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Articles from Emerging Infectious Diseases

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Possibly Associated with Emerging Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus in a Farming Community, Colombia [PDF - 467 KB - 8 pages]
A. Styczynski et al.

In 2014, vaccinia virus (VACV) infections were identified among farmworkers in Caquetá Department, Colombia; additional cases were identified in Cundinamarca Department in 2015. VACV, an orthopoxvirus (OPXV) used in the smallpox vaccine, has caused sporadic bovine and human outbreaks in countries such as Brazil and India. In response to the emergence of this disease in Colombia, we surveyed and collected blood from 134 farmworkers and household members from 56 farms in Cundinamarca Department. We tested serum samples for OPXV antibodies and correlated risk factors with seropositivity by using multivariate analyses. Fifty-two percent of farmworkers had OPXV antibodies; this percentage decreased to 31% when we excluded persons who would have been eligible for smallpox vaccination. The major risk factors for seropositivity were municipality, age, smallpox vaccination scar, duration of time working on a farm, and animals having vaccinia-like lesions. This investigation provides evidence for possible emergence of VACV as a zoonosis in South America.

EID Styczynski A, Burgado J, Walteros D, Usme-Ciro J, Laiton K, Farias A, et al. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Possibly Associated with Emerging Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus in a Farming Community, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2169-2176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181114
AMA Styczynski A, Burgado J, Walteros D, et al. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Possibly Associated with Emerging Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus in a Farming Community, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2169-2176. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181114.
APA Styczynski, A., Burgado, J., Walteros, D., Usme-Ciro, J., Laiton, K., Farias, A....Petersen, B. (2019). Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Possibly Associated with Emerging Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus in a Farming Community, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2169-2176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181114.

Patterns of Transmission and Sources of Infection in Outbreaks of Human Toxoplasmosis [PDF - 1.15 MB - 6 pages]
F. Pinto-Ferreira et al.

We report on apparent temporal progression of probable sources of infection and transmission routes for global human toxoplasmosis outbreaks as described in published articles. We searched the Scientific Electronic Library Online, Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases for articles on Toxoplasma, toxoplasmosis, and outbreaks. We found that transmission routes for Toxoplasma gondii varied by decade. In the 1960s and 1990s, toxoplasmosis outbreaks mainly occurred through ingestion of cysts in meat and meat derivatives; in the 1980s, through milk contaminated with tachyzoites; in 2000, due to the presence of oocysts in water, sand, and soil; and in 2010, due to oocysts in raw fruits and vegetables. Our study suggests a possible change in the epidemiology of reported toxoplasmosis outbreaks. Because of this change, we suggest that greater attention be paid to the disinfection of vegetables, as well as to the quality of water used for drinking and irrigation.

EID Pinto-Ferreira F, Caldart E, Pasquali A, Mitsuka-Breganó R, Freire R, Navarro I. Patterns of Transmission and Sources of Infection in Outbreaks of Human Toxoplasmosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2177-2182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181565
AMA Pinto-Ferreira F, Caldart E, Pasquali A, et al. Patterns of Transmission and Sources of Infection in Outbreaks of Human Toxoplasmosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2177-2182. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181565.
APA Pinto-Ferreira, F., Caldart, E., Pasquali, A., Mitsuka-Breganó, R., Freire, R., & Navarro, I. (2019). Patterns of Transmission and Sources of Infection in Outbreaks of Human Toxoplasmosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2177-2182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181565.

Global Epidemiology of Buruli Ulcer, 2010–2017, and Analysis of 2014 WHO Programmatic Targets [PDF - 2.32 MB - 8 pages]
T. F. Omansen et al.

Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease caused by Myocobacterium ulcerans; it manifests as a skin lesion, nodule, or ulcer that can be extensive and disabling. To assess the global burden and the progress on disease control, we analyzed epidemiologic data reported by countries to the World Health Organization during 2010–2017. During this period, 23,206 cases of Buruli ulcer were reported. Globally, cases declined to 2,217 in 2017, but local epidemics seem to arise, such as in Australia and Liberia. In 2013, the World Health Organization formulated 4 programmatic targets for Buruli ulcer that addressed PCR confirmation, occurrence of category III (extensive) lesions and ulcerative lesions, and movement limitation caused by the disease. In 2014, only the movement limitation goal was met, and in 2019, none are met, on a global average. Our findings support discussion on future Buruli ulcer policy and post-2020 programmatic targets.

EID Omansen TF, Erbowor-Becksen A, Yotsu R, van der Werf TS, Tiendrebeogo A, Grout L, et al. Global Epidemiology of Buruli Ulcer, 2010–2017, and Analysis of 2014 WHO Programmatic Targets. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2183-2190. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190427
AMA Omansen TF, Erbowor-Becksen A, Yotsu R, et al. Global Epidemiology of Buruli Ulcer, 2010–2017, and Analysis of 2014 WHO Programmatic Targets. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2183-2190. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190427.
APA Omansen, T. F., Erbowor-Becksen, A., Yotsu, R., van der Werf, T. S., Tiendrebeogo, A., Grout, L....Asiedu, K. (2019). Global Epidemiology of Buruli Ulcer, 2010–2017, and Analysis of 2014 WHO Programmatic Targets. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2183-2190. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190427.
Research

Cost-effectiveness of Prophylactic Zika Virus Vaccine in the Americas [PDF - 1.03 MB - 6 pages]
A. Shoukat et al.

Zika virus remains a major public health concern because of its association with microcephaly and other neurologic disorders in newborns. A prophylactic vaccine has the potential to reduce disease incidence and eliminate birth defects resulting from prenatal Zika virus infection in future outbreaks. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a Zika vaccine candidate, assuming a protection efficacy of 60%–90%, for 18 countries in the Americas affected by the 2015–2017 Zika virus outbreaks. Encapsulating the demographics of these countries in an agent-based model, our results show that vaccinating women of reproductive age would be very cost-effective for sufficiently low (<$16) vaccination costs per recipient, depending on the country-specific Zika attack rate. In all countries studied, the median reduction of microcephaly was >75% with vaccination. These findings indicate that targeted vaccination of women of reproductive age is a noteworthy preventive measure for mitigating the effects of Zika virus infection in future outbreaks.

EID Shoukat A, Vilches T, Moghadas SM. Cost-effectiveness of Prophylactic Zika Virus Vaccine in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2191-2196. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181324
AMA Shoukat A, Vilches T, Moghadas SM. Cost-effectiveness of Prophylactic Zika Virus Vaccine in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2191-2196. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181324.
APA Shoukat, A., Vilches, T., & Moghadas, S. M. (2019). Cost-effectiveness of Prophylactic Zika Virus Vaccine in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2191-2196. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181324.

Human Infection with Orf Virus and Description of Its Whole Genome, France, 2017 [PDF - 2.26 MB - 8 pages]
J. Andreani et al.

Zoonotic transmission of parapoxvirus from animals to humans has been reported; clinical manifestations are skin lesions on the fingers and hands after contact with infected animals. We report a human infection clinically suspected as being ecthyma contagiosum. The patient, a 65-year-old woman, had 3 nodules on her hands. She reported contact with a sheep during the Aïd-el-Fitr festival in France during 2017. We isolated the parapoxvirus orf virus from these nodules by using a nonconventional cell and sequenced the orf genome. We identified a novel orf virus genome and compared it with genomes of other orf viruses. More research is needed on the genus Parapoxvirus to understand worldwide distribution of and infection by orf virus, especially transmission between goats and sheep.

EID Andreani J, Fongue J, Bou Khalil JY, David L, Mougari S, Le Bideau M, et al. Human Infection with Orf Virus and Description of Its Whole Genome, France, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2197-2204. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181513
AMA Andreani J, Fongue J, Bou Khalil JY, et al. Human Infection with Orf Virus and Description of Its Whole Genome, France, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2197-2204. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181513.
APA Andreani, J., Fongue, J., Bou Khalil, J. Y., David, L., Mougari, S., Le Bideau, M....La Scola, B. (2019). Human Infection with Orf Virus and Description of Its Whole Genome, France, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2197-2204. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181513.

High Prevalence of Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis and ptxP1 Genotype, Mainland China, 2014–2016 [PDF - 2.91 MB - 10 pages]
L. Li et al.

According to the government of China, reported cases of pertussis have increased remarkably and are still increasing. To determine the genetic relatedness of Bordetella pertussis strains, we compared multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results for isolates from China with those from Western countries. Among 335 isolates from China, the most common virulence-associated genotype was ptxA1/ptxC1/ptxP1/prn1/fim2–1/fim3A/tcfA2, which was more frequent among isolates from northern than southern China. Isolates of this genotype were highly resistant to erythromycin. We identified 36 ptxP3 strains mainly harboring ptxA1 and prn2 (35/36); ptxP3 strains were sensitive to erythromycin and were less frequently from northern China. For all isolates, the sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim MIC was low, indicating that this drug should be recommended for patients infected with erythromycin-resistant B. pertussis. MLVA of 150 clinical isolates identified 13 MLVA types, including 3 predominant types. Our results show that isolates circulating in China differ from those in Western countries.

EID Li L, Deng J, Ma X, Zhou K, Meng Q, Yuan L, et al. High Prevalence of Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis and ptxP1 Genotype, Mainland China, 2014–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2205-2214. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181836
AMA Li L, Deng J, Ma X, et al. High Prevalence of Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis and ptxP1 Genotype, Mainland China, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2205-2214. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181836.
APA Li, L., Deng, J., Ma, X., Zhou, K., Meng, Q., Yuan, L....Yao, K. (2019). High Prevalence of Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis and ptxP1 Genotype, Mainland China, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2205-2214. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181836.

Avian Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed Populations, China, 2014–2016 [PDF - 3.05 MB - 11 pages]
C. Quan et al.

To determine the seroprevalence and seroconversion of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in poultry workers, we conducted a seroepidemiologic study in 7 areas of China during December 2014–April 2016. We used viral isolation and reverse transcription PCR to detect AIVs in specimens from live poultry markets. We analyzed 2,124 serum samples obtained from 1,407 poultry workers by using hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. We noted seroprevalence of AIV antibodies for subtypes H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H5N6, H5N1-SH199, and H6N6. In serum from participants with longitudinal samples, we noted seroconversion, with >4-fold rise in titers, for H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H6N6, H5N6, and H5N1-SH199 subtypes. We found no evidence of H10N8 subtype. The distribution of AIV antibodies provided evidence of asymptomatic infection. We found that AIV antibody prevalence in live poultry markets correlated with increased risk for H7N9 and H9N2 infection among poultry workers.

EID Quan C, Wang Q, Zhang J, Zhao M, Dai Q, Huang T, et al. Avian Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed Populations, China, 2014–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2215-2225. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190261
AMA Quan C, Wang Q, Zhang J, et al. Avian Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed Populations, China, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2215-2225. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190261.
APA Quan, C., Wang, Q., Zhang, J., Zhao, M., Dai, Q., Huang, T....Gao, G. F. (2019). Avian Influenza A Viruses among Occupationally Exposed Populations, China, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2215-2225. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190261.

Genomic Analysis of Fluoroquinolone- and Tetracycline-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 6964 in Humans and Poultry, New Zealand, 2014–2016 [PDF - 2.66 MB - 9 pages]
N. P. French et al.

In 2014, antimicrobial drug–resistant Campylobacter jejuni sequence type 6964 emerged contemporaneously in poultry from 3 supply companies in the North Island of New Zealand and as a major cause of campylobacteriosis in humans in New Zealand. This lineage, not previously identified in New Zealand, was resistant to tetracycline and fluoroquinolones. Genomic analysis revealed divergence into 2 major clades; both clades were associated with human infection, 1 with poultry companies A and B and the other with company C. Accessory genome evolution was associated with a plasmid, phage insertions, and natural transformation. We hypothesize that the tetO gene and a phage were inserted into the chromosome after conjugation, leaving a remnant plasmid that was lost from isolates from company C. The emergence and rapid spread of a resistant clone of C. jejuni in New Zealand, coupled with evolutionary change in the accessory genome, demonstrate the need for ongoing Campylobacter surveillance among poultry and humans.

EID French NP, Zhang J, Carter GP, Midwinter AC, Biggs PJ, Dyet K, et al. Genomic Analysis of Fluoroquinolone- and Tetracycline-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 6964 in Humans and Poultry, New Zealand, 2014–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2226-2234. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190267
AMA French NP, Zhang J, Carter GP, et al. Genomic Analysis of Fluoroquinolone- and Tetracycline-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 6964 in Humans and Poultry, New Zealand, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2226-2234. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190267.
APA French, N. P., Zhang, J., Carter, G. P., Midwinter, A. C., Biggs, P. J., Dyet, K....Williamson, D. A. (2019). Genomic Analysis of Fluoroquinolone- and Tetracycline-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 6964 in Humans and Poultry, New Zealand, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2226-2234. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190267.

Medscape CME Activity
Streptococcus suis–Associated Meningitis, Bali, Indonesia, 2014–2017 [PDF - 982 KB - 8 pages]
N. Susilawathi et al.

Streptococcus suis is an emerging agent of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in Asia. We describe the epidemiology of S. suis cases and clinical signs and microbiological findings in persons with meningitis in Bali, Indonesia, using patient data and bacterial cultures of cerebrospinal fluid collected during 2014–2017. We conducted microbiological assays using the fully automatic VITEK 2 COMPACT system. We amplified and sequenced gene fragments of glutamate dehydrogenase and recombination/repair protein and conducted PCR serotyping to confirm some serotypes. Of 71 cases, 44 were confirmed as S. suis; 29 isolates were serotype 2. The average patient age was 48.1 years, and 89% of patients were male. Seventy-seven percent of patients with confirmed cases recovered without complications; 11% recovered with septic shock, 7% with deafness, and 2% with deafness and arthritis. The case-fatality rate was 11%. Awareness of S. suis infection risk must be increased in health promotion activities in Bali.

EID Susilawathi N, Tarini N, Fatmawati N, Mayura P, Suryapraba A, Subrata M, et al. Streptococcus suis–Associated Meningitis, Bali, Indonesia, 2014–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2235-2242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181709
AMA Susilawathi N, Tarini N, Fatmawati N, et al. Streptococcus suis–Associated Meningitis, Bali, Indonesia, 2014–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2235-2242. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181709.
APA Susilawathi, N., Tarini, N., Fatmawati, N., Mayura, P., Suryapraba, A., Subrata, M....Mahardika, G. (2019). Streptococcus suis–Associated Meningitis, Bali, Indonesia, 2014–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2235-2242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181709.

Epidemiologic, Entomologic, and Virologic Factors of the 2014–15 Ross River Virus Outbreak, Queensland, Australia [PDF - 2.81 MB - 10 pages]
C. C. Jansen et al.

Australia experienced its largest recorded outbreak of Ross River virus (RRV) during the 2014–15 reporting year, comprising >10,000 reported cases. We investigated epidemiologic, entomologic, and virologic factors that potentially contributed to the scale of the outbreak in Queensland, the state with the highest number of notifications (6,371). Spatial analysis of human cases showed that notifications were geographically widespread. In Brisbane, human case notifications and virus detections in mosquitoes occurred across inland and coastal locations. Viral sequence data demonstrated 2 RRV lineages (northeastern genotypes I and II) were circulating, and a new strain containing 3 unique amino acid changes in the envelope 2 protein was identified. Longitudinal mosquito collections demonstrated unusually high relative abundance of Culex annulirostris and Aedes procax mosquitoes, attributable to extensive freshwater larval habitats caused by early and persistent rainfall during the reporting year. Increased prevalence of these mosquitoes probably contributed to the scale of this outbreak.

EID Jansen CC, Shivas MA, May FJ, Pyke AT, Onn MB, Lodo K, et al. Epidemiologic, Entomologic, and Virologic Factors of the 2014–15 Ross River Virus Outbreak, Queensland, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2243-2252. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181810
AMA Jansen CC, Shivas MA, May FJ, et al. Epidemiologic, Entomologic, and Virologic Factors of the 2014–15 Ross River Virus Outbreak, Queensland, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2243-2252. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181810.
APA Jansen, C. C., Shivas, M. A., May, F. J., Pyke, A. T., Onn, M. B., Lodo, K....van den Hurk, A. F. (2019). Epidemiologic, Entomologic, and Virologic Factors of the 2014–15 Ross River Virus Outbreak, Queensland, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2243-2252. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181810.
Dispatches

Multicountry Analysis of Spectrum of Clinical Manifestations of Children <5 Years of Age Hospitalized with Diarrhea [PDF - 384 KB - 4 pages]
J. Murray et al.

After introduction of rotavirus vaccine, other pathogens might become leading causes of hospitalizations for severe diarrhea among children <5 years of age. Our study in 33 hospitals in 7 countries found acute gastroenteritis accounted for most (84%) reported hospitalizations of children with diarrhea. Bloody and persistent diarrhea each accounted for <1%.

EID Murray J, Soenarto S, Mulyani NS, Wijesinghe PS, Mpabalwani EM, Simwaka JC, et al. Multicountry Analysis of Spectrum of Clinical Manifestations of Children <5 Years of Age Hospitalized with Diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2253-2256. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.180712
AMA Murray J, Soenarto S, Mulyani NS, et al. Multicountry Analysis of Spectrum of Clinical Manifestations of Children <5 Years of Age Hospitalized with Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2253-2256. doi:10.3201/eid2512.180712.
APA Murray, J., Soenarto, S., Mulyani, N. S., Wijesinghe, P. S., Mpabalwani, E. M., Simwaka, J. C....Cohen, A. L. (2019). Multicountry Analysis of Spectrum of Clinical Manifestations of Children <5 Years of Age Hospitalized with Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2253-2256. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.180712.

Sheep as Host Species for Zoonotic Babesia venatorum, United Kingdom [PDF - 2.00 MB - 4 pages]
A. Gray et al.

Babesia venatorum is an increasingly prominent zoonotic parasite that predominantly infects wild deer. Our molecular examination of Babesia infecting mammals in the United Kingdom identified 18S sequences in domestic sheep isolates identical to zoonotic B. venatorum. Identification of this parasite in livestock raises concerns for public health and farming policy in Europe.

EID Gray A, Capewell P, Loney C, Katzer F, Shiels BR, Weir W. Sheep as Host Species for Zoonotic Babesia venatorum, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2257-2260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190459
AMA Gray A, Capewell P, Loney C, et al. Sheep as Host Species for Zoonotic Babesia venatorum, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2257-2260. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190459.
APA Gray, A., Capewell, P., Loney, C., Katzer, F., Shiels, B. R., & Weir, W. (2019). Sheep as Host Species for Zoonotic Babesia venatorum, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2257-2260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190459.

Half-Life of African Swine Fever Virus in Shipped Feed [PDF - 748 KB - 3 pages]
A. Stoian et al.

African swine fever virus is transmissible through animal consumption of contaminated feed. To determine virus survival during transoceanic shipping, we calculated the half-life of the virus in 9 feed ingredients exposed to 30-day shipment conditions. Half-lives ranged from 9.6 to 14.2 days, indicating that the feed matrix environment promotes virus stability.

EID Stoian A, Zimmerman J, Ji J, Hefley TJ, Dee S, Diel DG, et al. Half-Life of African Swine Fever Virus in Shipped Feed. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2261-2263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191002
AMA Stoian A, Zimmerman J, Ji J, et al. Half-Life of African Swine Fever Virus in Shipped Feed. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2261-2263. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191002.
APA Stoian, A., Zimmerman, J., Ji, J., Hefley, T. J., Dee, S., Diel, D. G....Niederwerder, M. C. (2019). Half-Life of African Swine Fever Virus in Shipped Feed. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2261-2263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191002.

Zika Virus IgM 25 Months after Symptom Onset, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA [PDF - 385 KB - 2 pages]
I. Griffin et al.

We assessed IgM detection in Zika patients from the 2016 outbreak in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Of those with positive or equivocal IgM after 12–19 months, 87% (26/30) had IgM 6 months later. In a survival analysis, ≈76% had IgM at 25 months. Zika virus IgM persists for years, complicating serologic diagnosis.

EID Griffin I, Martin SW, Fischer M, Chambers TV, Kosoy OL, Goldberg C, et al. Zika Virus IgM 25 Months after Symptom Onset, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2264-2265. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191022
AMA Griffin I, Martin SW, Fischer M, et al. Zika Virus IgM 25 Months after Symptom Onset, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2264-2265. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191022.
APA Griffin, I., Martin, S. W., Fischer, M., Chambers, T. V., Kosoy, O. L., Goldberg, C....Jean, R. (2019). Zika Virus IgM 25 Months after Symptom Onset, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2264-2265. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191022.

Divergent Barmah Forest Virus from Papua New Guinea [PDF - 1.68 MB - 4 pages]
L. Caly et al.

We report a case of Barmah Forest virus infection in a child from Central Province, Papua New Guinea, who had no previous travel history. Genomic characterization of the virus showed divergent origin compared with viruses previously detected, supporting the hypothesis that the range of Barmah Forest virus extends beyond Australia.

EID Caly L, Horwood PF, Vijaykrishna D, Lynch S, Greenhill AR, Pomat W, et al. Divergent Barmah Forest Virus from Papua New Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2266-2269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191070
AMA Caly L, Horwood PF, Vijaykrishna D, et al. Divergent Barmah Forest Virus from Papua New Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2266-2269. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191070.
APA Caly, L., Horwood, P. F., Vijaykrishna, D., Lynch, S., Greenhill, A. R., Pomat, W....Abdad, M. Y. (2019). Divergent Barmah Forest Virus from Papua New Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2266-2269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191070.

Animal Exposure and Human Plague, United States, 1970–2017 [PDF - 814 KB - 4 pages]
S. B. Campbell et al.

Since 1970, >50% of patients with plague in the United States had interactions with animals that might have led to infection. Among patients with pneumonic plague, nearly all had animal exposure. Improved understanding of the varied ways in which animal contact might increase risk for infection could enhance prevention messages.

EID Campbell SB, Nelson CA, Hinckley AF, Kugeler KJ. Animal Exposure and Human Plague, United States, 1970–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2270-2273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191081
AMA Campbell SB, Nelson CA, Hinckley AF, et al. Animal Exposure and Human Plague, United States, 1970–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2270-2273. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191081.
APA Campbell, S. B., Nelson, C. A., Hinckley, A. F., & Kugeler, K. J. (2019). Animal Exposure and Human Plague, United States, 1970–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2270-2273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191081.

Sentinel Listeriosis Surveillance in Selected Hospitals, China, 2013–2017 [PDF - 1.04 MB - 4 pages]
W. Li et al.

During 2013–2017, a total of 211 cases of listeriosis were reported by 64 sentinel hospitals in China to a national foodborne disease surveillance network. The average case-fatality rate was 31.2% for perinatal cases and 16.4% for nonperinatal cases. Sequence types 87 and 8 were the most prevalent types.

EID Li W, Bai L, Ma X, Zhang X, Li X, Yang X, et al. Sentinel Listeriosis Surveillance in Selected Hospitals, China, 2013–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2274-2277. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.180892
AMA Li W, Bai L, Ma X, et al. Sentinel Listeriosis Surveillance in Selected Hospitals, China, 2013–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2274-2277. doi:10.3201/eid2512.180892.
APA Li, W., Bai, L., Ma, X., Zhang, X., Li, X., Yang, X....Guo, Y. (2019). Sentinel Listeriosis Surveillance in Selected Hospitals, China, 2013–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2274-2277. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.180892.

Economic Effect of Confiscation of Cattle Viscera Infected with Cystic Echinococcosis, Huancayo Province, Peru [PDF - 671 KB - 3 pages]
J. Lucas et al.

We report cystic echinococcosis (CE) prevalence in Huancayo Province, Peru, and the associated economic effect of bovine organ condemnation. CE prevalence during the 16-month study period was 42.8% and caused $14,595 in economic losses. CE threatens food security in the region by reducing farmers’ income and viscera supply in markets.

EID Lucas J, Arias CA, Balcázar-Nakamatsu SS, Rodríguez AP, Alroy KA, Gavidia CM. Economic Effect of Confiscation of Cattle Viscera Infected with Cystic Echinococcosis, Huancayo Province, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2278-2280. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181039
AMA Lucas J, Arias CA, Balcázar-Nakamatsu SS, et al. Economic Effect of Confiscation of Cattle Viscera Infected with Cystic Echinococcosis, Huancayo Province, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2278-2280. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181039.
APA Lucas, J., Arias, C. A., Balcázar-Nakamatsu, S. S., Rodríguez, A. P., Alroy, K. A., & Gavidia, C. M. (2019). Economic Effect of Confiscation of Cattle Viscera Infected with Cystic Echinococcosis, Huancayo Province, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2278-2280. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181039.

Predicting Dengue Outbreaks in Cambodia [PDF - 558 KB - 3 pages]
A. Cousien et al.

In Cambodia, dengue outbreaks occur each rainy season (May–October) but vary in magnitude. Using national surveillance data, we designed a tool that can predict 90% of the variance in peak magnitude by April, when typically <10% of dengue cases have been reported. This prediction may help hospitals anticipate excess patients.

EID Cousien A, Ledien J, Souv K, Leang R, Huy R, Fontenille D, et al. Predicting Dengue Outbreaks in Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2281-2283. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181193
AMA Cousien A, Ledien J, Souv K, et al. Predicting Dengue Outbreaks in Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2281-2283. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181193.
APA Cousien, A., Ledien, J., Souv, K., Leang, R., Huy, R., Fontenille, D....Tarantola, A. (2019). Predicting Dengue Outbreaks in Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2281-2283. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181193.

Cat-to-Human Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis, United Kingdom [PDF - 791 KB - 5 pages]
C. M. O’Connor et al.

Human infection with Mycobacterium bovis is reported infrequently in the United Kingdom. Most cases involve previous consumption of unpasteurized milk. We report a rare occurrence of 2 incidents of cat-to-human transmission of M. bovis during a cluster of infection in cats.

EID O’Connor CM, Abid M, Walsh AL, Behbod B, Roberts T, Booth LV, et al. Cat-to-Human Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2284-2286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190012
AMA O’Connor CM, Abid M, Walsh AL, et al. Cat-to-Human Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2284-2286. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190012.
APA O’Connor, C. M., Abid, M., Walsh, A. L., Behbod, B., Roberts, T., Booth, L. V....Morgan, D. (2019). Cat-to-Human Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2284-2286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190012.

Evolution of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Poultry, Togo, 2018 [PDF - 1.19 MB - 3 pages]
M. Fusade-Boyer et al.

In 2015, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses reemerged in poultry in West Africa. We describe the introduction of a reassortant clade 2.3.2.1c virus into Togo in April 2018. Our findings signal further local spread and evolution of these viruses, which could affect animal and human health.

EID Fusade-Boyer M, Pato PS, Komlan M, Dogno K, Jeevan T, Rubrum A, et al. Evolution of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Poultry, Togo, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2287-2289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190054
AMA Fusade-Boyer M, Pato PS, Komlan M, et al. Evolution of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Poultry, Togo, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2287-2289. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190054.
APA Fusade-Boyer, M., Pato, P. S., Komlan, M., Dogno, K., Jeevan, T., Rubrum, A....Ducatez, M. F. (2019). Evolution of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Poultry, Togo, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2287-2289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190054.

West Nile Virus in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa, 2010–2018 [PDF - 1.67 MB - 5 pages]
J. Steyn et al.

West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 is associated with neurologic disease in horses and humans in South Africa. Surveillance in wildlife and nonequine domestic species during 2010–2018 identified WNV in 11 (1.8%) of 608 animals with severe neurologic and fatal infections, highlighting susceptible hosts and risk for WNV epizootics in Africa.

EID Steyn J, Botha E, Stivaktas VI, Buss P, Beechler BR, Myburgh JG, et al. West Nile Virus in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa, 2010–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2290-2294. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190572
AMA Steyn J, Botha E, Stivaktas VI, et al. West Nile Virus in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa, 2010–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2290-2294. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190572.
APA Steyn, J., Botha, E., Stivaktas, V. I., Buss, P., Beechler, B. R., Myburgh, J. G....Venter, M. (2019). West Nile Virus in Wildlife and Nonequine Domestic Animals, South Africa, 2010–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2290-2294. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190572.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Gray Seals, Baltic Sea [PDF - 844 KB - 4 pages]
D. Shin et al.

We detected a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus in lung samples of 2 gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) stranded on the Baltic coast of Poland in 2016 and 2017. This virus, clade 2.3.4.4 B, was closely related to avian H5N8 viruses circulating in Europe at the time.

EID Shin D, Siebert U, Lakemeyer J, Grilo M, Pawliczka I, Wu N, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Gray Seals, Baltic Sea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2295-2298. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181472
AMA Shin D, Siebert U, Lakemeyer J, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Gray Seals, Baltic Sea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2295-2298. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181472.
APA Shin, D., Siebert, U., Lakemeyer, J., Grilo, M., Pawliczka, I., Wu, N....Herrler, G. (2019). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Gray Seals, Baltic Sea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2295-2298. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181472.

Bagaza Virus in Himalayan Monal Pheasants, South Africa, 2016–2017 [PDF - 1.08 MB - 4 pages]
J. Steyn et al.

Bagaza virus (BAGV) has not been reported in birds in South Africa since 1978. We used phylogenetic analysis and electron microscopy to identify BAGV as the likely etiology in neurologic disease and death in Himalayan monal pheasants in Pretoria, South Africa. Our results suggest circulation of BAGV in South Africa.

EID Steyn J, Botha EM, Lourens C, Coetzer J, Venter M. Bagaza Virus in Himalayan Monal Pheasants, South Africa, 2016–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2299-2302. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190756
AMA Steyn J, Botha EM, Lourens C, et al. Bagaza Virus in Himalayan Monal Pheasants, South Africa, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2299-2302. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190756.
APA Steyn, J., Botha, E. M., Lourens, C., Coetzer, J., & Venter, M. (2019). Bagaza Virus in Himalayan Monal Pheasants, South Africa, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2299-2302. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190756.

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in a Captive Giant Panda, Hong Kong [PDF - 673 KB - 4 pages]
P. Martelli et al.

We report influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in a captive giant panda in Hong Kong. The viral load peaked on day 1 and became undetectable on day 5, and an antibody response developed. Genome analysis showed 99.3%–99.9% nucleotide identity between the virus and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulating in Hong Kong.

EID Martelli P, Teng J, Lee F, Yeong K, Fong J, Hui S, et al. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in a Captive Giant Panda, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2303-2306. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191143
AMA Martelli P, Teng J, Lee F, et al. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in a Captive Giant Panda, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2303-2306. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191143.
APA Martelli, P., Teng, J., Lee, F., Yeong, K., Fong, J., Hui, S....Woo, P. (2019). Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in a Captive Giant Panda, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2303-2306. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191143.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Seropositivity in Camel Handlers and Their Families, Pakistan [PDF - 360 KB - 3 pages]
J. Zheng et al.

A high percentage of camel handlers in Saudi Arabia are seropositive for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We found that 12/100 camel handlers and their family members in Pakistan, a country with extensive camel MERS-CoV infection, were seropositive, indicating that MERS-CoV infection of these populations extends beyond the Arabian Peninsula.

EID Zheng J, Hassan S, Alagaili AN, Alshukairi AN, Amor N, Mukhtar N, et al. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Seropositivity in Camel Handlers and Their Families, Pakistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2307-2309. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191169
AMA Zheng J, Hassan S, Alagaili AN, et al. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Seropositivity in Camel Handlers and Their Families, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2307-2309. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191169.
APA Zheng, J., Hassan, S., Alagaili, A. N., Alshukairi, A. N., Amor, N., Mukhtar, N....Yaqub, T. (2019). Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Seropositivity in Camel Handlers and Their Families, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2307-2309. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191169.

Distantly Related Rotaviruses in Common Shrews, Germany, 2004–2014 [PDF - 1.92 MB - 5 pages]
R. Johne et al.

We screened samples from common shrews (Sorex araneus) collected in Germany during 2004–2014 and identified 3 genetically divergent rotaviruses. Virus protein 6 sequence similarities to prototype rotaviruses were low (64.5% rotavirus A, 50.1% rotavirus C [tentative species K], 48.2% rotavirus H [tentative species L]). Shrew-associated rotaviruses might have zoonotic potential.

EID Johne R, Tausch SH, Grützke J, Falkenhagen A, Patzina-Mehling C, Beer M, et al. Distantly Related Rotaviruses in Common Shrews, Germany, 2004–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2310-2314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191225
AMA Johne R, Tausch SH, Grützke J, et al. Distantly Related Rotaviruses in Common Shrews, Germany, 2004–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2310-2314. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191225.
APA Johne, R., Tausch, S. H., Grützke, J., Falkenhagen, A., Patzina-Mehling, C., Beer, M....Ulrich, R. G. (2019). Distantly Related Rotaviruses in Common Shrews, Germany, 2004–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2310-2314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191225.
Research Letters

Molecular Confirmation of Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma ovale Ticks, Veracruz, Mexico [PDF - 888 KB - 3 pages]
S. Sánchez-Montes et al.

We found Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma ovale ticks collected in Veracruz, Mexico, in 2018. We sequenced gene segments of gltA, htrA, sca0, and sca5; phylogenetic reconstruction revealed near-complete identity with R. parkeri strain Atlantic Rainforest. Enhanced surveillance is needed in Mexico to determine the public health relevance of this bacterium.

EID Sánchez-Montes S, Ballados-González GG, Hernández-Velasco A, Zazueta-Islas HM, Solis-Cortés M, Miranda-Ortiz H, et al. Molecular Confirmation of Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma ovale Ticks, Veracruz, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2315-2317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190964
AMA Sánchez-Montes S, Ballados-González GG, Hernández-Velasco A, et al. Molecular Confirmation of Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma ovale Ticks, Veracruz, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2315-2317. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190964.
APA Sánchez-Montes, S., Ballados-González, G. G., Hernández-Velasco, A., Zazueta-Islas, H. M., Solis-Cortés, M., Miranda-Ortiz, H....Rangel-Escareño, C. (2019). Molecular Confirmation of Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma ovale Ticks, Veracruz, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2315-2317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190964.

Rhombencephalitis and Myeloradiculitis Caused by a European Subtype of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus [PDF - 557 KB - 3 pages]
L. Neill et al.

We report a case of a previously healthy man returning to the United Kingdom from Lithuania who developed rhombencephalitis and myeloradiculitis due to tick-borne encephalitis. These findings add to sparse data on tick-borne encephalitis virus phylogeny and associated neurologic syndromes and underscore the importance of vaccinating people traveling to endemic regions.

EID Neill L, Checkley AM, Benjamin LA, Herdman M, Carter DP, Pullan ST, et al. Rhombencephalitis and Myeloradiculitis Caused by a European Subtype of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2317-2319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191017
AMA Neill L, Checkley AM, Benjamin LA, et al. Rhombencephalitis and Myeloradiculitis Caused by a European Subtype of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2317-2319. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191017.
APA Neill, L., Checkley, A. M., Benjamin, L. A., Herdman, M., Carter, D. P., Pullan, S. T....Kullmann, D. M. (2019). Rhombencephalitis and Myeloradiculitis Caused by a European Subtype of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2317-2319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191017.

Aspergillus felis in Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease [PDF - 369 KB - 3 pages]
O. Paccoud et al.

We report a case of Aspergillus felis infection in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease who had overlapping features of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Identifying the species responsible for aspergillosis by molecular methods can be crucial for directing patient management and selection of appropriate antifungal agents.

EID Paccoud O, Guery R, Poirée S, Jouvion G, Bougnoux M, Catherinot E, et al. Aspergillus felis in Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2319-2321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191020
AMA Paccoud O, Guery R, Poirée S, et al. Aspergillus felis in Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2319-2321. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191020.
APA Paccoud, O., Guery, R., Poirée, S., Jouvion, G., Bougnoux, M., Catherinot, E....Lanternier, F. (2019). Aspergillus felis in Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2319-2321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191020.

Fatal Brazilian Spotted Fever Associated with Dogs and Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks, Brazil, 2013 [PDF - 382 KB - 2 pages]
E. Savani et al.

In São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil, Amblyomma aureolatum ticks are the main vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, which causes Brazilian spotted fever. In 2013, a boy in São Paulo died of Brazilian spotted fever associated with household dogs and A. aureolatum ticks. Prompt recognition and treatment of this illness might prevent deaths.

EID Savani E, Costa FB, Silva EA, Couto A, Gutjahr M, Alves J, et al. Fatal Brazilian Spotted Fever Associated with Dogs and Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks, Brazil, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2322-2323. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191146
AMA Savani E, Costa FB, Silva EA, et al. Fatal Brazilian Spotted Fever Associated with Dogs and Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks, Brazil, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2322-2323. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191146.
APA Savani, E., Costa, F. B., Silva, E. A., Couto, A., Gutjahr, M., Alves, J....Labruna, M. B. (2019). Fatal Brazilian Spotted Fever Associated with Dogs and Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks, Brazil, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2322-2323. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191146.

Phylogenetic Analysis of Bird-Virulent West Nile Virus Strain, Greece [PDF - 441 KB - 3 pages]
G. Valiakos et al.

We report the full polyprotein genomic sequence of a West Nile virus strain isolated from Eurasian magpies dying with neurologic signs in Greece. Our findings demonstrate the local genetic evolution of the West Nile virus strain responsible for a human disease outbreak in the country that began in 2010.

EID Valiakos G, Plavos K, Vontas A, Sofia M, Giannakopoulos A, Giannoulis T, et al. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bird-Virulent West Nile Virus Strain, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2323-2325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181225
AMA Valiakos G, Plavos K, Vontas A, et al. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bird-Virulent West Nile Virus Strain, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2323-2325. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181225.
APA Valiakos, G., Plavos, K., Vontas, A., Sofia, M., Giannakopoulos, A., Giannoulis, T....Billinis, C. (2019). Phylogenetic Analysis of Bird-Virulent West Nile Virus Strain, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2323-2325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181225.

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Russia [PDF - 1.09 MB - 4 pages]
E. A. Tkachenko et al.

In Russia, 131,590 cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by 6 different hantaviruses were reported during 2000–2017. Most cases, 98.4%, were reported in western Russia. The average case-fatality rate was 0.4%, and strong regional differences were seen, depending on the predominant virus type.

EID Tkachenko EA, Ishmukhametov AA, Dzagurova TK, Bernshtein AD, Morozov VG, Siniugina AA, et al. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2325-2328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181649
AMA Tkachenko EA, Ishmukhametov AA, Dzagurova TK, et al. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2325-2328. doi:10.3201/eid2512.181649.
APA Tkachenko, E. A., Ishmukhametov, A. A., Dzagurova, T. K., Bernshtein, A. D., Morozov, V. G., Siniugina, A. A....Klempa, B. (2019). Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2325-2328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181649.

Laboratory-Confirmed Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Virus Infection, India, 2019 [PDF - 820 KB - 3 pages]
V. Potdar et al.

A 17-month-old boy in India with severe acute respiratory infection was laboratory confirmed to have avian influenza A(H9N2) virus infection. Complete genome analysis of the strain indicated a mixed lineage of G1 and H7N3. The strain also was found to be susceptible to adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors.

EID Potdar V, Hinge D, Satav A, Simões E, Yadav PD, Chadha MS. Laboratory-Confirmed Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Virus Infection, India, 2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2328-2330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190636
AMA Potdar V, Hinge D, Satav A, et al. Laboratory-Confirmed Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Virus Infection, India, 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2328-2330. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190636.
APA Potdar, V., Hinge, D., Satav, A., Simões, E., Yadav, P. D., & Chadha, M. S. (2019). Laboratory-Confirmed Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Virus Infection, India, 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2328-2330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190636.

Nodular Human Lagochilascariasis Lesion in Hunter, Brazil [PDF - 895 KB - 2 pages]
F. Queiroz-Telles and G. Salvador

Lagochilascariasis is a rare helminthic infection caused by Lagochilascaris minor nematodes and found in Latin America; most cases are reported in the Amazon region. We report on a case observed in a hunter in southern Brazil and describe scanning electron microscopy results for L. minor adult forms.

EID Queiroz-Telles F, Salvador G. Nodular Human Lagochilascariasis Lesion in Hunter, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2331-2332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190737
AMA Queiroz-Telles F, Salvador G. Nodular Human Lagochilascariasis Lesion in Hunter, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2331-2332. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190737.
APA Queiroz-Telles, F., & Salvador, G. (2019). Nodular Human Lagochilascariasis Lesion in Hunter, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2331-2332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190737.

MERS-CoV in Camels but Not Camel Handlers, Sudan, 2015 and 2017 [PDF - 357 KB - 3 pages]
E. Farag et al.

We tested samples collected from camels, camel workers, and other animals in Sudan and Qatar in 2015 and 2017 for evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. MERS-CoV antibodies were abundant in Sudan camels, but we found no evidence of MERS-CoV infection in camel workers, other livestock, or bats.

EID Farag E, Sikkema RS, Mohamedani AA, de Bruin E, Munnink BB, Chandler F, et al. MERS-CoV in Camels but Not Camel Handlers, Sudan, 2015 and 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2333-2335. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190882
AMA Farag E, Sikkema RS, Mohamedani AA, et al. MERS-CoV in Camels but Not Camel Handlers, Sudan, 2015 and 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2333-2335. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190882.
APA Farag, E., Sikkema, R. S., Mohamedani, A. A., de Bruin, E., Munnink, B. B., Chandler, F....Elrahman, S. (2019). MERS-CoV in Camels but Not Camel Handlers, Sudan, 2015 and 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2333-2335. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190882.

Recombination between Vaccine and Field Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus [PDF - 740 KB - 3 pages]
A. Wang et al.

We isolated and plaque purified IA76950-WT and IA70388-R, 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses from pigs in the same herd in Iowa, USA, that exhibited coughing and had interstitial pneumonia. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that IA70388-R is a natural recombinant from Fostera PRRSV vaccine and field strain IA76950-WT.

EID Wang A, Chen Q, Wang L, Madson D, Harmon K, Gauger P, et al. Recombination between Vaccine and Field Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2335-2337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191111
AMA Wang A, Chen Q, Wang L, et al. Recombination between Vaccine and Field Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2335-2337. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191111.
APA Wang, A., Chen, Q., Wang, L., Madson, D., Harmon, K., Gauger, P....Li, G. (2019). Recombination between Vaccine and Field Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2335-2337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191111.

Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4, Russia, 2018 [PDF - 311 KB - 2 pages]
I. M. Susloparov et al.

Timely identification of pandemic influenza threats depends on monitoring for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. We isolated highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus clade 2.3.4.4, genotype G1.1, in samples from a bird in southwest Russia. The virus has high homology to human H5N6 influenza strains isolated from southeast China.

EID Susloparov IM, Goncharova N, Kolosova N, Danilenko A, Marchenko V, Onkhonova G, et al. Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4, Russia, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2338-2339. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190504
AMA Susloparov IM, Goncharova N, Kolosova N, et al. Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4, Russia, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2338-2339. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190504.
APA Susloparov, I. M., Goncharova, N., Kolosova, N., Danilenko, A., Marchenko, V., Onkhonova, G....Ryzhikov, A. (2019). Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4, Russia, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2338-2339. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190504.

Human Parasitism by Amblyomma parkeri Ticks Infected with Candidatus Rickettsia paranaensis, Brazil [PDF - 722 KB - 3 pages]
A. P. Borsoi et al.

Spotted fever is the main rickettsial disease in Brazil. We report 12 cases of human parasitism by Amblyomma parkeri in the Atlantic rainforest, an area of Brazil to which spotted fever is endemic. Nine of the ticks were infected with Candidatus Rickettsia paranaensis.

EID Borsoi AP, Bitencourth K, de Oliveira SV, Amorim M, Gazêta GS. Human Parasitism by Amblyomma parkeri Ticks Infected with Candidatus Rickettsia paranaensis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2339-2341. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190988
AMA Borsoi AP, Bitencourth K, de Oliveira SV, et al. Human Parasitism by Amblyomma parkeri Ticks Infected with Candidatus Rickettsia paranaensis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2339-2341. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190988.
APA Borsoi, A. P., Bitencourth, K., de Oliveira, S. V., Amorim, M., & Gazêta, G. S. (2019). Human Parasitism by Amblyomma parkeri Ticks Infected with Candidatus Rickettsia paranaensis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2339-2341. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190988.
Books and Media

Outbreak: Foodborne Illness and the Struggle for Food Safety [PDF - 507 KB - 1 page]
R. Tauxe
EID Tauxe R. Outbreak: Foodborne Illness and the Struggle for Food Safety. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191192
AMA Tauxe R. Outbreak: Foodborne Illness and the Struggle for Food Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2342. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191192.
APA Tauxe, R. (2019). Outbreak: Foodborne Illness and the Struggle for Food Safety. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191192.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals [PDF - 527 KB - 2 pages]
L. Redding
EID Redding L. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2342-2343. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191193
AMA Redding L. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2342-2343. doi:10.3201/eid2512.191193.
APA Redding, L. (2019). Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2342-2343. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.191193.
About the Cover

A Fanciful Juxtaposition, a Reimagined Farm [PDF - 1.01 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. A Fanciful Juxtaposition, a Reimagined Farm. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2344-2345. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.ac2512
AMA Breedlove B. A Fanciful Juxtaposition, a Reimagined Farm. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2344-2345. doi:10.3201/eid2512.ac2512.
APA Breedlove, B. (2019). A Fanciful Juxtaposition, a Reimagined Farm. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2344-2345. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.ac2512.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Markov Chain Monte Carlo [PDF - 388 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry
EID Henry R. Etymologia: Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):2298. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.et2512
AMA Henry R. Etymologia: Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):2298. doi:10.3201/eid2512.et2512.
APA Henry, R. (2019). Etymologia: Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 2298. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.et2512.
Online Reports

Canine Leishmaniasis Control in the Context of One Health [PDF - 583 KB - 4 pages]
F. Dantas-Torres et al.

Dogs are the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum and in some countries have been regularly culled as part of government policy to control visceral leishmaniasis. At the 13th Symposium of the Companion Vector-Borne Diseases World Forum in Windsor, UK, March 19–22, 2018, we consolidated a consensus statement regarding the usefulness of dog culling as a means of controlling visceral leishmaniasis. The statement highlighted the futility of culling infected dogs, whether healthy or sick, as a measure to control the domestic reservoir of L. infantum and reduce the risk for visceral leishmaniasis.

EID Dantas-Torres F, Miró G, Baneth G, Bourdeau P, Breitschwerdt E, Capelli G, et al. Canine Leishmaniasis Control in the Context of One Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(12):1-4. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190164
AMA Dantas-Torres F, Miró G, Baneth G, et al. Canine Leishmaniasis Control in the Context of One Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12):1-4. doi:10.3201/eid2512.190164.
APA Dantas-Torres, F., Miró, G., Baneth, G., Bourdeau, P., Breitschwerdt, E., Capelli, G....Otranto, D. (2019). Canine Leishmaniasis Control in the Context of One Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(12), 1-4. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.190164.
News and Notes

News and Notes: Emerging Infectious Diseases Is Moving to Online Only
Page created: December 05, 2019
Page updated: December 05, 2019
Page reviewed: December 05, 2019
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