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Articles from Emerging Infectious Diseases

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Clinical Characteristics of Disseminated Strongyloidiasis, Japan, 1975–2017 [PDF - 1.51 MB - 8 pages]
M. Mukaigawara et al.

Clinical characteristics of disseminated strongyloidiasis, the severest form of strongyloidiasis, are not well described. We conducted a retrospective, consecutive chart review of patients with disseminated strongyloidiasis admitted to Okinawa Chubu Hospital in Okinawa, Japan, during January 1975–December 2017. The 70 patients were classified into 3 clinical phenotypes: dissemination (32 patients [45.7%]), occult dissemination with meningitis caused by enteric organisms (12 patients [17.1%]), and occult dissemination with culture-negative suppurative meningitis (26 patients [37.1%]). Associated mortality rates were 56.3%, 16.7%, and 11.5%, respectively, and sepsis occurred in 40.6%, 58.3%, and 11.5% of cases, respectively. Common symptoms included fever (52.9% of patients), headache (32.9%), and altered mental status (24.3%). Patients were treated with thiabendazole (before 2003) or ivermectin (after 2003). Our findings show that disseminated strongyloidiasis has clinical phenotypes in terms of severity and that identification of occult dissemination, a mild form with prominent neurologic manifestations, is lifesaving.

EID Mukaigawara M, Narita M, Shiiki S, Takayama Y, Takakura S, Kishaba T. Clinical Characteristics of Disseminated Strongyloidiasis, Japan, 1975–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):401-408. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190571
AMA Mukaigawara M, Narita M, Shiiki S, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Disseminated Strongyloidiasis, Japan, 1975–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):401-408. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190571.
APA Mukaigawara, M., Narita, M., Shiiki, S., Takayama, Y., Takakura, S., & Kishaba, T. (2020). Clinical Characteristics of Disseminated Strongyloidiasis, Japan, 1975–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 401-408. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190571.

Medscape CME Activity
Epidemiology of Cryptosporidiosis, New York City, New York, USA, 1995–2018 [PDF - 1.22 MB - 11 pages]
L. Alleyne et al.

Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic diarrheal infection that is transmitted by the fecal–oral route. We assessed trends in incidence and demographic characteristics for the 3,984 cases diagnosed during 1995–2018 in New York City, New York, USA, and reported to the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Reported cryptosporidiosis incidence decreased with HIV/AIDS treatment rollout in the mid-1990s, but the introduction of syndromic multiplex diagnostic panels in 2015 led to a major increase in incidence and to a shift in the demographic profile of reported patients. Incidence was highest among men 20–59 years of age, who consistently represented most (54%) reported patients. In addition, 30% of interviewed patients reported recent international travel. The burden of cryptosporidiosis in New York City is probably highest among men who have sex with men. Prevention messaging is warranted for men who have sex with men and their healthcare providers, as well as for international travelers.

EID Alleyne L, Fitzhenry R, Mergen KA, Espina N, Amoroso E, Cimini D, et al. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidiosis, New York City, New York, USA, 1995–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):409-419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190785
AMA Alleyne L, Fitzhenry R, Mergen KA, et al. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidiosis, New York City, New York, USA, 1995–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):409-419. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190785.
APA Alleyne, L., Fitzhenry, R., Mergen, K. A., Espina, N., Amoroso, E., Cimini, D....Thompson, C. N. (2020). Epidemiology of Cryptosporidiosis, New York City, New York, USA, 1995–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 409-419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190785.

Public Health Response to Tuberculosis Outbreak among Persons Experiencing Homelessness, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 2017–2018 [PDF - 634 KB - 7 pages]
K. K. Tibbetts et al.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a greater risk for populations experiencing homelessness. When a TB exposure occurs in a homeless shelter, evaluation of contacts is both urgent and challenging. In 2017, local public health workers initiated a response to a TB outbreak in homeless shelters in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. In this contact investigation, we incorporated multiple techniques to identify, evaluate, and manage patients, including the concentric-circle method to characterize amount of contact, identifying the most frequent sites of sporadic medical care, using electronic medical records, and engaging with medical providers treating this population. Of 298 contacts evaluated, 41 (14%) had latent TB infection and 2 had active TB disease. Our analysis indicated a significant relationship between duration of exposure and positive TB test result (p = 0.001). We encourage local public health departments to expand beyond traditional contact tracing techniques by leveraging partnerships and existing systems to reach contacts exposed in shelters.

EID Tibbetts KK, Ottoson RA, Tsukayama DT. Public Health Response to Tuberculosis Outbreak among Persons Experiencing Homelessness, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 2017–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):420-426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190643
AMA Tibbetts KK, Ottoson RA, Tsukayama DT. Public Health Response to Tuberculosis Outbreak among Persons Experiencing Homelessness, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 2017–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):420-426. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190643.
APA Tibbetts, K. K., Ottoson, R. A., & Tsukayama, D. T. (2020). Public Health Response to Tuberculosis Outbreak among Persons Experiencing Homelessness, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 2017–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 420-426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190643.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Lineage 3 as Causative Agent of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Eastern Sudan [PDF - 2.86 MB - 10 pages]
Y. A. Shuaib et al.

Pathogen-based factors associated with tuberculosis (TB) in eastern Sudan are not well defined. We investigated genetic diversity, drug resistance, and possible transmission clusters of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains by using a genomic epidemiology approach. We collected 383 sputum specimens at 3 hospitals in 2014 and 2016 from patients with symptoms suggestive of TB; of these, 171 grew MTBC strains. Whole-genome sequencing could be performed on 166 MTBC strains; phylogenetic classification revealed that most (73.4%; n = 122) belonged to lineage 3 (L3). Genome-based cluster analysis showed that 76 strains (45.9%) were grouped into 29 molecular clusters, comprising 2–8 strains/patients. Of the strains investigated, 9.0% (15/166) were multidrug resistant (MDR); 10 MDR MTBC strains were linked to 1 large MDR transmission network. Our findings indicate that L3 strains are the main causative agent of TB in eastern Sudan; MDR TB is caused mainly by transmission of MDR L3 strains.

EID Shuaib YA, Khalil E, Wieler LH, Schaible UE, Bakheit MA, Mohamed-Noor SE, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Lineage 3 as Causative Agent of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Eastern Sudan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):427-436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191145
AMA Shuaib YA, Khalil E, Wieler LH, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Lineage 3 as Causative Agent of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Eastern Sudan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):427-436. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191145.
APA Shuaib, Y. A., Khalil, E., Wieler, L. H., Schaible, U. E., Bakheit, M. A., Mohamed-Noor, S. E....Merker, M. (2020). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Lineage 3 as Causative Agent of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Eastern Sudan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 427-436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191145.

Norovirus Outbreak Surveillance, China, 2016–2018 [PDF - 1.66 MB - 9 pages]
M. Jin et al.

CaliciNet China, a network of provincial, county, and city laboratories coordinated by the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was launched in October 2016 to monitor the epidemiology and genotype distribution of norovirus outbreaks in China. During October 2016–September 2018, a total of 556 norovirus outbreaks were reported, and positive fecal samples from 470 (84.5%) outbreaks were genotyped. Most of these outbreaks were associated with person-to-person transmission (95.1%), occurred in childcare centers or schools (78.2%), and were reported during November–March of each year (63.5%). During the 2-year study period, 81.2% of all norovirus outbreaks were typed as GII.2[P16]. In China, most norovirus outbreaks are reported by childcare centers or schools; GII.2[P16] is the predominant genotype. Ongoing surveillance by CaliciNet China will provide information about the evolving norovirus genotype distribution and outbreak characteristics important for the development of effective interventions, including vaccines.

EID Jin M, Wu S, Kong X, Xie H, Fu J, He Y, et al. Norovirus Outbreak Surveillance, China, 2016–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):437-445. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191183
AMA Jin M, Wu S, Kong X, et al. Norovirus Outbreak Surveillance, China, 2016–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):437-445. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191183.
APA Jin, M., Wu, S., Kong, X., Xie, H., Fu, J., He, Y....Duan, Z. (2020). Norovirus Outbreak Surveillance, China, 2016–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 437-445. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191183.
Research

Medscape CME Activity
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections and Injection Drug Use, Tennessee, USA, 2015–2017 [PDF - 941 KB - 8 pages]
M. P. Parikh et al.

Recently, Tennessee, USA, has seen an increase in the use of commonly injected drugs, such as heroin and fentanyl. Injection drug use (IDU) practices can lead to life-threatening methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) and other serious diseases. We matched MRSA BSIs identified through the National Healthcare Safety Network to the Tennessee Hospital Discharge Data System to characterize the prevalence, demographics, and clinical characteristics associated with IDU in this disease population. Of the 7,646 MRSA BSIs identified during 2015–2017, we found that 1,839 (24.1%) were IDU-related. IDU-related BSIs increased by 118.9%; the greatest rise occurred among emergency department–onset infections (197.4%). IDU was more often associated with white, female, 18–49-year-old, and uninsured persons (p<0.001). We found >1 additional IDU-related diagnoses in 84.2% of IDU-related BSIs. Targeted harm reduction strategies for persons at high risk of IDU are necessary to reduce MRSA BSIs in acute care settings.

EID Parikh MP, Octaria R, Kainer MA. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections and Injection Drug Use, Tennessee, USA, 2015–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):446-453. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191408
AMA Parikh MP, Octaria R, Kainer MA. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections and Injection Drug Use, Tennessee, USA, 2015–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):446-453. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191408.
APA Parikh, M. P., Octaria, R., & Kainer, M. A. (2020). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections and Injection Drug Use, Tennessee, USA, 2015–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 446-453. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191408.

Randomized Trial of 2 Schedules of Meningococcal B Vaccine in Adolescents and Young Adults, Canada [PDF - 1.55 MB - 9 pages]
J. M. Langley et al.

Emergency vaccination programs often are needed to control outbreaks of meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) on college campuses. Such campaigns expend multiple campus and public health resources. We conducted a randomized, controlled, multicenter, observer-blinded trial comparing immunogenicity and tolerability of an accelerated vaccine schedule of 0 and 21 days to a longer interval of 0 and 60 days for 4-component MenB vaccine (MenB-4C) in students 17–25 years of age. At day 21 after the first MenB-4C dose, we observed protective human serum bactericidal titers >4 to MenB strains 5/99, H44/76, and NZ 98/254 in 98%–100% of participants. Geometric mean titers increased >22-fold over baseline. At day 180, >95% of participants sustained protective titers regardless of their vaccine schedule. The most common adverse event was injection site pain. An accelerated MenB-4C immunization schedule could be considered for rapid control of campus outbreaks.

EID Langley JM, Gantt S, Quach C, Bettinger JA, Halperin SA, Mutch J, et al. Randomized Trial of 2 Schedules of Meningococcal B Vaccine in Adolescents and Young Adults, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):454-462. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190160
AMA Langley JM, Gantt S, Quach C, et al. Randomized Trial of 2 Schedules of Meningococcal B Vaccine in Adolescents and Young Adults, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):454-462. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190160.
APA Langley, J. M., Gantt, S., Quach, C., Bettinger, J. A., Halperin, S. A., Mutch, J....Alcantara, J. (2020). Randomized Trial of 2 Schedules of Meningococcal B Vaccine in Adolescents and Young Adults, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 454-462. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190160.

Human Immune Responses to Melioidosis and Cross-Reactivity to Low-Virulence Burkholderia Species, Thailand [PDF - 1.63 MB - 9 pages]
P. Rongkard et al.

Melioidosis is a neglected tropical disease with an estimated annual mortality rate of 89,000 in 45 countries across tropical regions. The causative agent is Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative soil-dwelling bacterium. In Thailand, B. pseudomallei can be found across multiple regions, along with the low-virulence B. thailandensis and the recently discovered B. thailandensis variant (BTCV), which expresses B. pseudomallei–like capsular polysaccharide. Comprehensive studies of human immune responses to B. thailandensis variants and cross-reactivity to B. pseudomallei are not complete. We evaluated human immune responses to B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis, and BTCV in melioidosis patients and healthy persons in B. pseudomallei–endemic areas using a range of humoral and cellular immune assays. We found immune cross-reactivity to be strong for both humoral and cellular immunity among B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis, and BTCV. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to low-virulence strains may build cellular immunity to B. pseudomallei.

EID Rongkard P, Kronsteiner B, Hantrakun V, Jenjaroen K, Sumonwiriya M, Chaichana P, et al. Human Immune Responses to Melioidosis and Cross-Reactivity to Low-Virulence Burkholderia Species, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):463-471. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190206
AMA Rongkard P, Kronsteiner B, Hantrakun V, et al. Human Immune Responses to Melioidosis and Cross-Reactivity to Low-Virulence Burkholderia Species, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):463-471. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190206.
APA Rongkard, P., Kronsteiner, B., Hantrakun, V., Jenjaroen, K., Sumonwiriya, M., Chaichana, P....Dunachie, S. J. (2020). Human Immune Responses to Melioidosis and Cross-Reactivity to Low-Virulence Burkholderia Species, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 463-471. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190206.

Role of Live-Duck Movement Networks in Transmission of Avian Influenza, France, 2016–2017 [PDF - 3.46 MB - 9 pages]
C. Guinat et al.

The relative roles that movement and proximity networks play in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are often unknown during an epidemic, preventing effective control. We used network analysis to explore the devastating epidemic of HPAI A(H5N8) among poultry, in particular ducks, in France during 2016–2017 and to estimate the likely contribution of live-duck movements. Approximately 0.2% of live-duck movements could have been responsible for between-farm transmission events, mostly early during the epidemic. Results also suggest a transmission risk of 35.5% when an infected holding moves flocks to another holding within 14 days before detection. Finally, we found that densely connected groups of holdings with sparse connections between groups overlapped farmer organizations, which represents important knowledge for surveillance design. This study highlights the importance of movement bans in zones affected by HPAI and of understanding transmission routes to develop appropriate HPAI control strategies.

EID Guinat C, Durand B, Vergne T, Corre T, Rautureau S, Scoizec A, et al. Role of Live-Duck Movement Networks in Transmission of Avian Influenza, France, 2016–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):472-480. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190412
AMA Guinat C, Durand B, Vergne T, et al. Role of Live-Duck Movement Networks in Transmission of Avian Influenza, France, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):472-480. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190412.
APA Guinat, C., Durand, B., Vergne, T., Corre, T., Rautureau, S., Scoizec, A....Paul, M. C. (2020). Role of Live-Duck Movement Networks in Transmission of Avian Influenza, France, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 472-480. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190412.

Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Clades, Ukraine, 2015 [PDF - 2.60 MB - 10 pages]
M. Merker et al.

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is an emerging threat to TB control in Ukraine, a country with the third highest XDR TB burden globally. We used whole-genome sequencing of a convenience sample to identify bacterial genetic and patient-related factors associated with MDR/XDR TB in this country. MDR/XDR TB was associated with 3 distinct Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex lineage 2 (Beijing) clades, Europe/Russia W148 outbreak, Central Asia outbreak, and Ukraine outbreak, which comprised 68.9% of all MDR/XDR TB strains from southern Ukraine. MDR/XDR TB was also associated with previous treatment for TB and urban residence. The circulation of Beijing outbreak strains harboring broad drug resistance, coupled with constraints in drug supply and limited availability of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing, needs to be considered when new TB management strategies are implemented in Ukraine.

EID Merker M, Nikolaevskaya E, Kohl TA, Molina-Moya B, Pavlovska O, Brännberg P, et al. Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Clades, Ukraine, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):481-490. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190525
AMA Merker M, Nikolaevskaya E, Kohl TA, et al. Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Clades, Ukraine, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):481-490. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190525.
APA Merker, M., Nikolaevskaya, E., Kohl, T. A., Molina-Moya, B., Pavlovska, O., Brännberg, P....Niemann, S. (2020). Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Clades, Ukraine, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 481-490. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190525.

Stable and Local Reservoirs of Mycobacterium ulcerans Inferred from the Nonrandom Distribution of Bacterial Genotypes, Benin [PDF - 7.43 MB - 13 pages]
C. Coudereau et al.

Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, a neglected tropical disease found in rural areas of West and Central Africa. Despite the ongoing efforts to tackle Buruli ulcer epidemics, the environmental reservoir of its pathogen remains elusive, underscoring the need for new approaches to improving disease prevention and management. In our study, we implemented a local-scale spatial clustering model and deciphered the genetic diversity of the bacteria in a small area of Benin where Buruli ulcer is endemic. Using 179 strain samples from West Africa, we conducted a phylogeographic analysis combining whole-genome sequencing with spatial scan statistics. The 8 distinct genotypes we identified were by no means randomly spread over the studied area. Instead, they were divided into 3 different geographic clusters, associated with landscape characteristics. Our results highlight the ability of M. ulcerans to evolve independently and differentially depending on location in a specific ecologic reservoir.

EID Coudereau C, Besnard A, Robbe-Saule M, Bris C, Kempf M, Johnson R, et al. Stable and Local Reservoirs of Mycobacterium ulcerans Inferred from the Nonrandom Distribution of Bacterial Genotypes, Benin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):491-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190573
AMA Coudereau C, Besnard A, Robbe-Saule M, et al. Stable and Local Reservoirs of Mycobacterium ulcerans Inferred from the Nonrandom Distribution of Bacterial Genotypes, Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):491-503. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190573.
APA Coudereau, C., Besnard, A., Robbe-Saule, M., Bris, C., Kempf, M., Johnson, R....Marion, E. (2020). Stable and Local Reservoirs of Mycobacterium ulcerans Inferred from the Nonrandom Distribution of Bacterial Genotypes, Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 491-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190573.

Genomic and Phenotypic Variability in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility, England [PDF - 1.95 MB - 11 pages]
K. Town et al.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global concern. Phylogenetic analyses resolve uncertainties regarding genetic relatedness of isolates with identical phenotypes and inform whether AMR is due to new mutations and clonal expansion or separate introductions by importation. We sequenced 1,277 isolates with associated epidemiologic and antimicrobial susceptibility data collected during 2013–2016 to investigate N. gonorrhoeae genomic variability in England. Comparing genetic markers and phenotypes for AMR, we identified 2 N. gonorrhoeae lineages with different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and 3 clusters with elevated MICs for ceftriaxone, varying mutations in the penA allele, and different epidemiologic characteristics. Our results indicate N. gonorrhoeae with reduced antimicrobial susceptibility emerged independently and multiple times in different sexual networks in England, through new mutation or recombination events and by importation. Monitoring and control for AMR in N. gonorrhoeae should cover the entire population affected, rather than focusing on specific risk groups or locations.

EID Town K, Harris S, Sánchez-Busó L, Cole MJ, Pitt R, Fifer H, et al. Genomic and Phenotypic Variability in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility, England. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):505-515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190732
AMA Town K, Harris S, Sánchez-Busó L, et al. Genomic and Phenotypic Variability in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):505-515. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190732.
APA Town, K., Harris, S., Sánchez-Busó, L., Cole, M. J., Pitt, R., Fifer, H....Hughes, G. (2020). Genomic and Phenotypic Variability in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 505-515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190732.

High Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Prisoners, Tianjin, China [PDF - 797 KB - 7 pages]
G. Zhang et al.

The high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among prisoners calls for interventions to identify latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) before disease onset. To identify LTBI prevalence among prisoners and factors associated with it, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Tianjin. We randomly sampled 959 HIV-negative adult prisoners by ward clusters in 5 prisons and determined LTBI by seropositivity using an interferon-γ release assay. The overall rate of LTBI was 52.0% (499/959) in the 5 facilities and ranged from 41.9% (72/172) to 60.9% (106/174). Age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.4–2.0 per 10 years), duration of imprisonment (aOR 1.2, 95 CI% 1.1–1.2 per year), previous incarceration (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5–2.7), and facility-specific TB incidence (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.8) were risk factors for LTBI. These findings indicate possible TB transmission within prisons and suggest the necessity for early TB case detection, as well as prophylaxis.

EID Zhang G, Zhang Y, Zhong D, Meng S, An L, Wei W, et al. High Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Prisoners, Tianjin, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):516-522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190891
AMA Zhang G, Zhang Y, Zhong D, et al. High Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Prisoners, Tianjin, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):516-522. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190891.
APA Zhang, G., Zhang, Y., Zhong, D., Meng, S., An, L., Wei, W....Wang, X. (2020). High Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Prisoners, Tianjin, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 516-522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190891.

Whole-Genome Sequencing to Detect Numerous Campylobacter jejuni Outbreaks and Match Patient Isolates to Sources, Denmark, 2015–2017 [PDF - 1.94 MB - 10 pages]
K. G. Joensen et al.

In industrialized countries, the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis is Campylobacter jejuni. However, outbreaks are rarely reported, which may reflect limitations of surveillance, for which molecular typing is not routinely performed. To determine the frequency of genetic clusters among patients and to find links to concurrent isolates from poultry meat, broiler chickens, cattle, pigs, and dogs, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 1,509 C. jejuni isolates from 774 patients and 735 food or animal sources in Denmark during 2015–2017. We found numerous clusters; 366/774 (47.3%) clinical isolates formed 104 clusters of >2 isolates. A total of 41 patient clusters representing 199/366 (54%) patients matched a potential source, primarily domestic chickens/broilers. This study revealed serial outbreaks and numerous matches to concurrent food and animal isolates and highlighted the potential of whole-genome sequencing for improving routine surveillance of C. jejuni by enhancing outbreak detection, source tracing, and potentially prevention of human infections.

EID Joensen KG, Kiil K, Gantzhorn MR, Nauerby B, Engberg J, Holt HM, et al. Whole-Genome Sequencing to Detect Numerous Campylobacter jejuni Outbreaks and Match Patient Isolates to Sources, Denmark, 2015–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):523-532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190947
AMA Joensen KG, Kiil K, Gantzhorn MR, et al. Whole-Genome Sequencing to Detect Numerous Campylobacter jejuni Outbreaks and Match Patient Isolates to Sources, Denmark, 2015–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):523-532. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190947.
APA Joensen, K. G., Kiil, K., Gantzhorn, M. R., Nauerby, B., Engberg, J., Holt, H. M....Nielsen, E. M. (2020). Whole-Genome Sequencing to Detect Numerous Campylobacter jejuni Outbreaks and Match Patient Isolates to Sources, Denmark, 2015–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 523-532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190947.

US Tuberculosis Rates among Persons Born Outside the United States Compared with Rates in Their Countries of Birth, 2012–2016 [PDF - 1.59 MB - 8 pages]
C. A. Tsang et al.

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening populations at increased risk for tuberculosis (TB), including persons born in countries with high TB rates. This approach assumes that TB risk for expatriates living in the United States is representative of TB risk in their countries of birth. We compared US TB rates by country of birth with corresponding country rates by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) (World Health Organization rate/US rate). The median IRR was 5.4. The median IRR was 0.5 for persons who received a TB diagnosis <1 year after US entry, 4.9 at 1 to <10 years, and 10.0 at >10 years. Our analysis suggests that World Health Organization TB rates are not representative of TB risk among expatriates in the United States and that TB testing prioritization in the United States might better be based on US rates by country of birth and years in the United States.

EID Tsang CA, Langer AJ, Kammerer J, Navin TR. US Tuberculosis Rates among Persons Born Outside the United States Compared with Rates in Their Countries of Birth, 2012–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):533-540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190974
AMA Tsang CA, Langer AJ, Kammerer J, et al. US Tuberculosis Rates among Persons Born Outside the United States Compared with Rates in Their Countries of Birth, 2012–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):533-540. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190974.
APA Tsang, C. A., Langer, A. J., Kammerer, J., & Navin, T. R. (2020). US Tuberculosis Rates among Persons Born Outside the United States Compared with Rates in Their Countries of Birth, 2012–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 533-540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190974.

Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Receiving rVSVΔ-ZEBOV-GP Ebola Vaccine during the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola [PDF - 1.30 MB - 8 pages]
J. K. Legardy-Williams et al.

Little information exists regarding Ebola vaccine rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP and pregnancy. The Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola (STRIVE) randomized participants without blinding to immediate or deferred (18–24 weeks postenrollment) vaccination. Pregnancy was an exclusion criterion, but 84 women were inadvertently vaccinated in early pregnancy or became pregnant <60 days after vaccination or enrollment. Among immediate vaccinated women, 45% (14/31) reported pregnancy loss, compared with 33% (11/33) of unvaccinated women with contemporaneous pregnancies (relative risk 1.35, 95% CI 0.73–2.52). Pregnancy loss was similar among women with higher risk for vaccine viremia (conception before or <14 days after vaccination) (44% [4/9]) and women with lower risk (conception >15 days after vaccination) (45% [10/22]). No congenital anomalies were detected among 44 live-born infants examined. These data highlight the need for Ebola vaccination decisions to balance the possible risk for an adverse pregnancy outcome with the risk for Ebola exposure.

EID Legardy-Williams JK, Carter RJ, Goldstein ST, Jarrett OD, Szefer E, Fombah AE, et al. Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Receiving rVSVΔ-ZEBOV-GP Ebola Vaccine during the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):541-548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191018
AMA Legardy-Williams JK, Carter RJ, Goldstein ST, et al. Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Receiving rVSVΔ-ZEBOV-GP Ebola Vaccine during the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):541-548. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191018.
APA Legardy-Williams, J. K., Carter, R. J., Goldstein, S. T., Jarrett, O. D., Szefer, E., Fombah, A. E....Mahon, B. E. (2020). Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Receiving rVSVΔ-ZEBOV-GP Ebola Vaccine during the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 541-548. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191018.

Acquisition of Plasmid with Carbapenem-Resistance Gene blaKPC2 in Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae, Singapore [PDF - 1.50 MB - 11 pages]
Y. Chen et al.

The convergence of carbapenem-resistance and hypervirulence genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae has led to the emergence of highly drug-resistant superbugs capable of causing invasive disease. We analyzed 556 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from patients in Singapore hospitals during 2010–2015 and discovered 18 isolates from 7 patients also harbored hypervirulence features. All isolates contained a closely related plasmid (pKPC2) harboring blaKPC-2, a K. pneumoniae carbapenemase gene, and had a hypervirulent background of capsular serotypes K1, K2, and K20. In total, 5 of 7 first patient isolates were hypermucoviscous, and 6 were virulent in mice. The pKPC2 was highly transmissible and remarkably stable, maintained in bacteria within a patient with few changes for months in the absence of antimicrobial drug selection pressure. Intrapatient isolates were also able to acquire additional antimicrobial drug resistance genes when inside human bodies. Our results highlight the potential spread of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae in Singapore.

EID Chen Y, Marimuthu K, Teo J, Venkatachalam I, Cherng B, De Wang L, et al. Acquisition of Plasmid with Carbapenem-Resistance Gene blaKPC2 in Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):549-559. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191230
AMA Chen Y, Marimuthu K, Teo J, et al. Acquisition of Plasmid with Carbapenem-Resistance Gene blaKPC2 in Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):549-559. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191230.
APA Chen, Y., Marimuthu, K., Teo, J., Venkatachalam, I., Cherng, B., De Wang, L....Gan, Y. (2020). Acquisition of Plasmid with Carbapenem-Resistance Gene blaKPC2 in Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 549-559. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191230.

Long-Term Rodent Surveillance after Outbreak of Hantavirus Infection, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012 [PDF - 923 KB - 8 pages]
M. E. Danforth et al.

In 2012, a total of 9 cases of hantavirus infection occurred in overnight visitors to Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California, USA. In the 6 years after the initial outbreak investigation, the California Department of Public Health conducted 11 rodent trapping events in developed areas of Yosemite Valley and 6 in Tuolumne Meadows to monitor the relative abundance of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and seroprevalence of Sin Nombre orthohantavirus, the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Deer mouse trap success in Yosemite Valley remained lower than that observed during the 2012 outbreak investigation. Seroprevalence of Sin Nombre orthohantavirus in deer mice during 2013–2018 was also lower than during the outbreak, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.02). The decreased relative abundance of Peromyscus spp. mice in developed areas of Yosemite Valley after the outbreak is probably associated with increased rodent exclusion efforts and decreased peridomestic habitat.

EID Danforth ME, Messenger S, Buttke D, Weinburke M, Carroll G, Hacker G, et al. Long-Term Rodent Surveillance after Outbreak of Hantavirus Infection, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):560-567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191307
AMA Danforth ME, Messenger S, Buttke D, et al. Long-Term Rodent Surveillance after Outbreak of Hantavirus Infection, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):560-567. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191307.
APA Danforth, M. E., Messenger, S., Buttke, D., Weinburke, M., Carroll, G., Hacker, G....Novak, M. (2020). Long-Term Rodent Surveillance after Outbreak of Hantavirus Infection, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 560-567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191307.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Lineage and Risk for Tuberculosis in Child Household Contacts, Peru [PDF - 977 KB - 11 pages]
C. Huang et al.

Few studies have prospectively compared the relative transmissibility and propensity to cause disease of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains with other human-adapted strains of the M. tuberculosis complex. We assessed the effect of Beijing strains on the risk for M. tuberculosis infection and disease progression in 9,151 household contacts of 2,223 culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in Lima, Peru. Child contacts exposed to Beijing strains were more likely than child contacts exposed to non-Beijing strains to be infected at baseline, by 12 months of follow-up, and during follow-up. We noted an increased but nonsignificant tendency for child contacts to develop TB. Beijing strains were not associated with TB in adult contacts. These findings suggest that Beijing strains are more transmissible in children than are non-Beijing strains.

EID Huang C, Chu AL, Becerra MC, Galea JT, Calderón R, Contreras C, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Lineage and Risk for Tuberculosis in Child Household Contacts, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):568-578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191314
AMA Huang C, Chu AL, Becerra MC, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Lineage and Risk for Tuberculosis in Child Household Contacts, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):568-578. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191314.
APA Huang, C., Chu, A. L., Becerra, M. C., Galea, J. T., Calderón, R., Contreras, C....Murray, M. B. (2020). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Lineage and Risk for Tuberculosis in Child Household Contacts, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 568-578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191314.

Risk Factors for Complicated Lymphadenitis Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Children [PDF - 694 KB - 8 pages]
M. Kuntz et al.

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an emerging cause of infections, including chronic lymphadenitis in children. To identify risk factors for NTM lymphadenitis, particularly complicated disease, we collected epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiological data on 138 cases of NTM lymphadenitis in children across 13 centers in Germany and Austria. We assessed lifestyle factors but did not identify specific risk behaviors. We noted that more cases of NTM lymphadenitis occurred during cold months than during warm months. Moreover, we noted female sex and age <5.5 years as potential risk factors. Complete extirpation of the affected lymph node appeared to be the best therapeutic measure. We integrated the study data to develop a simple risk score to predict unfavorable clinical outcomes for NTM lymphadenitis.

EID Kuntz M, Kohlfürst DS, Feiterna-Sperling C, Krüger R, Baumann U, Buchtala L, et al. Risk Factors for Complicated Lymphadenitis Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):579-586. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191388
AMA Kuntz M, Kohlfürst DS, Feiterna-Sperling C, et al. Risk Factors for Complicated Lymphadenitis Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):579-586. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191388.
APA Kuntz, M., Kohlfürst, D. S., Feiterna-Sperling, C., Krüger, R., Baumann, U., Buchtala, L....Henneke, P. (2020). Risk Factors for Complicated Lymphadenitis Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 579-586. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191388.
Dispatches

Human Exposure to Hantaviruses Associated with Rodents of the Murinae Subfamily, Madagascar [PDF - 579 KB - 4 pages]
H. Rabemananjara et al.

We conducted a national human serologic study of a hantavirus detected in Madagascar rodents using a commercial kit and a new ELISA targeting the virus. Our results suggest a conservative estimate of 2.7% (46/1,680) IgG seroprevalence. A second single-district study using the new ELISA revealed a higher prevalence (7.2%; 10/139).

EID Rabemananjara H, Raharinosy V, Razafimahefa R, Ravalohery J, Rafisandratantsoa J, Andriamandimby S, et al. Human Exposure to Hantaviruses Associated with Rodents of the Murinae Subfamily, Madagascar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):587-590. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190320
AMA Rabemananjara H, Raharinosy V, Razafimahefa R, et al. Human Exposure to Hantaviruses Associated with Rodents of the Murinae Subfamily, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):587-590. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190320.
APA Rabemananjara, H., Raharinosy, V., Razafimahefa, R., Ravalohery, J., Rafisandratantsoa, J., Andriamandimby, S....Filippone, C. (2020). Human Exposure to Hantaviruses Associated with Rodents of the Murinae Subfamily, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 587-590. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190320.

Avian Influenza Virus Detection Rates in Poultry and Environment at Live Poultry Markets, Guangdong, China [PDF - 1.65 MB - 5 pages]
K. Cheng et al.

We report the use of environmental samples to assess avian influenza virus activity in chickens at live poultry markets in China. Results of environmental and chicken samples correlate moderately well. However, collection of multiple environmental samples from holding, processing, and selling areas is recommended to detect viruses expected to have low prevalence.

EID Cheng K, Wu J, Shen W, Wong A, Guo Q, Yu J, et al. Avian Influenza Virus Detection Rates in Poultry and Environment at Live Poultry Markets, Guangdong, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):591-595. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190888
AMA Cheng K, Wu J, Shen W, et al. Avian Influenza Virus Detection Rates in Poultry and Environment at Live Poultry Markets, Guangdong, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):591-595. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190888.
APA Cheng, K., Wu, J., Shen, W., Wong, A., Guo, Q., Yu, J....Lau, E. (2020). Avian Influenza Virus Detection Rates in Poultry and Environment at Live Poultry Markets, Guangdong, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 591-595. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190888.

Diphtheria Outbreaks in Schools in Central Highland Districts, Vietnam, 2015–2018 [PDF - 913 KB - 5 pages]
N. Kitamura et al.

During 2015–2018, seven schools in rural Vietnam experienced diphtheria outbreaks. Multilocus sequence types were the same within schools but differed between schools. Low vaccine coverage and crowded dormitories might have contributed to the outbreaks. Authorities should consider administering routine vaccinations and booster doses for students entering the school system.

EID Kitamura N, Le T, Le LT, Nguyen LD, Dao AT, Hoang TT, et al. Diphtheria Outbreaks in Schools in Central Highland Districts, Vietnam, 2015–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):596-600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191027
AMA Kitamura N, Le T, Le LT, et al. Diphtheria Outbreaks in Schools in Central Highland Districts, Vietnam, 2015–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):596-600. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191027.
APA Kitamura, N., Le, T., Le, L. T., Nguyen, L. D., Dao, A. T., Hoang, T. T....Yoshida, L. (2020). Diphtheria Outbreaks in Schools in Central Highland Districts, Vietnam, 2015–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 596-600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191027.

Progressive Vaccinia Acquired through Zoonotic Transmission in a Patient with HIV/AIDS, Colombia
K. Laiton-Donato et al.

In March 2015, a patient in Colombia with HIV/AIDS was hospitalized for disseminated ulcers after milking cows that had vesicular lesions on their udders. Vaccinia virus was detected, and the case met criteria for progressive vaccinia acquired by zoonotic transmission. Adherence to an optimized antiretroviral regimen resulted in recovery.

EID Laiton-Donato K, Ávila-Robayo P, Páez-Martinez A, Benjumea-Nieto P, Usme-Ciro JA, Pinzón-Nariño N, et al. Progressive Vaccinia Acquired through Zoonotic Transmission in a Patient with HIV/AIDS, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):601-605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191365
AMA Laiton-Donato K, Ávila-Robayo P, Páez-Martinez A, et al. Progressive Vaccinia Acquired through Zoonotic Transmission in a Patient with HIV/AIDS, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):601-605. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191365.
APA Laiton-Donato, K., Ávila-Robayo, P., Páez-Martinez, A., Benjumea-Nieto, P., Usme-Ciro, J. A., Pinzón-Nariño, N....Petersen, B. W. (2020). Progressive Vaccinia Acquired through Zoonotic Transmission in a Patient with HIV/AIDS, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 601-605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191365.

Suspected Locally Acquired Coccidioidomycosis in Human, Spokane, Washington, USA [PDF - 1.08 MB - 4 pages]
H. N. Oltean et al.

The full geographic range of coccidioidomycosis is unknown, although it is most likely expanding with environmental change. We report an apparently autochthonous coccidioidomycosis patient from Spokane, Washington, USA, a location to which Coccidioides spp. are not known to be endemic.

EID Oltean HN, Springer M, Bowers JR, Barnes R, Reid G, Valentine M, et al. Suspected Locally Acquired Coccidioidomycosis in Human, Spokane, Washington, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):606-609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191536
AMA Oltean HN, Springer M, Bowers JR, et al. Suspected Locally Acquired Coccidioidomycosis in Human, Spokane, Washington, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):606-609. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191536.
APA Oltean, H. N., Springer, M., Bowers, J. R., Barnes, R., Reid, G., Valentine, M....McCotter, O. Z. (2020). Suspected Locally Acquired Coccidioidomycosis in Human, Spokane, Washington, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 606-609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191536.
Research Letters

Pulmonary Nocardia ignorata Infection in Gardener, Iran, 2017 [PDF - 251 KB - 2 pages]
H. A. Rahdar et al.

Nocardia ignorata, which was first described in 2001, is a rare human pathogen. We report a case of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by this bacterium in a 55-year-old man from Iran. The patient, a gardener, had frequent exposure to soil and may have acquired the infection from that source.

EID Rahdar HA, Gharabaghi MA, Bahador A, Shahraki-Zahedani S, Karami-Zarandi M, Mahmoudi S, et al. Pulmonary Nocardia ignorata Infection in Gardener, Iran, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):610-611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.180725
AMA Rahdar HA, Gharabaghi MA, Bahador A, et al. Pulmonary Nocardia ignorata Infection in Gardener, Iran, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):610-611. doi:10.3201/eid2603.180725.
APA Rahdar, H. A., Gharabaghi, M. A., Bahador, A., Shahraki-Zahedani, S., Karami-Zarandi, M., Mahmoudi, S....Feizabadi, M. M. (2020). Pulmonary Nocardia ignorata Infection in Gardener, Iran, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 610-611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.180725.

Mycobacterium senegalense Infection after Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction, Spain [PDF - 262 KB - 3 pages]
O. Carretero et al.

Bacterial infection is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery. We identified Mycobacterium senegalense, the principal pathogen of bovine farcy of cattle, in a woman after implant-based breast reconstruction. This finding indicates that unusual pathogens should be considered as an etiology of infected breast prostheses.

EID Carretero O, Reyes C, San-Juan R, Chaves F, López-Roa P. Mycobacterium senegalense Infection after Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):611-613. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190230
AMA Carretero O, Reyes C, San-Juan R, et al. Mycobacterium senegalense Infection after Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):611-613. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190230.
APA Carretero, O., Reyes, C., San-Juan, R., Chaves, F., & López-Roa, P. (2020). Mycobacterium senegalense Infection after Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 611-613. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190230.

Low Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in Tuberculosis Patients, Ethiopia [PDF - 286 KB - 3 pages]
M. Getahun et al.

An estimated 17% of all tuberculosis cases in Ethiopia are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. We used M. tuberculosis complex isolates to identify the prevalence of M. bovis as the cause of pulmonary tuberculosis. Our findings indicate that the proportion of pulmonary tuberculosis due to M. bovis is small (0.12%).

EID Getahun M, Blumberg H, Sinshaw W, Diriba G, Mollalign H, Tesfaye E, et al. Low Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in Tuberculosis Patients, Ethiopia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):613-615. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190473
AMA Getahun M, Blumberg H, Sinshaw W, et al. Low Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in Tuberculosis Patients, Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):613-615. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190473.
APA Getahun, M., Blumberg, H., Sinshaw, W., Diriba, G., Mollalign, H., Tesfaye, E....Ameni, G. (2020). Low Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in Tuberculosis Patients, Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 613-615. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190473.

Metagenomics of Imported Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium leprae, Saudi Arabia, 2017 [PDF - 261 KB - 3 pages]
Q. Guan et al.

Using shotgun metagenomics, we identified an imported case of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium leprae in a Filipino resident of Saudi Arabia in 2017. We determined the phylogenomic lineage (3K1) and identified mutations in rpoB and rrs corresponding to the multidrug-resistance phenotype clinically observed. Metagenomics sequencing can be used to identify multidrug-resistant M. leprae.

EID Guan Q, Almutairi TS, Alhalouli T, Pain A, Alasmari F. Metagenomics of Imported Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium leprae, Saudi Arabia, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):615-617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190661
AMA Guan Q, Almutairi TS, Alhalouli T, et al. Metagenomics of Imported Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium leprae, Saudi Arabia, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):615-617. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190661.
APA Guan, Q., Almutairi, T. S., Alhalouli, T., Pain, A., & Alasmari, F. (2020). Metagenomics of Imported Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium leprae, Saudi Arabia, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 615-617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190661.

Three New Cases of Melioidosis, Guadeloupe, French West Indies [PDF - 258 KB - 3 pages]
B. Melot et al.

Melioidosis has been detected in the Caribbean, and an increasing number of cases has been reported in the past few decades, but only 2 cases were reported in Guadeloupe during the past 20 years. We describe 3 more cases that occurred during 2016–2017 and examine arguments for increasing endemicity.

EID Melot B, Bastian S, Dournon N, Valade E, Gorgé O, Le Fleche A, et al. Three New Cases of Melioidosis, Guadeloupe, French West Indies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):617-619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190718
AMA Melot B, Bastian S, Dournon N, et al. Three New Cases of Melioidosis, Guadeloupe, French West Indies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):617-619. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190718.
APA Melot, B., Bastian, S., Dournon, N., Valade, E., Gorgé, O., Le Fleche, A....Carles, M. (2020). Three New Cases of Melioidosis, Guadeloupe, French West Indies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 617-619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190718.

Coccidioidomycosis Skin Testing in a Commercially Insured Population, United States, 2014–2017 [PDF - 262 KB - 3 pages]
K. Benedict et al.

Coccidioidomycosis skin testing appears to be uncommon, based on US health insurance claims data. Patient demographic features were consistent with the approval of the test for adults, but few patients had previous coccidioidomycosis diagnosis codes supporting its use for detecting delayed-type hypersensitivity in those with a history of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

EID Benedict K, McCotter OZ, Jackson BR. Coccidioidomycosis Skin Testing in a Commercially Insured Population, United States, 2014–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):619-621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190798
AMA Benedict K, McCotter OZ, Jackson BR. Coccidioidomycosis Skin Testing in a Commercially Insured Population, United States, 2014–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):619-621. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190798.
APA Benedict, K., McCotter, O. Z., & Jackson, B. R. (2020). Coccidioidomycosis Skin Testing in a Commercially Insured Population, United States, 2014–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 619-621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190798.

Geographic Expansion of Sporotrichosis, Brazil [PDF - 528 KB - 4 pages]
I. Gremião et al.

Brazil has experienced geographic expansion of zoonotic sporotrichosis. Social problems in the country contribute substantially to the expansion. A comprehensive sporotrichosis control program is beyond the sphere of public health. A One Health approach is needed to control the disease in animals and humans.

EID Gremião I, Oliveira M, Monteiro de Miranda L, Saraiva Freitas D, Pereira S. Geographic Expansion of Sporotrichosis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):621-624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190803
AMA Gremião I, Oliveira M, Monteiro de Miranda L, et al. Geographic Expansion of Sporotrichosis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):621-624. doi:10.3201/eid2603.190803.
APA Gremião, I., Oliveira, M., Monteiro de Miranda, L., Saraiva Freitas, D., & Pereira, S. (2020). Geographic Expansion of Sporotrichosis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 621-624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.190803.

Need for BCG Vaccination to Prevent TB in High-Incidence Countries and Populations [PDF - 214 KB - 2 pages]
S. Pooransingh and S. Sakhamuri

An estimated one quarter of persons worldwide are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2018, the World Health Organization issued revised guidance on BCG vaccine for high-risk groups. The World Health Organization should consider guiding countries on a case-by-case basis in developing appropriate BCG policies to deliver equitable healthcare and protect public health.

EID Pooransingh S, Sakhamuri S. Need for BCG Vaccination to Prevent TB in High-Incidence Countries and Populations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):624-625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191232
AMA Pooransingh S, Sakhamuri S. Need for BCG Vaccination to Prevent TB in High-Incidence Countries and Populations. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):624-625. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191232.
APA Pooransingh, S., & Sakhamuri, S. (2020). Need for BCG Vaccination to Prevent TB in High-Incidence Countries and Populations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 624-625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191232.

Invasive Candida bovina Infection, France [PDF - 288 KB - 2 pages]
K. Brunet et al.

New Candida species such as Candida auris have emerged recently as important invasive fungal diseases. We report a case of C. bovina bloodstream infection in a 94-year-old patient in France. The species led to identification issues because it was misidentified by phenotypic and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry methods.

EID Brunet K, Minoza A, Rammaert B, Portet-Sulla V, Hubert F, Lorenzo J, et al. Invasive Candida bovina Infection, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):626-627. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191371
AMA Brunet K, Minoza A, Rammaert B, et al. Invasive Candida bovina Infection, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):626-627. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191371.
APA Brunet, K., Minoza, A., Rammaert, B., Portet-Sulla, V., Hubert, F., Lorenzo, J....Cateau, E. (2020). Invasive Candida bovina Infection, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 626-627. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191371.

Chlamydia abortus in Pregnant Woman with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome [PDF - 1.01 MB - 2 pages]
N. Pichon et al.

We describe a case of Chlamydia abortus in a woman in rural France who was pregnant, developed severe generalized infection, and suffered fetal loss. The case stresses the need for healthcare personnel to perform thorough anamnesis in pregnant women in farming areas and to advise them to avoid contact with small ruminants.

EID Pichon N, Guindre L, Laroucau K, Cantaloube M, Nallatamby A, Parreau S. Chlamydia abortus in Pregnant Woman with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):628-629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191417
AMA Pichon N, Guindre L, Laroucau K, et al. Chlamydia abortus in Pregnant Woman with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):628-629. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191417.
APA Pichon, N., Guindre, L., Laroucau, K., Cantaloube, M., Nallatamby, A., & Parreau, S. (2020). Chlamydia abortus in Pregnant Woman with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 628-629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191417.

Novel Techniques for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Cheetah [PDF - 248 KB - 2 pages]
T. J. Kerr et al.

In South Africa, bovine tuberculosis threatens some of Africa’s most iconic wildlife species, including the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). The lack of antemortem diagnostic tests for this species strongly hinders conservation efforts. We report use of antemortem and postmortem diagnostic assays to detect Mycobacterium bovis infection in a cheetah.

EID Kerr TJ, Gumbo R, Goosen WJ, Rogers P, Last RD, Miller MA. Novel Techniques for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Cheetah. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):630-631. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191542
AMA Kerr TJ, Gumbo R, Goosen WJ, et al. Novel Techniques for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Cheetah. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):630-631. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191542.
APA Kerr, T. J., Gumbo, R., Goosen, W. J., Rogers, P., Last, R. D., & Miller, M. A. (2020). Novel Techniques for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Cheetah. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 630-631. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191542.
Letters

Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections and Heater–Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery [PDF - 227 KB - 1 page]
T. L. Lamagni et al.
EID Lamagni TL, Charlett A, Phin N, Zambon M, Chand M. Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections and Heater–Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.180452
AMA Lamagni TL, Charlett A, Phin N, et al. Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections and Heater–Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):632. doi:10.3201/eid2603.180452.
APA Lamagni, T. L., Charlett, A., Phin, N., Zambon, M., & Chand, M. (2020). Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections and Heater–Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.180452.

Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections and Heater-Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery
R. Sommerstein et al.
EID Sommerstein R, Hasse B, Widmer AF. Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections and Heater-Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):632-633. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191818
AMA Sommerstein R, Hasse B, Widmer AF. Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections and Heater-Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):632-633. doi:10.3201/eid2603.191818.
APA Sommerstein, R., Hasse, B., & Widmer, A. F. (2020). Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera Infections and Heater-Cooler Devices in Cardiac Surgery. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 632-633. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191818.
About the Cover

Confusion in the Genesis of Art and Disease: Charles Laval, Paul Gauguin, and Tuberculosis [PDF - 1.31 MB - 2 pages]
T. Chorba and J. Jereb
EID Chorba T, Jereb J. Confusion in the Genesis of Art and Disease: Charles Laval, Paul Gauguin, and Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):634-635. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.ac2603
AMA Chorba T, Jereb J. Confusion in the Genesis of Art and Disease: Charles Laval, Paul Gauguin, and Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):634-635. doi:10.3201/eid2603.ac2603.
APA Chorba, T., & Jereb, J. (2020). Confusion in the Genesis of Art and Disease: Charles Laval, Paul Gauguin, and Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 634-635. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.ac2603.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Buruli Ulcer [PDF - 840 KB - 1 page]
R. Henry
EID Henry R. Etymologia: Buruli Ulcer. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(3):504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.et2603
AMA Henry R. Etymologia: Buruli Ulcer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(3):504. doi:10.3201/eid2603.et2603.
APA Henry, R. (2020). Etymologia: Buruli Ulcer. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(3), 504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.et2603.
Online Reports

Improving Quality of Patient Data for Treatment of Multidrug- or Rifampin-Resistant Tuberculosis
J. R. Campbell et al.

International policy for treatment of multidrug- and rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR TB) relies largely on individual patient data (IPD) from observational studies of patients treated under routine conditions. We prepared guidance on which data to collect and what measures could improve consistency and utility for future evidence-based recommendations. We highlight critical stages in data collection at which improvements to uniformity, accuracy, and completeness could add value to IPD quality. Through a repetitive development process, we suggest essential patient- and treatment-related characteristics that should be collected by prospective contributors of observational IPD in MDR/RR TB.

Conference Summaries

Eighth Val-de-Grâce Emerging Infectious Diseases Seminar, Paris, France, March 29, 2019
P. Le Turnier et al.
Page created: February 21, 2020
Page updated: February 21, 2020
Page reviewed: February 21, 2020
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