vasconcelos, G., dos Santos, E....de Andrade, L. (2022). Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response to CoronaVac followed by Booster Dose of BNT162b2 Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1237-1240. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220061.

Outbreak of Imported Seventh Pandemic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, Algeria, 2018 [PDF - 1.25 MB - 5 pages]
N. Benamrouche et al.

After a lull of >20 years, Algeria experienced a cholera outbreak in 2018 that included 291 suspected cases. We found that outbreak isolates were Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa from seventh pandemic El Tor sublineage AFR14, which corresponds to a new introduction of cholera into Africa from South Asia.

EID Benamrouche N, Belkader C, Njamkepo E, Zemam S, Sadat S, Saighi K, et al. Outbreak of Imported Seventh Pandemic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, Algeria, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1241-1245. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212451
AMA Benamrouche N, Belkader C, Njamkepo E, et al. Outbreak of Imported Seventh Pandemic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, Algeria, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1241-1245. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212451.
APA Benamrouche, N., Belkader, C., Njamkepo, E., Zemam, S., Sadat, S., Saighi, K....Weill, F. (2022). Outbreak of Imported Seventh Pandemic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, Algeria, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1241-1245. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212451.

Burkholderia pseudomallei in Environment of Adolescent Siblings with Melioidosis, Kerala, India, 2019 [PDF - 1.39 MB - 4 pages]
P. Bhaskaran et al.

In 2019, Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from the backyard of 2 siblings with melioidosis in Kerala, India. This finding highlights the value of healthcare providers being aware of risk for melioidosis in febrile patients, of residents taking precautions when outside, and of increasing environmental surveillance for B. pseudomallei in this region.

EID Bhaskaran P, Prasad V, Gopinathan A, Shaw T, Sivadas S, Jayakumar C, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei in Environment of Adolescent Siblings with Melioidosis, Kerala, India, 2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1246-1249. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211526
AMA Bhaskaran P, Prasad V, Gopinathan A, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei in Environment of Adolescent Siblings with Melioidosis, Kerala, India, 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1246-1249. doi:10.3201/eid2806.211526.
APA Bhaskaran, P., Prasad, V., Gopinathan, A., Shaw, T., Sivadas, S., Jayakumar, C....Kumar, A. (2022). Burkholderia pseudomallei in Environment of Adolescent Siblings with Melioidosis, Kerala, India, 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1246-1249. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211526.

Lizards as Silent Hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi [PDF - 561 KB - 4 pages]
C. Botto-Mahan et al.

We assessed 4 lizard species in Chile for Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, and 1 species for its ability to transmit the protozoan to uninfected kissing bugs. All lizard species were infected, and the tested species was capable of transmitting the protozoan, highlighting their role as T. cruzi reservoirs.

EID Botto-Mahan C, Correa JP, Araya-Donoso R, Farías F, San Juan E, Quiroga N, et al. Lizards as Silent Hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1250-1253. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220079
AMA Botto-Mahan C, Correa JP, Araya-Donoso R, et al. Lizards as Silent Hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1250-1253. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220079.
APA Botto-Mahan, C., Correa, J. P., Araya-Donoso, R., Farías, F., San Juan, E., Quiroga, N....González-Acuña, D. (2022). Lizards as Silent Hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1250-1253. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220079.

Public Health Response to Multistate Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak Associated with Prepackaged Chicken Salad, United States, 2018 [PDF - 319 KB - 3 pages]
B. Greening et al.

Quantifying the effect of public health actions on population health is essential when justifying sustained public health investment. Using modeling, we conservatively estimated that rapid response to a multistate foodborne outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium in the United States in 2018 potentially averted 94 reported cases and $633,181 in medical costs and productivity losses.

EID Greening B, Whitham HK, Aldous WK, Hall N, Garvey A, Mandernach S, et al. Public Health Response to Multistate Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak Associated with Prepackaged Chicken Salad, United States, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1254-1256. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211633
AMA Greening B, Whitham HK, Aldous WK, et al. Public Health Response to Multistate Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak Associated with Prepackaged Chicken Salad, United States, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1254-1256. doi:10.3201/eid2806.211633.
APA Greening, B., Whitham, H. K., Aldous, W. K., Hall, N., Garvey, A., Mandernach, S....Hoffmann, S. (2022). Public Health Response to Multistate Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak Associated with Prepackaged Chicken Salad, United States, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1254-1256. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211633.

Zoonotic Transmission of Diphtheria from Domestic Animal Reservoir, Spain [PDF - 749 KB - 4 pages]
A. Hoefer et al.

Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans is as an emerging zoonotic agent of diphtheria. We describe the zoonotic transmission of diphtheria caused by toxigenic C. ulcerans from domestic animals in Spain, confirmed by core-genome multilocus sequence typing. Alongside an increasing number of recent publications, our findings highlight the public health threat posed by diphtheria reemergence.

EID Hoefer A, Herrera-León S, Domínguez L, Gavín M, Romero B, Piedra X, et al. Zoonotic Transmission of Diphtheria from Domestic Animal Reservoir, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1257-1260. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211956
AMA Hoefer A, Herrera-León S, Domínguez L, et al. Zoonotic Transmission of Diphtheria from Domestic Animal Reservoir, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1257-1260. doi:10.3201/eid2806.211956.
APA Hoefer, A., Herrera-León, S., Domínguez, L., Gavín, M., Romero, B., Piedra, X....Herrera-León, L. (2022). Zoonotic Transmission of Diphtheria from Domestic Animal Reservoir, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1257-1260. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211956.

New Variant of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Sequence Type 3, Serotype O10:K4, China, 2020 [PDF - 1.85 MB - 4 pages]
Y. Huang et al.

In 2020, a new serotype of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O10:K4 emerged and caused several outbreaks and sporadic cases in Guangxi, China. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that those strains are new variants of the sequence type 3 pandemic clone. The new serotype may become dominant, warranting enhanced investigations and surveillance.

EID Huang Y, Du Y, Wang H, Tan D, Su A, Li X, et al. New Variant of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Sequence Type 3, Serotype O10:K4, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1261-1264. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211871
AMA Huang Y, Du Y, Wang H, et al. New Variant of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Sequence Type 3, Serotype O10:K4, China, 2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1261-1264. doi:10.3201/eid2806.211871.
APA Huang, Y., Du, Y., Wang, H., Tan, D., Su, A., Li, X....Lin, M. (2022). New Variant of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Sequence Type 3, Serotype O10:K4, China, 2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1261-1264. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.211871.

Fasciolopsis buski Detected in Humans in Bihar and Pigs in Assam, India [PDF - 1.24 MB - 4 pages]
D. Saikia et al.

The foodborne intestinal trematode Fasciolopsis buski causes the neglected zoonotic disease fasciolopsiasis. We detected F. buski infection in 14 pediatric patients in Sitamarhi, Bihar, and in pigs in Sivasagar, Assam, India. Proper diagnostic methods and surveillance are urgently needed to accurately estimate the true burden of this disease in India.

EID Saikia D, Prasad YK, Dahal S, Ghatani S. Fasciolopsis buski Detected in Humans in Bihar and Pigs in Assam, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1265-1268. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220171
AMA Saikia D, Prasad YK, Dahal S, et al. Fasciolopsis buski Detected in Humans in Bihar and Pigs in Assam, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1265-1268. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220171.
APA Saikia, D., Prasad, Y. K., Dahal, S., & Ghatani, S. (2022). Fasciolopsis buski Detected in Humans in Bihar and Pigs in Assam, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1265-1268. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220171.

Identification of Human Case of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Infection, India [PDF - 4.09 MB - 5 pages]
V. Potdar et al.

A 11-year-old boy with acute myeloid leukemia was brought for treatment of severe acute respiratory infection in the National Capital Region, New Delhi, India. Avian influenza A(H5N1) infection was laboratory confirmed. Complete genome analysis indicated hemagglutinin gene clade 2.3.2.1a. We found the strain to be susceptible to amantadine and neuraminidase inhibitors.

EID Potdar V, Brijwal M, Lodha R, Yadav P, Jadhav S, Choudhary M, et al. Identification of Human Case of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Infection, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1269-1273. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212246
AMA Potdar V, Brijwal M, Lodha R, et al. Identification of Human Case of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Infection, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1269-1273. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212246.
APA Potdar, V., Brijwal, M., Lodha, R., Yadav, P., Jadhav, S., Choudhary, M....Abraham, P. (2022). Identification of Human Case of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Infection, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1269-1273. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212246.
Research Letters

Serum Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 after BNT162b2 Booster Vaccination [PDF - 382 KB - 2 pages]
R. M. Pedersen et al.

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant BA.2 sublineage is rapidly replacing earlier Omicron lineages, suggesting BA.2 has increased vaccine evasion properties. We measured neutralization titers of authentic BA.1 and BA.2 isolates in serum samples from persons who received the BNT162b2 booster vaccine. All samples neutralized BA.1 and BA.2 at equal median values.

EID Pedersen RM, Bang LL, Madsen LW, Sydenham TV, Johansen IS, Jensen TG, et al. Serum Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 after BNT162b2 Booster Vaccination. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1274-1275. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220503
AMA Pedersen RM, Bang LL, Madsen LW, et al. Serum Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 after BNT162b2 Booster Vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1274-1275. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220503.
APA Pedersen, R. M., Bang, L. L., Madsen, L. W., Sydenham, T. V., Johansen, I. S., Jensen, T. G....Andersen, T. E. (2022). Serum Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 after BNT162b2 Booster Vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1274-1275. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220503.

Recombinant BA.1/BA.2 SARS-CoV-2 Virus in Arriving Travelers, Hong Kong, February 2022 [PDF - 1.29 MB - 3 pages]
H. Gu et al.

We studied SARS-CoV-2 genomes from travelers arriving in Hong Kong during November 2021–February 2022. In addition to Omicron and Delta variants, we detected a BA.1/BA.2 recombinant with a breakpoint near the 5′ end of the spike gene in 2 epidemiologically linked case-patients. Continued surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 recombinants is needed.

EID Gu H, Ng D, Liu G, Cheng S, Krishnan P, Chang L, et al. Recombinant BA.1/BA.2 SARS-CoV-2 Virus in Arriving Travelers, Hong Kong, February 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1276-1278. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220523
AMA Gu H, Ng D, Liu G, et al. Recombinant BA.1/BA.2 SARS-CoV-2 Virus in Arriving Travelers, Hong Kong, February 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1276-1278. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220523.
APA Gu, H., Ng, D., Liu, G., Cheng, S., Krishnan, P., Chang, L....Poon, L. (2022). Recombinant BA.1/BA.2 SARS-CoV-2 Virus in Arriving Travelers, Hong Kong, February 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1276-1278. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220523.

SARS-CoV-2 Breakthrough Infections among US Embassy Staff Members, Uganda, May–June 2021 [PDF - 652 KB - 2 pages]
J. R. Harris et al.

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant emerged shortly after COVID-19 vaccines became available in 2021. We describe SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in a highly vaccinated, well-monitored US Embassy community in Kampala, Uganda. Defining breakthrough infection rates in highly vaccinated populations can help determine public health messaging, guidance, and policy globally.

EID Harris JR, Owusu D, O’Laughlin K, Cohen AL, Ben Hamida A, Patel JC, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Breakthrough Infections among US Embassy Staff Members, Uganda, May–June 2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1279-1280. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220427
AMA Harris JR, Owusu D, O’Laughlin K, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Breakthrough Infections among US Embassy Staff Members, Uganda, May–June 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1279-1280. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220427.
APA Harris, J. R., Owusu, D., O’Laughlin, K., Cohen, A. L., Ben Hamida, A., Patel, J. C....Ma, M. (2022). SARS-CoV-2 Breakthrough Infections among US Embassy Staff Members, Uganda, May–June 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1279-1280. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220427.

Multistate Outbreak of Infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant after Event in Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2021 [PDF - 861 KB - 3 pages]
H. Spencer et al.

Bars and restaurants are high-risk settings for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. A multistate outbreak after a bar gathering in Chicago, Illinois, USA, highlights Omicron variant transmissibility, the value of local genomic surveillance and interstate coordination, vaccination value, and the potential for rapid transmission of a novel variant across multiple states after 1 event.

EID Spencer H, Teran RA, Barbian HJ, Love S, Berg R, Black SR, et al. Multistate Outbreak of Infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant after Event in Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1281-1283. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220411
AMA Spencer H, Teran RA, Barbian HJ, et al. Multistate Outbreak of Infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant after Event in Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1281-1283. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220411.
APA Spencer, H., Teran, R. A., Barbian, H. J., Love, S., Berg, R., Black, S. R....Kerins, J. L. (2022). Multistate Outbreak of Infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant after Event in Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1281-1283. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220411.

Molecular Diagnosis of Pseudoterranova decipiens Sensu Stricto Infections, South Korea, 2002‒2020 [PDF - 571 KB - 3 pages]
H. Song et al.

Human Pseudoterranova decipiens larval infections were diagnosed by molecular analysis of mitochondrial cox1 and nd1 genes in 12 health check-up patients in South Korea during 2002–2020. Based on high genetic identity (99.3%–100% for cox1 and 96.7%–98.0% for nd1), we identified all 12 larvae as P. decipiens sensu stricto.

EID Song H, Ryoo S, Jung B, Cho J, Chang T, Hong S, et al. Molecular Diagnosis of Pseudoterranova decipiens Sensu Stricto Infections, South Korea, 2002‒2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1283-1285. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212483
AMA Song H, Ryoo S, Jung B, et al. Molecular Diagnosis of Pseudoterranova decipiens Sensu Stricto Infections, South Korea, 2002‒2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1283-1285. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212483.
APA Song, H., Ryoo, S., Jung, B., Cho, J., Chang, T., Hong, S....Chai, J. (2022). Molecular Diagnosis of Pseudoterranova decipiens Sensu Stricto Infections, South Korea, 2002‒2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1283-1285. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212483.

Experimental Infection of Mink with SARS-COV-2 Omicron Variant and Subsequent Clinical Disease [PDF - 2.41 MB - 3 pages]
J. Virtanen et al.

We report an experimental infection of American mink with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant and show that mink remain positive for viral RNA for days, experience clinical signs and histopathologic changes, and transmit the virus to uninfected recipients. Preparedness is crucial to avoid spread among mink and spillover to human populations.

EID Virtanen J, Aaltonen K, Kegler K, Venkat V, Niamsap T, Kareinen L, et al. Experimental Infection of Mink with SARS-COV-2 Omicron Variant and Subsequent Clinical Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1286-1288. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220328
AMA Virtanen J, Aaltonen K, Kegler K, et al. Experimental Infection of Mink with SARS-COV-2 Omicron Variant and Subsequent Clinical Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1286-1288. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220328.
APA Virtanen, J., Aaltonen, K., Kegler, K., Venkat, V., Niamsap, T., Kareinen, L....Sironen, T. (2022). Experimental Infection of Mink with SARS-COV-2 Omicron Variant and Subsequent Clinical Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1286-1288. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220328.

Horse-Specific Cryptosporidium Genotype in Human with Crohn's Disease and Arthritis [PDF - 677 KB - 3 pages]
Ż. Zajączkowska et al.

We identified an unusual subtype of a Cryptosporidium sp. horse genotype as the cause of cryptosporidiosis in a 13-year-old girl in Poland who was undergoing immunosuppressive treatment for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease. The same subtype was identified in a horse the girl had ridden.

EID Zajączkowska Ż, Brutovská A, Akutko K, McEvoy J, Sak B, Hendrich AB, et al. Horse-Specific Cryptosporidium Genotype in Human with Crohn's Disease and Arthritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1289-1291. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220064
AMA Zajączkowska Ż, Brutovská A, Akutko K, et al. Horse-Specific Cryptosporidium Genotype in Human with Crohn's Disease and Arthritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1289-1291. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220064.
APA Zajączkowska, Ż., Brutovská, A., Akutko, K., McEvoy, J., Sak, B., Hendrich, A. B....Kicia, M. (2022). Horse-Specific Cryptosporidium Genotype in Human with Crohn's Disease and Arthritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1289-1291. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220064.

Lyme Disease, Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis, Atlantic Canada [PDF - 667 KB - 3 pages]
Z. O. Allehebi et al.

In July 2021, a PCR-confirmed case of locally acquired Babesia microti infection was reported in Atlantic Canada. Clinical features were consistent with babesiosis and resolved after treatment. In a region where Lyme disease and anaplasmosis are endemic, the occurrence of babesiosis emphasizes the need to enhance surveillance of tickborne infections.

EID Allehebi ZO, Khan FM, Robbins M, Simms E, Xiang R, Shawwa A, et al. Lyme Disease, Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis, Atlantic Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1292-1294. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220443
AMA Allehebi ZO, Khan FM, Robbins M, et al. Lyme Disease, Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis, Atlantic Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1292-1294. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220443.
APA Allehebi, Z. O., Khan, F. M., Robbins, M., Simms, E., Xiang, R., Shawwa, A....Haldane, D. J. (2022). Lyme Disease, Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis, Atlantic Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1292-1294. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220443.

Viral Zoonoses in Small Wild Mammals and Detection of Hantavirus, Spain [PDF - 393 KB - 3 pages]
S. Herrero-Cófreces et al.

We screened 526 wild small mammals for zoonotic viruses in northwest Spain and found hantavirus in common voles (Microtus arvalis) (1.5%) and high prevalence (48%) of orthopoxvirus among western Mediterranean mice (Mus spretus). We also detected arenavirus among small mammals. These findings suggest novel risks for viral transmission in the region.

EID Herrero-Cófreces S, Mougeot F, Sironen T, Meyer H, Rodríguez-Pastor R, Luque-Larena J. Viral Zoonoses in Small Wild Mammals and Detection of Hantavirus, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1294-1296. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212508
AMA Herrero-Cófreces S, Mougeot F, Sironen T, et al. Viral Zoonoses in Small Wild Mammals and Detection of Hantavirus, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1294-1296. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212508.
APA Herrero-Cófreces, S., Mougeot, F., Sironen, T., Meyer, H., Rodríguez-Pastor, R., & Luque-Larena, J. (2022). Viral Zoonoses in Small Wild Mammals and Detection of Hantavirus, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1294-1296. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212508.

Detecting SARS-CoV-2 Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant in Wastewater Samples by Using Nanopore Sequencing [PDF - 366 KB - 3 pages]
L. D. Rasmussen et al.

We report wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern by using mutation-specific, real-time PCR and rapid nanopore sequencing. This surveillance might be useful for an early warning in a scenario in which a new variant is emerging, even in areas that have low virus incidences.

EID Rasmussen LD, Richter SR, Midgley SE, Franck KT. Detecting SARS-CoV-2 Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant in Wastewater Samples by Using Nanopore Sequencing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1296-1298. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220194
AMA Rasmussen LD, Richter SR, Midgley SE, et al. Detecting SARS-CoV-2 Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant in Wastewater Samples by Using Nanopore Sequencing. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1296-1298. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220194.
APA Rasmussen, L. D., Richter, S. R., Midgley, S. E., & Franck, K. T. (2022). Detecting SARS-CoV-2 Omicron B.1.1.529 Variant in Wastewater Samples by Using Nanopore Sequencing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1296-1298. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220194.

Identifying Japanese Encephalitis Virus Using Metatranscriptomic Sequencing, Xinjiang, China [PDF - 492 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Yan et al.

The treat of infectious disease epidemics has increased the critical need for continuous broad-ranging surveillance of pathogens with outbreak potential. Using metatranscriptomic sequencing of blood samples, we identified several cases of Japanese encephalitis virus infection from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. This discovery highlights the risk for known viral diseases even in nonendemic areas.

EID Yan Y, Zheng R, Liu H, Wu Z, Hao M, Ma L, et al. Identifying Japanese Encephalitis Virus Using Metatranscriptomic Sequencing, Xinjiang, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1298-1300. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.210616
AMA Yan Y, Zheng R, Liu H, et al. Identifying Japanese Encephalitis Virus Using Metatranscriptomic Sequencing, Xinjiang, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1298-1300. doi:10.3201/eid2806.210616.
APA Yan, Y., Zheng, R., Liu, H., Wu, Z., Hao, M., Ma, L....Lu, X. (2022). Identifying Japanese Encephalitis Virus Using Metatranscriptomic Sequencing, Xinjiang, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1298-1300. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.210616.

Expansion of L452R-Positive SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant, Northern Lombardy, Italy [PDF - 320 KB - 2 pages]
F. Novazzi et al.

We report 25 cases of infection with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant containing spike protein L452R mutation in northern Lombardy, Italy. Prevalence of this variant was >30% in this region, compared with <0.5% worldwide. Many laboratories are using previously developed L452R-specific PCRs to discriminate Omicron from Delta mutations, but these tests may be unreliable.

EID Novazzi F, Baj A, Genoni A, Focosi D, Maggi F. Expansion of L452R-Positive SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant, Northern Lombardy, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1301-1302. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220210
AMA Novazzi F, Baj A, Genoni A, et al. Expansion of L452R-Positive SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant, Northern Lombardy, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1301-1302. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220210.
APA Novazzi, F., Baj, A., Genoni, A., Focosi, D., & Maggi, F. (2022). Expansion of L452R-Positive SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant, Northern Lombardy, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1301-1302. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220210.
Letters

Association of Healthcare and Aesthetic Procedures with Infections Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, France, 2012‒2020 [PDF - 510 KB - 2 pages]
C. Daniau et al.
EID Daniau C, Berger-Carbonne A, Cambau E. Association of Healthcare and Aesthetic Procedures with Infections Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, France, 2012‒2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1303-1304. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220686
AMA Daniau C, Berger-Carbonne A, Cambau E. Association of Healthcare and Aesthetic Procedures with Infections Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, France, 2012‒2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1303-1304. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220686.
APA Daniau, C., Berger-Carbonne, A., & Cambau, E. (2022). Association of Healthcare and Aesthetic Procedures with Infections Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, France, 2012‒2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1303-1304. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220686.

Association of Healthcare and Aesthetic Procedures with Infections Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, France, 2012–2020 [PDF - 510 KB - 2 pages]
K. X. McNamara et al.
EID McNamara KX, Perz JF, Perkins KM. Association of Healthcare and Aesthetic Procedures with Infections Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, France, 2012–2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1303. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220520
AMA McNamara KX, Perz JF, Perkins KM. Association of Healthcare and Aesthetic Procedures with Infections Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, France, 2012–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1303. doi:10.3201/eid2806.220520.
APA McNamara, K. X., Perz, J. F., & Perkins, K. M. (2022). Association of Healthcare and Aesthetic Procedures with Infections Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, France, 2012–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1303. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.220520.
Books and Media

The New Microbiology: From Microbiomes to CRISPR [PDF - 475 KB - 1 page]
T. Obe and N. W. Shariat
EID Obe T, Shariat NW. The New Microbiology: From Microbiomes to CRISPR. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1305. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212085
AMA Obe T, Shariat NW. The New Microbiology: From Microbiomes to CRISPR. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1305. doi:10.3201/eid2806.212085.
APA Obe, T., & Shariat, N. W. (2022). The New Microbiology: From Microbiomes to CRISPR. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1305. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.212085.
About the Cover

Tapeworm Enigma [PDF - 3.72 MB - 3 pages]
B. Breedlove and R. Bradbury
EID Breedlove B, Bradbury R. Tapeworm Enigma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(6):1306-1308. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.ac2806
AMA Breedlove B, Bradbury R. Tapeworm Enigma. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(6):1306-1308. doi:10.3201/eid2806.ac2806.
APA Breedlove, B., & Bradbury, R. (2022). Tapeworm Enigma. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 28(6), 1306-1308. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2806.ac2806.
Page created: May 22, 2022
Page updated: May 23, 2022
Page reviewed: May 23, 2022
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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