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Emerging Infectious Diseases journal

Perspective

  • Bioinformatic Analyses of Whole-Genome Sequence Data in a Public Health Laboratory PDF Version [PDF - 719 KB - 5 pages]
    K. F. Oakeson et al.
        View Abstract

    The ability to generate high-quality sequence data in a public health laboratory enables the identification of pathogenic strains, the determination of relatedness among outbreak strains, and the analysis of genetic information regarding virulence and antimicrobial-resistance genes. However, the analysis of whole-genome sequence data depends on bioinformatic analysis tools and processes. Many public health laboratories do not have the bioinformatic capabilities to analyze the data generated from sequencing and therefore are unable to take full advantage of the power of whole-genome sequencing. The goal of this perspective is to provide a guide for laboratories to understand the bioinformatic analyses that are needed to interpret whole-genome sequence data and how these in silico analyses can be implemented in a public health laboratory setting easily, affordably, and, in some cases, without the need for intensive computing resources and infrastructure.

        Cite This Article
    EID Oakeson KF, Wagner J, Mendenhall M, Rohrwasser A, Atkinson-Dunn R. Bioinformatic Analyses of Whole-Genome Sequence Data in a Public Health Laboratory. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1441-1445. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170416
    AMA Oakeson KF, Wagner J, Mendenhall M, et al. Bioinformatic Analyses of Whole-Genome Sequence Data in a Public Health Laboratory. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1441-1445. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170416.
    APA Oakeson, K. F., Wagner, J., Mendenhall, M., Rohrwasser, A., & Atkinson-Dunn, R. (2017). Bioinformatic Analyses of Whole-Genome Sequence Data in a Public Health Laboratory. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1441-1445. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170416.
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Research

  • Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh PDF Version [PDF - 1.83 MB - 8 pages]
    E. S. Gurley et al.
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    Preventing emergence of new zoonotic viruses depends on understanding determinants for human risk. Nipah virus (NiV) is a lethal zoonotic pathogen that has spilled over from bats into human populations, with limited person-to-person transmission. We examined ecologic and human behavioral drivers of geographic variation for risk of NiV infection in Bangladesh. We visited 60 villages during 2011–2013 where cases of infection with NiV were identified and 147 control villages. We compared case villages with control villages for most likely drivers for risk of infection, including number of bats, persons, and date palm sap trees, and human date palm sap consumption behavior. Case villages were similar to control villages in many ways, including number of bats, persons, and date palm sap trees, but had a higher proportion of households in which someone drank sap. Reducing human consumption of sap could reduce virus transmission and risk for emergence of a more highly transmissible NiV strain.

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    EID Gurley ES, Hegde ST, Hossain K, Sazzad H, Hossain M, Rahman M, et al. Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1446-1453. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161922
    AMA Gurley ES, Hegde ST, Hossain K, et al. Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1446-1453. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161922.
    APA Gurley, E. S., Hegde, S. T., Hossain, K., Sazzad, H., Hossain, M., Rahman, M....Luby, S. P. (2017). Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1446-1453. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161922.
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  • Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US–Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography PDF Version [PDF - 1.86 MB - 8 pages]
    H. Trewby et al.
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    Disease control programs aim to constrain and reduce the spread of infection. Human disease interventions such as wildlife vaccination play a major role in determining the limits of a pathogen’s spatial distribution. Over the past few decades, a raccoon-specific variant of rabies virus (RRV) has invaded large areas of eastern North America. Although expansion into Canada has been largely prevented through vaccination along the US border, several outbreaks have occurred in Canada. Applying phylogeographic approaches to 289 RRV whole-genome sequences derived from isolates collected in Canada and adjacent US states, we examined the processes underlying these outbreaks. RRV incursions were attributable predominantly to systematic virus leakage of local strains across areas along the border where vaccination has been conducted but also to single stochastic events such as long-distance translocations. These results demonstrate the utility of phylogeographic analysis of pathogen genomes for understanding transboundary outbreaks.

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    EID Trewby H, Nadin-Davis SA, Real LA, Biek R. Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US–Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1454-1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170325
    AMA Trewby H, Nadin-Davis SA, Real LA, et al. Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US–Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1454-1461. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170325.
    APA Trewby, H., Nadin-Davis, S. A., Real, L. A., & Biek, R. (2017). Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US–Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1454-1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170325.
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  • Real-Time Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes, France PDF Version [PDF - 1.71 MB - 9 pages]
    A. Moura et al.
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    During 2015–2016, we evaluated the performance of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a routine typing tool. Its added value for microbiological and epidemiologic surveillance of listeriosis was compared with that for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the current standard method. A total of 2,743 Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected as part of routine surveillance were characterized in parallel by PFGE and core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) extracted from WGS. We investigated PFGE and cgMLST clusters containing human isolates. Discrimination of isolates was significantly higher by cgMLST than by PFGE (p<0.001). cgMLST discriminated unrelated isolates that shared identical PFGE profiles and phylogenetically closely related isolates with distinct PFGE profiles. This procedure also refined epidemiologic investigations to include only phylogenetically closely related isolates, improved source identification, and facilitated epidemiologic investigations, enabling identification of more outbreaks at earlier stages. WGS-based typing should replace PFGE as the primary typing method for L. monocytogenes.

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    EID Moura A, Tourdjman M, Leclercq A, Hamelin E, Laurent E, Fredriksen N, et al. Real-Time Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1462-1470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170336
    AMA Moura A, Tourdjman M, Leclercq A, et al. Real-Time Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1462-1470. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170336.
    APA Moura, A., Tourdjman, M., Leclercq, A., Hamelin, E., Laurent, E., Fredriksen, N....Lecuit, M. (2017). Real-Time Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1462-1470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170336.
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  • Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia PDF Version [PDF - 3.10 MB - 7 pages]
    M. W. Lehman et al.
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    In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamus deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak. Eating, carrying, and preparing meat were associated with anthrax infection. Despite the risk, 23% of respondents reported they would eat meat from hippopotamuses found dead again because of food shortage (73%), lack of meat (12%), hunger (7%), and protein shortage (5%). Chronic food insecurity can lead to consumption of unsafe foods, leaving communities susceptible to zoonotic infection. Interagency cooperation is necessary to prevent outbreaks by addressing the root cause of exposure, such as food insecurity.

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    EID Lehman MW, Craig AS, Malama C, Kapina-Kany’anga M, Malenga P, Munsaka F, et al. Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1471-1477. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161597
    AMA Lehman MW, Craig AS, Malama C, et al. Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1471-1477. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161597.
    APA Lehman, M. W., Craig, A. S., Malama, C., Kapina-Kany’anga, M., Malenga, P., Munsaka, F....Marx, M. A. (2017). Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1471-1477. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161597.
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  • Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Northern Territory, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 1.56 MB - 8 pages]
    D. M. Whiley et al.
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    Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a globally recognized health threat; new strategies are needed to enhance AMR surveillance. The Northern Territory of Australia is unique in that 2 different first-line therapies, based primarily on geographic location, are used for gonorrhea treatment. We tested 1,629 N. gonorrhoeae nucleic acid amplification test–positive clinical samples, collected from regions where ceftriaxone plus azithromycin or amoxicillin plus azithromycin are recommended first-line treatments, by using 8 N. gonorrhoeae AMR PCR assays. We compared results with those from routine culture-based surveillance data. PCR data confirmed an absence of ceftriaxone resistance and a low level of azithromycin resistance (0.2%), and that penicillin resistance was <5% in amoxicillin plus azithromycin regions. Rates of ciprofloxacin resistance and penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae were lower when molecular methods were used. Molecular methods to detect N. gonorrhoeae AMR can increase the evidence base for treatment guidelines, particularly in settings where culture-based surveillance is limited.

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    EID Whiley DM, Trembizki E, Buckley C, Freeman K, Baird RW, Beaman M, et al. Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Northern Territory, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1478-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170427
    AMA Whiley DM, Trembizki E, Buckley C, et al. Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Northern Territory, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1478-1485. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170427.
    APA Whiley, D. M., Trembizki, E., Buckley, C., Freeman, K., Baird, R. W., Beaman, M....Lahra, M. M. (2017). Molecular Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Northern Territory, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1478-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170427.
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  • Estimated Annual Numbers of Foodborne Pathogen–Associated Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, France, 2008–2013 PDF Version [PDF - 855 KB - 7 pages]
    D. Van Cauteren et al.
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    Estimates of the annual numbers of foodborne illnesses and associated hospitalizations and deaths are needed to set priorities for surveillance, prevention, and control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine such estimates for 2008–2013 in France. We considered 15 major foodborne pathogens (10 bacteria, 3 viruses, and 2 parasites) and estimated that each year, the pathogens accounted for 1.28–2.23 million illnesses, 16,500–20,800 hospitalizations, and 250 deaths. Campylobacter spp., nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., and norovirus accounted for >70% of all foodborne pathogen–associated illnesses and hospitalizations; nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were the main causes of foodborne pathogen–associated deaths; and hepatitis E virus appeared to be a previously unrecognized foodborne pathogen causing ≈68,000 illnesses in France every year. The substantial annual numbers of foodborne illnesses and associated hospitalizations and deaths in France highlight the need for food-safety policymakers to prioritize foodborne disease prevention and control strategies.

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    EID Van Cauteren D, Le Strat Y, Sommen C, Bruyand M, Tourdjman M, Da Silva N, et al. Estimated Annual Numbers of Foodborne Pathogen–Associated Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, France, 2008–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1486-1492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170081
    AMA Van Cauteren D, Le Strat Y, Sommen C, et al. Estimated Annual Numbers of Foodborne Pathogen–Associated Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, France, 2008–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1486-1492. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170081.
    APA Van Cauteren, D., Le Strat, Y., Sommen, C., Bruyand, M., Tourdjman, M., Da Silva, N....Desenclos, J. (2017). Estimated Annual Numbers of Foodborne Pathogen–Associated Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, France, 2008–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1486-1492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170081.
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  • Medscape CME Activity
    Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin Infections among Humans, United States, 1968–2013 PDF Version [PDF - 1.31 MB - 9 pages]
    R. Harvey et al.
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    Infection incidence and antimicrobial drug resistance are increasing.

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    Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin is a cattle-adapted bacterium that typically causes bloodstream infections in humans. To summarize demographic, clinical, and antimicrobial drug resistance characteristics of human infections with this organism in the United States, we analyzed data for 1968–2013 from 5 US surveillance systems. During this period, the incidence rate for infection with Salmonella Dublin increased more than that for infection with other Salmonella. Data from 1 system (FoodNet) showed that a higher percentage of persons with Salmonella Dublin infection were hospitalized and died during 2005−2013 (78% hospitalized, 4.2% died) than during 1996–2004 (68% hospitalized, 2.7% died). Susceptibility data showed that a higher percentage of isolates were resistant to >7 classes of antimicrobial drugs during 2005–2013 (50.8%) than during 1996–2004 (2.4%).

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    EID Harvey R, Friedman CR, Crim SM, Judd M, Barrett KA, Tolar B, et al. Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin Infections among Humans, United States, 1968–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1493-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170136
    AMA Harvey R, Friedman CR, Crim SM, et al. Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin Infections among Humans, United States, 1968–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1493-1501. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170136.
    APA Harvey, R., Friedman, C. R., Crim, S. M., Judd, M., Barrett, K. A., Tolar, B....Brown, A. C. (2017). Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin Infections among Humans, United States, 1968–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1493-1501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170136.
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  • Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Bioserotype 3/O:3 among Children with Diarrhea, China, 2010–2015 PDF Version [PDF - 1.89 MB - 8 pages]
    R. Duan et al.
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    Yersinia enterocolitica is thought to not significantly contribute to diarrheal disease in China, but evidence substantiating this claim is limited. We determined the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica infection and strain types present among children <5 years of age with diarrhea in China. The overall prevalence of pathogenic isolates was 0.59%. Prevalence of pathogenic bioserotype 3/O:3 varied geographically. In this population, the presence of fecal leukocytes was a characteristic of Y. enterocolitica infection and should be used as an indication for microbiological diagnostic testing, rather than for the diagnosis of bacillary dysentery. In contrast with Y. enterocolitica isolates from adults, which were primarily biotype 1A, isolates from children were primarily bioserotype 3/O:3. Most pathogenic isolates from children shared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns with isolates from pigs and dogs, suggesting a possible link between isolates from animals and infections in children. Our findings underscore the need for improved diagnostics for this underestimated pathogen.

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    EID Duan R, Liang J, Zhang J, Chen Y, Wang X, Tong J, et al. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Bioserotype 3/O:3 among Children with Diarrhea, China, 2010–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1502-1509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.160827
    AMA Duan R, Liang J, Zhang J, et al. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Bioserotype 3/O:3 among Children with Diarrhea, China, 2010–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1502-1509. doi:10.3201/eid2309.160827.
    APA Duan, R., Liang, J., Zhang, J., Chen, Y., Wang, X., Tong, J....Hao, H. (2017). Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Bioserotype 3/O:3 among Children with Diarrhea, China, 2010–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1502-1509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.160827.
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  • Risk for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus on Poultry Farms, the Netherlands, 2007–2013 PDF Version [PDF - 625 KB - 7 pages]
    R. Bouwstra et al.
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    Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007–2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors: distance from poultry farms to clay soil, waterways, and wild waterfowl areas. Outdoor-layer, turkey (meat and breeder), and duck (meat and breeder) farms had a significantly higher risk for LPAIV introduction than did indoor-layer farms. Except for outdoor-layer, all poultry types (i.e., broilers, chicken breeders, ducks, and turkeys) are kept indoors. For all production types, LPAIV risk decreased significantly with increasing distance to medium-sized waterways and with increasing distance to areas with defined wild waterfowl, but only for outdoor-layer and turkey farms. Future research should focus not only on production types but also on distance to waterways and wild bird areas. In addition, settlement of new poultry farms in high-risk areas should be discouraged.

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    EID Bouwstra R, Gonzales JL, de Wit S, Stahl J, Fouchier R, Elbers A, et al. Risk for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus on Poultry Farms, the Netherlands, 2007–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1510-1516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170276
    AMA Bouwstra R, Gonzales JL, de Wit S, et al. Risk for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus on Poultry Farms, the Netherlands, 2007–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1510-1516. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170276.
    APA Bouwstra, R., Gonzales, J. L., de Wit, S., Stahl, J., Fouchier, R., & Elbers, A. (2017). Risk for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus on Poultry Farms, the Netherlands, 2007–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1510-1516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170276.
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  • Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008–2016 PDF Version [PDF - 748 KB - 5 pages]
    J. D. Forrester et al.
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    Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008–2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient’s village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague.

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    EID Forrester JD, Apangu T, Griffith K, Acayo S, Yockey B, Kaggwa J, et al. Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1517-1521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170789
    AMA Forrester JD, Apangu T, Griffith K, et al. Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1517-1521. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170789.
    APA Forrester, J. D., Apangu, T., Griffith, K., Acayo, S., Yockey, B., Kaggwa, J....Mead, P. S. (2017). Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1517-1521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170789.
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  • Protective Effect of Val-PrP against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy but not Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease PDF Version [PDF - 1.14 MB - 9 pages]
    N. Fernández-Borges et al.
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    The severely restricted transmission of BSE to human Val129 polymorphic variant can be overcome by adaptation of the agent to the human Met129 PrP variant, resulting in a prion with different strain features when compared to vCJD.

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    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is the only known zoonotic prion that causes variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. The major risk determinant for this disease is the polymorphic codon 129 of the human prion protein (Hu-PrP), where either methionine (Met129) or valine (Val129) can be encoded. To date, all clinical and neuropathologically confirmed vCJD cases have been Met129 homozygous, with the exception of 1 recently reported Met/Val heterozygous case. Here, we found that transgenic mice homozygous for Val129 Hu-PrP show severely restricted propagation of the BSE prion strain, but this constraint can be partially overcome by adaptation of the BSE agent to the Met129 Hu-PrP. In addition, the transmission of vCJD to transgenic mice homozygous for Val129 Hu-PrP resulted in a prion with distinct strain features. These observations may indicate increased risk for vCJD secondary transmission in Val129 Hu-PrP–positive humans with the emergence of new strain features.

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    EID Fernández-Borges N, Espinosa J, Marín-Moreno A, Aguilar-Calvo P, Asante EA, Kitamoto T, et al. Protective Effect of Val129-PrP against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy but not Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1522-1530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161948
    AMA Fernández-Borges N, Espinosa J, Marín-Moreno A, et al. Protective Effect of Val129-PrP against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy but not Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1522-1530. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161948.
    APA Fernández-Borges, N., Espinosa, J., Marín-Moreno, A., Aguilar-Calvo, P., Asante, E. A., Kitamoto, T....Torres, J. (2017). Protective Effect of Val129-PrP against Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy but not Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1522-1530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161948.
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Dispatches

  • Norovirus in Bottled Water Associated with Gastroenteritis Outbreak, Spain, 2016 PDF Version [PDF - 1.19 MB - 4 pages]
    A. Blanco et al.
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    In April 2016, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness (4,136 cases) occurred in Catalonia, Spain. We detected high levels of norovirus genogroups I and II in office water coolers associated with the outbreak. Infectious viral titer estimates were 33–49 genome copies/L for genogroup I and 327–660 genome copies/L for genogroup II.

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    EID Blanco A, Guix S, Fuster N, Fuentes C, Bartolomé R, Cornejo T, et al. Norovirus in Bottled Water Associated with Gastroenteritis Outbreak, Spain, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1531-1534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161489
    AMA Blanco A, Guix S, Fuster N, et al. Norovirus in Bottled Water Associated with Gastroenteritis Outbreak, Spain, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1531-1534. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161489.
    APA Blanco, A., Guix, S., Fuster, N., Fuentes, C., Bartolomé, R., Cornejo, T....Bosch, A. (2017). Norovirus in Bottled Water Associated with Gastroenteritis Outbreak, Spain, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1531-1534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161489.
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  • Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox PDF Version [PDF - 1.51 MB - 4 pages]
    C. Busi et al.
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    In 2011, a group A rotavirus was isolated from the brain of a fox with encephalitis and neurologic signs, detected by rabies surveillance in Italy. Intracerebral inoculation of fox brain homogenates into mice was fatal. Genome sequencing revealed a heterologous rotavirus of avian origin, which could provide a model for investigating rotavirus neurovirulence.

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    EID Busi C, Martella V, Papetti A, Sabelli C, Lelli D, Alborali G, et al. Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1535-1538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170158
    AMA Busi C, Martella V, Papetti A, et al. Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1535-1538. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170158.
    APA Busi, C., Martella, V., Papetti, A., Sabelli, C., Lelli, D., Alborali, G....Boniotti, M. (2017). Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1535-1538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170158.
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  • Medscape CME Activity
    Imported Infections with Mansonella perstans Nematodes, Italy PDF Version [PDF - 677 KB - 4 pages]
    F. Gobbi et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Gobbi F, Beltrame A, Buonfrate D, Staffolani S, Degani M, Gobbo M, et al. Imported Infections with Mansonella perstans Nematodes, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1539-1542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170263
    AMA Gobbi F, Beltrame A, Buonfrate D, et al. Imported Infections with Mansonella perstans Nematodes, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1539-1542. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170263.
    APA Gobbi, F., Beltrame, A., Buonfrate, D., Staffolani, S., Degani, M., Gobbo, M....Bisoffi, Z. (2017). Imported Infections with Mansonella perstans Nematodes, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1539-1542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170263.
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  • Genetic Diversity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8/H5N5) Viruses in Italy, 2016–17 PDF Version [PDF - 4.67 MB - 5 pages]
    A. Fusaro et al.
        View Abstract

    In winter 2016–17, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) and A(H5N5) viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 were identified in wild and domestic birds in Italy. We report the occurrence of multiple introductions and describe the identification in Europe of 2 novel genotypes, generated through multiple reassortment events.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fusaro A, Monne I, Mulatti P, Zecchin B, Bonfanti L, Ormelli S, et al. Genetic Diversity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8/H5N5) Viruses in Italy, 2016–17. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1543-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170539
    AMA Fusaro A, Monne I, Mulatti P, et al. Genetic Diversity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8/H5N5) Viruses in Italy, 2016–17. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1543-1547. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170539.
    APA Fusaro, A., Monne, I., Mulatti, P., Zecchin, B., Bonfanti, L., Ormelli, S....Terregino, C. (2017). Genetic Diversity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8/H5N5) Viruses in Italy, 2016–17. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1543-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170539.
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  • Microcephaly Caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus PDF Version [PDF - 695 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Delaine et al.
        View Abstract

    We report congenital microencephaly caused by infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in the fetus of a 29-year-old pregnant women at 23 weeks’ gestation. The diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and negative results for other agents and confirmed by a positive PCR result for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in an amniotic fluid sample.

        Cite This Article
    EID Delaine M, Weingertner A, Nougairede A, Lepiller Q, Fafi-Kremer S, Favre R, et al. Microcephaly Caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1548-1550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170775
    AMA Delaine M, Weingertner A, Nougairede A, et al. Microcephaly Caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1548-1550. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170775.
    APA Delaine, M., Weingertner, A., Nougairede, A., Lepiller, Q., Fafi-Kremer, S., Favre, R....Charrel, R. (2017). Microcephaly Caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1548-1550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170775.
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  • Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Swine at Agricultural Fairs and Transmission to Humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016 PDF Version [PDF - 1.51 MB - 5 pages]
    A. S. Bowman et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2016, a total of 18 human infections with influenza A(H3N2) virus occurred after exposure to influenza-infected swine at 7 agricultural fairs. Sixteen of these cases were the result of infection by a reassorted virus with increasing prevalence among US swine containing a hemagglutinin gene from 2010–11 human seasonal H3N2 strains.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bowman AS, Walia RR, Nolting JM, Vincent AL, Killian M, Zentkovich MM, et al. Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Swine at Agricultural Fairs and Transmission to Humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1551-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170847
    AMA Bowman AS, Walia RR, Nolting JM, et al. Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Swine at Agricultural Fairs and Transmission to Humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1551-1555. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170847.
    APA Bowman, A. S., Walia, R. R., Nolting, J. M., Vincent, A. L., Killian, M., Zentkovich, M. M....Forshey, T. (2017). Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Swine at Agricultural Fairs and Transmission to Humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1551-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170847.
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  • Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015 PDF Version [PDF - 906 KB - 4 pages]
    E. Salem et al.
        View Abstract

    Influenza D virus has been identified in America, Europe, and Asia. We detected influenza D virus antibodies in cattle and small ruminants from North (Morocco) and West (Togo and Benin) Africa. Dromedary camels in Kenya harbored influenza C or D virus antibodies, indicating a potential new host for these viruses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Salem E, Cook E, Lbacha H, Oliva J, Awoume F, Aplogan GL, et al. Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1556-1559. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170342
    AMA Salem E, Cook E, Lbacha H, et al. Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1556-1559. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170342.
    APA Salem, E., Cook, E., Lbacha, H., Oliva, J., Awoume, F., Aplogan, G. L....Ducatez, M. F. (2017). Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1556-1559. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170342.
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  • Use of Blood Donor Screening to Monitor Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Viruses, South Africa PDF Version [PDF - 568 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Vermeulen et al.
        View Abstract

    Among 397,640 first-time blood donors screened in South Africa during 2012–2015, HIV prevalence was 1.13%, hepatitis B virus prevalence 0.66%, and hepatitis C virus prevalence 0.03%. Findings of note were a high HIV prevalence in Mpumalanga Province and the near absence of hepatitis C virus nationwide.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vermeulen M, Swanevelder R, Chowdhury D, Ingram C, Reddy R, Bloch EM, et al. Use of Blood Donor Screening to Monitor Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Viruses, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1560-1563. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161594
    AMA Vermeulen M, Swanevelder R, Chowdhury D, et al. Use of Blood Donor Screening to Monitor Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Viruses, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1560-1563. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161594.
    APA Vermeulen, M., Swanevelder, R., Chowdhury, D., Ingram, C., Reddy, R., Bloch, E. M....Murphy, E. L. (2017). Use of Blood Donor Screening to Monitor Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Viruses, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1560-1563. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161594.
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  • Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Fosfomycin-Resistance Genes among Escherichia coli Isolates, France PDF Version [PDF - 888 KB - 4 pages]
    Y. Benzerara et al.
        View Abstract

    FosA, a glutathione S-transferase that inactivates fosfomycin, has been reported as the cause of enzymatic resistance to fosfomycin. We show that multiple lineages of FosA-producing extended spectrum β-lactamase Escherichia coli have circulated in France since 2012, potentially reducing the efficacy of fosfomycin in treating infections with antimicrobial drug–resistant gram-negative bacilli.

        Cite This Article
    EID Benzerara Y, Gallah S, Hommeril B, Genel N, Decré D, Rottman M, et al. Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Fosfomycin-Resistance Genes among Escherichia coli Isolates, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1564-1567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170560
    AMA Benzerara Y, Gallah S, Hommeril B, et al. Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Fosfomycin-Resistance Genes among Escherichia coli Isolates, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1564-1567. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170560.
    APA Benzerara, Y., Gallah, S., Hommeril, B., Genel, N., Decré, D., Rottman, M....Arlet, G. (2017). Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Fosfomycin-Resistance Genes among Escherichia coli Isolates, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1564-1567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170560.
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  • Determination of Ferret Enteric Coronavirus Genome in Laboratory Ferrets PDF Version [PDF - 459 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Li et al.
        View Abstract

    Ferret enteric coronavirus (FRECV) RNA was detected in laboratory ferrets. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of 2 strains, FRCoV4370 and FRCoV063, revealed that FRECV shared 49.9%–68.9% nucleotide sequence identity with known coronaviruses. These results suggest that FRECV might be classified as a new species in the genus Alphacoronavirus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Li T, Yoshizaki S, Kataoka M, Doan Y, Ami Y, Suzaki Y, et al. Determination of Ferret Enteric Coronavirus Genome in Laboratory Ferrets. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1568-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.160215
    AMA Li T, Yoshizaki S, Kataoka M, et al. Determination of Ferret Enteric Coronavirus Genome in Laboratory Ferrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1568-1570. doi:10.3201/eid2309.160215.
    APA Li, T., Yoshizaki, S., Kataoka, M., Doan, Y., Ami, Y., Suzaki, Y....Wakita, T. (2017). Determination of Ferret Enteric Coronavirus Genome in Laboratory Ferrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1568-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.160215.
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  • Myocarditis Caused by Human Parechovirus in Adult PDF Version [PDF - 811 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Kong et al.
        View Abstract

    The infectious etiology of myocarditis often remains unidentified. We report a case of myocarditis associated with human parechovirus (HPeV) infection in an adult. HPeV is an emerging pathogen that can cause serious illness, including myocarditis, in adults. Testing for HPeV should be considered in differential diagnosis of myocarditis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kong K, Lau J, Goh S, Wilson HL, Catton M, Korman TM, et al. Myocarditis Caused by Human Parechovirus in Adult. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1571-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161256
    AMA Kong K, Lau J, Goh S, et al. Myocarditis Caused by Human Parechovirus in Adult. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1571-1573. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161256.
    APA Kong, K., Lau, J., Goh, S., Wilson, H. L., Catton, M., & Korman, T. M. (2017). Myocarditis Caused by Human Parechovirus in Adult. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1571-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161256.
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  • Cost of Nosocomial Outbreak Caused by NDM-1–Containing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Netherlands, October 2015–January 2016 PDF Version [PDF - 521 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Mollers et al.
        View Abstract

    During October–December 2015, 29 patients in a hospital in the Netherlands acquired nosocomial infection with a multidrug-resistant, New Delhi-metallo-β-lactamase–positive Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. Extensive infection control measures were needed to stop this outbreak. The estimated economic impact of the outbreak was $804,263; highest costs were associated with hospital bed closures.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mollers M, Lutgens SP, Schoffelen AF, Schneeberger PM, Suijkerbuijk A. Cost of Nosocomial Outbreak Caused by NDM-1–Containing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Netherlands, October 2015–January 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1574-1576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161710
    AMA Mollers M, Lutgens SP, Schoffelen AF, et al. Cost of Nosocomial Outbreak Caused by NDM-1–Containing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Netherlands, October 2015–January 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1574-1576. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161710.
    APA Mollers, M., Lutgens, S. P., Schoffelen, A. F., Schneeberger, P. M., & Suijkerbuijk, A. (2017). Cost of Nosocomial Outbreak Caused by NDM-1–Containing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Netherlands, October 2015–January 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1574-1576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161710.
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  • Evaluation of 5 Commercially Available Zika Virus Immunoassays PDF Version [PDF - 709 KB - 4 pages]
    D. Safronetz et al.
        View Abstract

    Because of the global spread of Zika virus, accurate and high-throughput diagnostic immunoassays are needed. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of 5 commercially available Zika virus serologic assays to the recommended protocol of Zika virus IgM-capture ELISA and plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Most commercial immunoassays showed low sensitivity, which can be increased.

        Cite This Article
    EID Safronetz D, Sloan A, Stein DR, Mendoza E, Barairo N, Ranadheera C, et al. Evaluation of 5 Commercially Available Zika Virus Immunoassays. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1577-1580. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.162043
    AMA Safronetz D, Sloan A, Stein DR, et al. Evaluation of 5 Commercially Available Zika Virus Immunoassays. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1577-1580. doi:10.3201/eid2309.162043.
    APA Safronetz, D., Sloan, A., Stein, D. R., Mendoza, E., Barairo, N., Ranadheera, C....Drebot, M. (2017). Evaluation of 5 Commercially Available Zika Virus Immunoassays. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1577-1580. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.162043.
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  • Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gyrase A Genotype, Los Angeles, California, USA PDF Version [PDF - 1016 KB - 4 pages]
    A. A. Bhatti et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated the epidemiology of the mutant gyrase A gene, a reliable predictor of ciprofloxacin resistance, in Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections at UCLA Health in Los Angeles, California, USA, during November 1, 2015–August 31, 2016. Among 110 patients with N. gonorrhoeae infections, 48 (44%) had the mutant gyrase A gene.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bhatti AA, Allan-Blitz L, Castrejon M, Humphries R, Hemarajata P, Klausner JD, et al. Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gyrase A Genotype, Los Angeles, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1581-1584. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170215
    AMA Bhatti AA, Allan-Blitz L, Castrejon M, et al. Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gyrase A Genotype, Los Angeles, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1581-1584. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170215.
    APA Bhatti, A. A., Allan-Blitz, L., Castrejon, M., Humphries, R., Hemarajata, P., & Klausner, J. D. (2017). Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gyrase A Genotype, Los Angeles, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1581-1584. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170215.
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  • Conveyance Contact Investigation for Imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases, United States, May 2014 PDF Version [PDF - 469 KB - 5 pages]
    S. A. Lippold et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted conveyance contact investigations for 2 Middle East respiratory syndrome cases imported into the United States, comprising all passengers and crew on 4 international and domestic flights and 1 bus. Of 655 contacts, 78% were interviewed; 33% had serologic testing. No secondary cases were identified.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lippold SA, Objio T, Vonnahme L, Washburn F, Cohen NJ, Chen T, et al. Conveyance Contact Investigation for Imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases, United States, May 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1585-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170365
    AMA Lippold SA, Objio T, Vonnahme L, et al. Conveyance Contact Investigation for Imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases, United States, May 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1585-1589. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170365.
    APA Lippold, S. A., Objio, T., Vonnahme, L., Washburn, F., Cohen, N. J., Chen, T....Alvarado-Ramy, F. (2017). Conveyance Contact Investigation for Imported Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Cases, United States, May 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1585-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170365.
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  • Possible Role of Fish as Transport Hosts for Dracunculus spp. Larvae PDF Version [PDF - 663 KB - 3 pages]
    C. A. Cleveland et al.
        View Abstract

    To inform Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm) eradication efforts, we evaluated the role of fish as transport hosts for Dracunculus worms. Ferrets fed fish that had ingested infected copepods became infected, highlighting the importance of recommendations to cook fish, bury entrails, and prevent dogs from consuming raw fish and entrails.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cleveland CA, Eberhard ML, Thompson AT, Smith SJ, Zirimwabagabo H, Bringolf R, et al. Possible Role of Fish as Transport Hosts for Dracunculus spp. Larvae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1590-1592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161931
    AMA Cleveland CA, Eberhard ML, Thompson AT, et al. Possible Role of Fish as Transport Hosts for Dracunculus spp. Larvae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1590-1592. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161931.
    APA Cleveland, C. A., Eberhard, M. L., Thompson, A. T., Smith, S. J., Zirimwabagabo, H., Bringolf, R....Yabsley, M. J. (2017). Possible Role of Fish as Transport Hosts for Dracunculus spp. Larvae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1590-1592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161931.
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  • Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case PDF Version [PDF - 658 KB - 4 pages]
    A. B. Diack et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated transmission characteristics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a mother and son from Spain. Despite differences in patient age and disease manifestations, we found the same strain properties in these patients as in UK vCJD cases. A single strain of agent appears to be responsible for all vCJD cases to date.

        Cite This Article
    EID Diack AB, Boyle A, Ritchie D, Plinston C, Kisielewski D, de Pedro-Cuesta J, et al. Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1593-1596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170159
    AMA Diack AB, Boyle A, Ritchie D, et al. Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1593-1596. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170159.
    APA Diack, A. B., Boyle, A., Ritchie, D., Plinston, C., Kisielewski, D., de Pedro-Cuesta, J....Manson, J. C. (2017). Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1593-1596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170159.
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Research Letters

  • Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Bacteria, the Philippines, 2013–2016 PDF Version [PDF - 295 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Velasco et al.
        View Abstract

    During 2013–2016, we isolated blaNDM- and blaVIM-harboring Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative bacteria from patients in the Philippines. Of 130 carbapenem-resistant isolates tested, 45 were Carba NP–positive; 43 harbored blaNDM, and 2 harbored blaVIM. Multidrug-resistant microbial pathogen surveillance and antimicrobial drug stewardship are needed to prevent further spread of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase variants.

        Cite This Article
    EID Velasco J, Valderama M, Peacock T, Warawadee N, Nogrado K, Navarro F, et al. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Bacteria, the Philippines, 2013–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1597-1598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161237
    AMA Velasco J, Valderama M, Peacock T, et al. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Bacteria, the Philippines, 2013–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1597-1598. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161237.
    APA Velasco, J., Valderama, M., Peacock, T., Warawadee, N., Nogrado, K., Navarro, F....Swierczewski, B. (2017). Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Bacteria, the Philippines, 2013–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1597-1598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161237.
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  • Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Strain Emergence and Host Range Expansion PDF Version [PDF - 283 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Herbst et al.
        View Abstract

    Human and mouse prion proteins share a structural motif that regulates resistance to common chronic wasting disease (CWD) prion strains. Successful transmission of an emergent strain of CWD prion, H95+, into mice resulted in infection. Thus, emergent CWD prion strains may have higher zoonotic potential than common strains.

        Cite This Article
    EID Herbst A, Velásquez C, Triscott E, Aiken JM, McKenzie D. Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Strain Emergence and Host Range Expansion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1598-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161474
    AMA Herbst A, Velásquez C, Triscott E, et al. Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Strain Emergence and Host Range Expansion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1598-1600. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161474.
    APA Herbst, A., Velásquez, C., Triscott, E., Aiken, J. M., & McKenzie, D. (2017). Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Strain Emergence and Host Range Expansion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1598-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161474.
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  • Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015–2016 PDF Version [PDF - 463 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Chen et al.
        View Abstract

    We report rabies virus transmission among solid organ transplantation recipients in Changsha, China, in 2016. Two recipients were confirmed to have rabies and died. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the possibility of rabies virus transmission through organ transplantation for clinical and public health reasons.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chen S, Zhang H, Luo M, Chen J, Yao D, Chen F, et al. Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1600-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161704
    AMA Chen S, Zhang H, Luo M, et al. Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1600-1602. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161704.
    APA Chen, S., Zhang, H., Luo, M., Chen, J., Yao, D., Chen, F....Chen, T. (2017). Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1600-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161704.
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  • Identification of Clade E Avipoxvirus, Mozambique, 2016 PDF Version [PDF - 389 KB - 3 pages]
    L. P. Mapaco et al.
        View Abstract

    Analysis of scab samples collected from poultry during outbreaks of fowlpox in Mozambique in 2016 revealed the presence of clade E avipoxviruses. Infected poultry were from flocks that had been vaccinated against fowlpox virus. These findings require urgent reevaluation of the vaccine formula and control strategies in this country.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mapaco LP, Lacerda Z, Monjane I, Gelaye E, Sussuro AH, Viljoen GJ, et al. Identification of Clade E Avipoxvirus, Mozambique, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1602-1604. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161981
    AMA Mapaco LP, Lacerda Z, Monjane I, et al. Identification of Clade E Avipoxvirus, Mozambique, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1602-1604. doi:10.3201/eid2309.161981.
    APA Mapaco, L. P., Lacerda, Z., Monjane, I., Gelaye, E., Sussuro, A. H., Viljoen, G. J....Achá, S. J. (2017). Identification of Clade E Avipoxvirus, Mozambique, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1602-1604. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.161981.
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  • Indication of Cross-Species Transmission of Astrovirus Associated with Encephalitis in Sheep and Cattle PDF Version [PDF - 1.47 MB - 5 pages]
    C. L. Boujon et al.
        View Abstract

    We report the identification of a neurotropic astrovirus associated with encephalitis in a sheep. This virus is genetically almost identical to an astrovirus recently described in neurologically diseased cattle. The similarity indicates that astroviruses of the same genotype may cause encephalitis in different species.

        Cite This Article
    EID Boujon CL, Koch MC, Wüthrich D, Werder S, Jakupovic D, Bruggmann R, et al. Indication of Cross-Species Transmission of Astrovirus Associated with Encephalitis in Sheep and Cattle. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1604-1608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170168
    AMA Boujon CL, Koch MC, Wüthrich D, et al. Indication of Cross-Species Transmission of Astrovirus Associated with Encephalitis in Sheep and Cattle. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1604-1608. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170168.
    APA Boujon, C. L., Koch, M. C., Wüthrich, D., Werder, S., Jakupovic, D., Bruggmann, R....Seuberlich, T. (2017). Indication of Cross-Species Transmission of Astrovirus Associated with Encephalitis in Sheep and Cattle. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1604-1608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170168.
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  • A New Bat-HKU2–like Coronavirus in Swine, China, 2017 PDF Version [PDF - 428 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Gong et al.
        View Abstract

    We identified from suckling piglets with diarrhea in China a new bat-HKU2–like porcine coronavirus (porcine enteric alphacoronavirus). The GDS04 strain of this coronavirus shares high aa identities (>90%) with the reported bat-HKU2 strains in Coronaviridae-wide conserved domains, suggesting that the GDS04 strain belongs to the same species as HKU2.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gong L, Li J, Zhou Q, Xu Z, Chen L, Zhang Y, et al. A New Bat-HKU2–like Coronavirus in Swine, China, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1607-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170915
    AMA Gong L, Li J, Zhou Q, et al. A New Bat-HKU2–like Coronavirus in Swine, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1607-1609. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170915.
    APA Gong, L., Li, J., Zhou, Q., Xu, Z., Chen, L., Zhang, Y....Cao, Y. (2017). A New Bat-HKU2–like Coronavirus in Swine, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1607-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170915.
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  • Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Infections, Michigan, USA PDF Version [PDF - 345 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Mukherjee et al.
    View Summary

    Antibiotic-resistant STEC infections have emerged in Michigan and are associated with hospitalization.

        View Abstract

    High frequencies of antimicrobial drug resistance were observed in O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli strains recovered from patients in Michigan during 2010–2014. Resistance was more common in non-O157 strains and independently associated with hospitalization, indicating that resistance could contribute to more severe disease outcomes.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mukherjee S, Mosci RE, Anderson CM, Snyder BA, Collins J, Rudrik JT, et al. Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Infections, Michigan, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1609-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170523
    AMA Mukherjee S, Mosci RE, Anderson CM, et al. Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Infections, Michigan, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1609-1611. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170523.
    APA Mukherjee, S., Mosci, R. E., Anderson, C. M., Snyder, B. A., Collins, J., Rudrik, J. T....Manning, S. D. (2017). Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Infections, Michigan, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1609-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170523.
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  • White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France PDF Version [PDF - 334 KB - 2 pages]
    M. G. Campana et al.
        View Abstract

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

        Cite This Article
    EID Campana MG, Kurata NP, Foster JT, Helgen LE, Reeder DM, Fleischer RC, et al. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1611-1612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170875
    AMA Campana MG, Kurata NP, Foster JT, et al. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1611-1612. doi:10.3201/eid2309.170875.
    APA Campana, M. G., Kurata, N. P., Foster, J. T., Helgen, L. E., Reeder, D. M., Fleischer, R. C....Helgen, K. M. (2017). White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1611-1612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.170875.
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About the Cover

  • Hidden Dangers from the Hunt PDF Version [PDF - 1.84 MB - 2 pages]
    B. Breedlove and N. M. M’ikanatha
            Cite This Article
    EID Breedlove B, M’ikanatha NM. Hidden Dangers from the Hunt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1613-1614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.AC2309
    AMA Breedlove B, M’ikanatha NM. Hidden Dangers from the Hunt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1613-1614. doi:10.3201/eid2309.AC2309.
    APA Breedlove, B., & M’ikanatha, N. M. (2017). Hidden Dangers from the Hunt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1613-1614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.AC2309.
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Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Negri Bodies PDF Version [PDF - 650 KB - 1 page]
    R. Henry and F. A. Murphy
            Cite This Article
    EID Henry R, Murphy FA. Etymologia: Negri Bodies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(9):1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.ET2309
    AMA Henry R, Murphy FA. Etymologia: Negri Bodies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1461. doi:10.3201/eid2309.ET2309.
    APA Henry, R., & Murphy, F. A. (2017). Etymologia: Negri Bodies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(9), 1461. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2309.ET2309.
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