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Emerging Infectious Diseases journal

Perspective

  • Ferrets as Models for Influenza Virus Transmission Studies and Pandemic Risk Assessments PDF Version [PDF - 424 KB - 7 pages]
    J. A. Belser et al.
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    The ferret transmission model is extensively used to assess the pandemic potential of emerging influenza viruses, yet experimental conditions and reported results vary among laboratories. Such variation can be a critical consideration when contextualizing results from independent risk-assessment studies of novel and emerging influenza viruses. To streamline interpretation of data generated in different laboratories, we provide a consensus on experimental parameters that define risk-assessment experiments of influenza virus transmissibility, including disclosure of variables known or suspected to contribute to experimental variability in this model, and advocate adoption of more standardized practices. We also discuss current limitations of the ferret transmission model and highlight continued refinements and advances to this model ongoing in laboratories. Understanding, disclosing, and standardizing the critical parameters of ferret transmission studies will improve the comparability and reproducibility of pandemic influenza risk assessment and increase the statistical power and, perhaps, accuracy of this model.

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    EID Belser JA, Barclay W, Barr I, Fouchier R, Matsuyama R, Nishiura H, et al. Ferrets as Models for Influenza Virus Transmission Studies and Pandemic Risk Assessments. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):965-971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172114
    AMA Belser JA, Barclay W, Barr I, et al. Ferrets as Models for Influenza Virus Transmission Studies and Pandemic Risk Assessments. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):965-971. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172114.
    APA Belser, J. A., Barclay, W., Barr, I., Fouchier, R., Matsuyama, R., Nishiura, H....Yen, H. (2018). Ferrets as Models for Influenza Virus Transmission Studies and Pandemic Risk Assessments. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 965-971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172114.
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Synopses

  • Absence of Nosocomial Transmission of Imported Lassa Fever during Use of Standard Barrier Nursing Methods PDF Version [PDF - 1.22 MB - 6 pages]
    A. Grahn et al.
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    Nosocomial transmission of Lassa virus (LASV) is reported to be low when care for the index patient includes proper barrier nursing methods. We investigated whether asymptomatic LASV infection occurred in healthcare workers who used standard barrier nursing methods during the first 15 days of caring for a patient with Lassa fever in Sweden. Of 76 persons who were defined as having been potentially exposed to LASV, 53 provided blood samples for detection of LASV IgG. These persons also responded to a detailed questionnaire to evaluate exposure to different body fluids from the index patient. LASV-specific IgG was not detected in any of the 53 persons. Five of 53 persons had not been using proper barrier nursing methods. Our results strengthen the argument for a low risk of secondary transmission of LASV in humans when standard barrier nursing methods are used and the patient has only mild symptoms.

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    EID Grahn A, Bråve A, Tolfvenstam T, Studahl M. Absence of Nosocomial Transmission of Imported Lassa Fever during Use of Standard Barrier Nursing Methods. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):972-977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172097
    AMA Grahn A, Bråve A, Tolfvenstam T, et al. Absence of Nosocomial Transmission of Imported Lassa Fever during Use of Standard Barrier Nursing Methods. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):972-977. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172097.
    APA Grahn, A., Bråve, A., Tolfvenstam, T., & Studahl, M. (2018). Absence of Nosocomial Transmission of Imported Lassa Fever during Use of Standard Barrier Nursing Methods. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 972-977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172097.
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Research

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Occupation-Associated Fatal Limbic Encephalitis Caused by Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1, Germany, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 3.84 MB - 10 pages]
    D. Tappe et al.
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    Limbic encephalitis is commonly regarded as an autoimmune-mediated disease. However, after the recent detection of zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 in a Prevost’s squirrel (Callosciurus prevostii) in a zoo in northern Germany, we retrospectively investigated a fatal case in an autoantibody-seronegative animal caretaker who had worked at that zoo. The virus had been discovered in 2015 as the cause of a cluster of cases of fatal encephalitis among breeders of variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) in eastern Germany. Molecular assays and immunohistochemistry detected a limbic distribution of the virus in brain tissue of the animal caretaker. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a spillover infection from the Prevost’s squirrel. Antibodies against bornaviruses were detected in the patient’s cerebrospinal fluid by immunofluorescence and newly developed ELISAs and immunoblot. The putative antigenic epitope was identified on the viral nucleoprotein. Other zoo workers were not infected; however, avoidance of direct contact with exotic squirrels and screening of squirrels are recommended.

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    EID Tappe D, Schlottau K, Cadar D, Hoffmann B, Balke L, Bewig B, et al. Occupation-Associated Fatal Limbic Encephalitis Caused by Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1, Germany, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):978-987. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172027
    AMA Tappe D, Schlottau K, Cadar D, et al. Occupation-Associated Fatal Limbic Encephalitis Caused by Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1, Germany, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):978-987. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172027.
    APA Tappe, D., Schlottau, K., Cadar, D., Hoffmann, B., Balke, L., Bewig, B....Beer, M. (2018). Occupation-Associated Fatal Limbic Encephalitis Caused by Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1, Germany, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 978-987. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172027.
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  • Genomic Sequencing of Bordetella pertussis for Epidemiology and Global Surveillance of Whooping Cough PDF Version [PDF - 1.37 MB - 7 pages]
    V. Bouchez et al.
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    Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is reemerging in many world regions. The spread of antigen-deficient strains may threaten acellular vaccine efficacy. Dynamics of strain transmission are poorly defined because of shortcomings in current strain genotyping methods. Our objective was to develop a whole-genome genotyping strategy with sufficient resolution for local epidemiologic questions and sufficient reproducibility to enable international comparisons of clinical isolates. We defined a core genome multilocus sequence typing scheme comprising 2,038 loci and demonstrated its congruence with whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism variation. Most cases of intrafamilial groups of isolates or of multiple isolates recovered from the same patient were distinguished from temporally and geographically cocirculating isolates. However, epidemiologically unrelated isolates were sometimes nearly undistinguishable. We set up a publicly accessible core genome multilocus sequence typing database to enable global comparisons of B. pertussis isolates, opening the way for internationally coordinated surveillance.

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    EID Bouchez V, Guglielmini J, Dazas M, Landier A, Toubiana J, Guillot S, et al. Genomic Sequencing of Bordetella pertussis for Epidemiology and Global Surveillance of Whooping Cough. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):988-994. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171464
    AMA Bouchez V, Guglielmini J, Dazas M, et al. Genomic Sequencing of Bordetella pertussis for Epidemiology and Global Surveillance of Whooping Cough. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):988-994. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171464.
    APA Bouchez, V., Guglielmini, J., Dazas, M., Landier, A., Toubiana, J., Guillot, S....Brisse, S. (2018). Genomic Sequencing of Bordetella pertussis for Epidemiology and Global Surveillance of Whooping Cough. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 988-994. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171464.
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  • Use of Bead-Based Serologic Assay to Evaluate Chikungunya Virus Epidemic, Haiti PDF Version [PDF - 2.31 MB - 7 pages]
    E. W. Rogier et al.
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    The index case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Haiti was reported during early 2014; the vector, the pervasive Aedes aegypti mosquito, promoted rapid spread throughout the country. During December 2014–February 2015, we collected blood samples from 4,438 persons at 154 sites (62 urban, 92 rural) throughout Haiti and measured CHIKV IgG by using a multiplex bead assay. Overall CHIKV seroprevalence was 57.9%; differences between rural (mean 44.9%) and urban (mean 78.4%) areas were pronounced. Logistic modeling identified the urban environment as a strong predictor of CHIKV exposure (adjusted odds ratio 3.34, 95% CI 2.38–4.69), and geographic elevation provided a strong negative correlation. We observed no correlation between age and antibody positivity or titer. Our findings demonstrated through serologic testing the recent and rapid dissemination of the arbovirus throughout the country. These results show the utility of serologic data to conduct epidemiologic studies of quickly spreading mosquitoborne arboviruses.

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    EID Rogier EW, Moss DM, Mace KE, Chang M, Jean SE, Bullard SM, et al. Use of Bead-Based Serologic Assay to Evaluate Chikungunya Virus Epidemic, Haiti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):995-1001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171447
    AMA Rogier EW, Moss DM, Mace KE, et al. Use of Bead-Based Serologic Assay to Evaluate Chikungunya Virus Epidemic, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):995-1001. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171447.
    APA Rogier, E. W., Moss, D. M., Mace, K. E., Chang, M., Jean, S. E., Bullard, S. M....Udhayakumar, V. (2018). Use of Bead-Based Serologic Assay to Evaluate Chikungunya Virus Epidemic, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 995-1001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171447.
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  • Widespread Treponema pallidum Infection in Nonhuman Primates, Tanzania PDF Version [PDF - 2.03 MB - 8 pages]
    I. S. Chuma et al.
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    We investigated Treponema pallidum infection in 8 nonhuman primate species (289 animals) in Tanzania during 2015–2017. We used a serologic treponemal test to detect antibodies against the bacterium. Infection was further confirmed from tissue samples of skin-ulcerated animals by 3 independent PCRs (polA, tp47, and TP_0619). Our findings indicate that T. pallidum infection is geographically widespread in Tanzania and occurs in several species (olive baboons, yellow baboons, vervet monkeys, and blue monkeys). We found the bacterium at 11 of 14 investigated geographic locations. Anogenital ulceration was the most common clinical manifestation; orofacial lesions also were observed. Molecular data show that nonhuman primates in Tanzania are most likely infected with T. pallidum subsp. pertenue–like strains, which could have implications for human yaws eradication.

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    EID Chuma IS, Batamuzi EK, Collins D, Fyumagwa RD, Hallmaier-Wacker LK, Kazwala RR, et al. Widespread Treponema pallidum Infection in Nonhuman Primates, Tanzania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1002-1009. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180037
    AMA Chuma IS, Batamuzi EK, Collins D, et al. Widespread Treponema pallidum Infection in Nonhuman Primates, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1002-1009. doi:10.3201/eid2406.180037.
    APA Chuma, I. S., Batamuzi, E. K., Collins, D., Fyumagwa, R. D., Hallmaier-Wacker, L. K., Kazwala, R. R....Knauf, S. (2018). Widespread Treponema pallidum Infection in Nonhuman Primates, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1002-1009. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180037.
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  • Genomic Epidemiology of Global Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter spp., 2008–2014 PDF Version [PDF - 5.26 MB - 10 pages]
    G. Peirano et al.
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    We performed whole-genome sequencing on 170 clinical carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter spp. isolates collected globally during 2008–2014. The most common carbapenemase was VIM, followed by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, oxacillin 48, and IMP. The isolates were of predominantly 2 species (E. xiangfangensis and E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii) and 4 global clones (sequence type [ST] 114, ST93, ST90, and ST78) with different clades within ST114 and ST90. Particular genetic structures surrounding carbapenemase genes were circulating locally in various institutions within the same or between different STs in Greece, Guatemala, Italy, Spain, Serbia, and Vietnam. We found a common NDM genetic structure (NDM-GE-U.S.), previously described on pNDM-U.S. from Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-214, in 14 different clones obtained from 6 countries spanning 4 continents. Our study highlights the importance of surveillance programs using whole-genome sequencing in providing insight into the molecular epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter spp.

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    EID Peirano G, Matsumura Y, Adams MD, Bradford P, Motyl M, Chen L, et al. Genomic Epidemiology of Global Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter spp., 2008–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1010-1019. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171648
    AMA Peirano G, Matsumura Y, Adams MD, et al. Genomic Epidemiology of Global Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter spp., 2008–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1010-1019. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171648.
    APA Peirano, G., Matsumura, Y., Adams, M. D., Bradford, P., Motyl, M., Chen, L....Pitout, J. (2018). Genomic Epidemiology of Global Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter spp., 2008–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1010-1019. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171648.
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  • Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States PDF Version [PDF - 3.18 MB - 9 pages]
    L. Ferguson et al.
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    Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012–2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus–seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010–2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive. Infection studies demonstrated that IDV-inoculated feral swine shed virus 3–5 days postinoculation and seroconverted at 21 days postinoculation; 50% of in-contact naive feral swine shed virus, seroconverted, or both. Immunohistochemical staining showed viral antigen within epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, including trachea, soft palate, and lungs. Our findings suggest that feral swine might serve an important role in the ecology of IDV.

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    EID Ferguson L, Luo K, Olivier AK, Cunningham FL, Blackmon S, Hanson-Dorr K, et al. Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1020-1028. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172102
    AMA Ferguson L, Luo K, Olivier AK, et al. Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1020-1028. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172102.
    APA Ferguson, L., Luo, K., Olivier, A. K., Cunningham, F. L., Blackmon, S., Hanson-Dorr, K....Wan, X. (2018). Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1020-1028. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172102.
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  • Prion Disease in Dromedary Camels, Algeria PDF Version [PDF - 3.73 MB - 8 pages]
    B. Babelhadj et al.
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    Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). After the BSE epidemic, and the associated human infections, began in 1996 in the United Kingdom, general concerns have been raised about animal prions. We detected a prion disease in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria. Symptoms suggesting prion disease occurred in 3.1% of dromedaries brought for slaughter to the Ouargla abattoir in 2015–2016. We confirmed diagnosis by detecting pathognomonic neurodegeneration and disease-specific prion protein (PrPSc) in brain tissues from 3 symptomatic animals. Prion detection in lymphoid tissues is suggestive of the infectious nature of the disease. PrPSc biochemical characterization showed differences with BSE and scrapie. Our identification of this prion disease in a geographically widespread livestock species requires urgent enforcement of surveillance and assessment of the potential risks to human and animal health.

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    EID Babelhadj B, Di Bari M, Pirisinu L, Chiappini B, Gaouar S, Riccardi G, et al. Prion Disease in Dromedary Camels, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1029-1036. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172007
    AMA Babelhadj B, Di Bari M, Pirisinu L, et al. Prion Disease in Dromedary Camels, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1029-1036. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172007.
    APA Babelhadj, B., Di Bari, M., Pirisinu, L., Chiappini, B., Gaouar, S., Riccardi, G....Vaccari, G. (2018). Prion Disease in Dromedary Camels, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1029-1036. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172007.
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  • Frequent Implication of Multistress-Tolerant Campylobacter jejuni in Human Infections PDF Version [PDF - 2.50 MB - 8 pages]
    E. Oh et al.
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    Campylobacter jejuni, a major cause of bacterial foodborne illnesses, is considered highly susceptible to environmental stresses. In this study, we extensively investigated the stress tolerance of 121 clinical strains of C. jejuni against 5 stress conditions (aerobic stress, disinfectant exposure, freeze-thaw, heat treatment, and osmotic stress) that this pathogenic bacterium might encounter during foodborne transmission to humans. In contrast to our current perception about high stress sensitivity of C. jejuni, a number of clinical strains of C. jejuni were highly tolerant to multiple stresses. We performed population genetics analysis by using comparative genomic fingerprinting and showed that multistress-tolerant strains of C. jejuni constituted distinct clades. The comparative genomic fingerprinting subtypes belonging to multistress-tolerant clades were more frequently implicated in human infections than those in stress-sensitive clades. We identified unique stress-tolerant C. jejuni clones and showed the role of stress tolerance in human campylobacteriosis.

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    EID Oh E, Chui L, Bae J, Li V, Ma A, Mutschall SK, et al. Frequent Implication of Multistress-Tolerant Campylobacter jejuni in Human Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1037-1044. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171587
    AMA Oh E, Chui L, Bae J, et al. Frequent Implication of Multistress-Tolerant Campylobacter jejuni in Human Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1037-1044. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171587.
    APA Oh, E., Chui, L., Bae, J., Li, V., Ma, A., Mutschall, S. K....Jeon, B. (2018). Frequent Implication of Multistress-Tolerant Campylobacter jejuni in Human Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1037-1044. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171587.
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  • Medscape CME Activity
    Bioclinical Test to Predict Nephropathia Epidemica Severity at Hospital Admission PDF Version [PDF - 1.39 MB - 10 pages]
    M. Hentzien et al.
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    We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with serologically proven nephropathia epidemica (NE) living in Ardennes Department, France, during 2000–2014 to develop a bioclinical test predictive of severe disease. Among 205 patients, 45 (22.0%) had severe NE. We found the following factors predictive of severe NE: nephrotoxic drug exposure (p = 0.005, point value 10); visual disorders (p = 0.02, point value 8); microscopic or macroscopic hematuria (p = 0.04, point value 7); leukocyte count >10 × 109 cells/L (p = 0.01, point value 9); and thrombocytopenia <90 × 109/L (p = 0.003, point value 11). When point values for each factor were summed, we found a score of <10 identified low-risk patients (3.3% had severe disease), and a score >20 identified high-risk patients (45.3% had severe disease). If validated in future studies, this test could be used to stratify patients by severity in research studies and in clinical practice.

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    EID Hentzien M, Mestrallet S, Halin P, Pannet L, Lebrun D, Dramé M, et al. Bioclinical Test to Predict Nephropathia Epidemica Severity at Hospital Admission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1045-1054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172160
    AMA Hentzien M, Mestrallet S, Halin P, et al. Bioclinical Test to Predict Nephropathia Epidemica Severity at Hospital Admission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1045-1054. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172160.
    APA Hentzien, M., Mestrallet, S., Halin, P., Pannet, L., Lebrun, D., Dramé, M....Servettaz, A. (2018). Bioclinical Test to Predict Nephropathia Epidemica Severity at Hospital Admission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1045-1054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172160.
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  • Hepatitis E in Long-Term Travelers from the Netherlands to Subtropical and Tropical Countries, 2008–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 765 KB - 6 pages]
    F. Elfrink et al.
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    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis. Virus genotypes 1 and 2 infect humans in developing countries by the fecal–oral route. To assess attack rates and disease incidence for travelers, we prospectively studied 604 long-term travelers to subtropical and tropical countries. Participants donated blood samples pretravel and posttravel and kept a diary. A total of 89/604 (15%) pretravel samples were positive for HEV IgG by ELISA, suggesting previous HEV infection. Seroconversion for HEV was found for 19/515 travelers (attack rate 3.7%, incidence 1.8 cases/1,000 person-weeks). We believe there is a substantial risk for acquiring HEV infection among long-term travelers. Although HEV infection does not seem to be a major problem in this healthy cohort, hygienic measures should be stressed in all pretravel health advice, particularly for pregnant women and immunocompromised travelers who are at risk for severe disease.

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    EID Elfrink F, Overbosch FW, Schinkel J, Koen G, Sonder G. Hepatitis E in Long-Term Travelers from the Netherlands to Subtropical and Tropical Countries, 2008–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1055-1060. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171513
    AMA Elfrink F, Overbosch FW, Schinkel J, et al. Hepatitis E in Long-Term Travelers from the Netherlands to Subtropical and Tropical Countries, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1055-1060. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171513.
    APA Elfrink, F., Overbosch, F. W., Schinkel, J., Koen, G., & Sonder, G. (2018). Hepatitis E in Long-Term Travelers from the Netherlands to Subtropical and Tropical Countries, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1055-1060. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171513.
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  • Novel Parvovirus Related to Primate Bufaviruses in Dogs PDF Version [PDF - 1.21 MB - 8 pages]
    V. Martella et al.
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    A novel protoparvovirus species, related genetically to human bufaviruses, was identified in dogs with respiratory signs. The canine bufavirus was distantly related to the well-known canine protoparvovirus, canine parvovirus type 2, sharing low amino acid identities in the nonstructural protein 1 (40.6%) and in the capsid protein 1 (33.4%). By screening collections of fecal, nasal, and oropharyngeal samples obtained from juvenile dogs (<1 year of age), canine bufavirus DNA appeared as a common component of canine virome. The virus was common in the stool samples of dogs with or without enteric disease and in the nasal and oropharyngeal swab samples of dogs with respiratory signs. However, the virus was not detected in nasal and oropharyngeal swab samples from animals without clinical signs.

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    EID Martella V, Lanave G, Mihalov-Kovács E, Marton S, Varga-Kugler R, Kaszab E, et al. Novel Parvovirus Related to Primate Bufaviruses in Dogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1061-1068. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171965
    AMA Martella V, Lanave G, Mihalov-Kovács E, et al. Novel Parvovirus Related to Primate Bufaviruses in Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1061-1068. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171965.
    APA Martella, V., Lanave, G., Mihalov-Kovács, E., Marton, S., Varga-Kugler, R., Kaszab, E....Bányai, K. (2018). Novel Parvovirus Related to Primate Bufaviruses in Dogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1061-1068. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171965.
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Dispatches

  • Novel Poxvirus in Proliferative Lesions of Wild Rodents in East Central Texas, USA PDF Version [PDF - 2.30 MB - 4 pages]
    C. L. Hodo et al.
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    Northern pygmy mice from 2 localities in East Central Texas, USA, had proliferative epidermal lesions on the tail and feet. Electron microscopy of lesion tissue revealed poxvirus. Phylogenetic analyses indicated the virus differed 35% from its closest relatives, the Chordopoxvirinae. Future research is needed to determine whether this virus could affect human health.

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    EID Hodo CL, Mauldin MR, Light JE, Wilkins K, Tang S, Nakazawa Y, et al. Novel Poxvirus in Proliferative Lesions of Wild Rodents in East Central Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1069-1072. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172057
    AMA Hodo CL, Mauldin MR, Light JE, et al. Novel Poxvirus in Proliferative Lesions of Wild Rodents in East Central Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1069-1072. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172057.
    APA Hodo, C. L., Mauldin, M. R., Light, J. E., Wilkins, K., Tang, S., Nakazawa, Y....Hamer, S. A. (2018). Novel Poxvirus in Proliferative Lesions of Wild Rodents in East Central Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1069-1072. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172057.
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  • Foot-and-Mouth Disease in the Middle East Caused by an A/ASIA/G-VII Virus Lineage, 2015–2016 PDF Version [PDF - 3.50 MB - 6 pages]
    K. Bachanek-Bankowska et al.
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    Phylogenetic analyses of foot-and-mouth disease type A viruses in the Middle East during 2015–2016 identified viruses belonging to the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage, which originated in the Indian subcontinent. Changes in a critical antigenic site within capsid viral protein 1 suggest possible evolutionary pressure caused by an intensive vaccination program.

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    EID Bachanek-Bankowska K, Di Nardo A, Wadsworth J, Henry E, Parlak Ü, Timina A, et al. Foot-and-Mouth Disease in the Middle East Caused by an A/ASIA/G-VII Virus Lineage, 2015–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1073-1078. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.170715
    AMA Bachanek-Bankowska K, Di Nardo A, Wadsworth J, et al. Foot-and-Mouth Disease in the Middle East Caused by an A/ASIA/G-VII Virus Lineage, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1073-1078. doi:10.3201/eid2406.170715.
    APA Bachanek-Bankowska, K., Di Nardo, A., Wadsworth, J., Henry, E., Parlak, Ü., Timina, A....Knowles, N. J. (2018). Foot-and-Mouth Disease in the Middle East Caused by an A/ASIA/G-VII Virus Lineage, 2015–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1073-1078. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.170715.
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  • Novel Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Genotype Levels as Herald of Seasonal Salmonellosis Epidemics PDF Version [PDF - 1.83 MB - 4 pages]
    C. Sotomayor et al.
        View Abstract

    We examined the population dynamics of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium during seasonal salmonellosis epidemics in New South Wales, Australia, during 2009–2016. Of 15,626 isolates, 5%–20% consisted of novel genotypes. Seasons with salmonellosis epidemics were associated with a reduction in novel genotypes in the preceding winter and spring.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sotomayor C, Wang Q, Arnott A, Howard P, Hope K, Lan R, et al. Novel Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Genotype Levels as Herald of Seasonal Salmonellosis Epidemics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1079-1082. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171096
    AMA Sotomayor C, Wang Q, Arnott A, et al. Novel Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Genotype Levels as Herald of Seasonal Salmonellosis Epidemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1079-1082. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171096.
    APA Sotomayor, C., Wang, Q., Arnott, A., Howard, P., Hope, K., Lan, R....Sintchenko, V. (2018). Novel Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Genotype Levels as Herald of Seasonal Salmonellosis Epidemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1079-1082. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171096.
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  • Urban Wild Boars and Risk for Zoonotic Streptococcus suis, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 1.47 MB - 4 pages]
    X. Fernández-Aguilar et al.
        View Abstract

    Urban wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Barcelona, Spain, harbor great diversity of Streptococcus suis strains, including strains with the cps2 gene and with the same molecular profile as local human cases. The increasing trend of potential effective contacts for S. suis transmission is of public health concern.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fernández-Aguilar X, Gottschalk M, Aragon V, Càmara J, Ardanuy C, Velarde R, et al. Urban Wild Boars and Risk for Zoonotic Streptococcus suis, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1083-1086. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171271
    AMA Fernández-Aguilar X, Gottschalk M, Aragon V, et al. Urban Wild Boars and Risk for Zoonotic Streptococcus suis, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1083-1086. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171271.
    APA Fernández-Aguilar, X., Gottschalk, M., Aragon, V., Càmara, J., Ardanuy, C., Velarde, R....Cabezón, O. (2018). Urban Wild Boars and Risk for Zoonotic Streptococcus suis, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1083-1086. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171271.
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  • Human Endophthalmitis Caused By Pseudorabies Virus Infection, China, 2017 PDF Version [PDF - 1.43 MB - 4 pages]
    J. Ai et al.
        View Abstract

    We report human endophthalmitis caused by pseudorabies virus infection after exposure to sewage on a hog farm in China. High-throughput sequencing and real-time PCR of vitreous humor showed pseudorabies virus sequences. This case showed that pseudorabies virus might infect humans after direct contact with contaminants.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ai J, Weng S, Cheng Q, Cui P, Li Y, Wu H, et al. Human Endophthalmitis Caused By Pseudorabies Virus Infection, China, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1087-1090. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171612
    AMA Ai J, Weng S, Cheng Q, et al. Human Endophthalmitis Caused By Pseudorabies Virus Infection, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1087-1090. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171612.
    APA Ai, J., Weng, S., Cheng, Q., Cui, P., Li, Y., Wu, H....Zhang, W. (2018). Human Endophthalmitis Caused By Pseudorabies Virus Infection, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1087-1090. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171612.
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  • Pulmonary Infections with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Catalonia, Spain, 1994–2014 PDF Version [PDF - 1.20 MB - 4 pages]
    M. Santin et al.
        View Abstract

    In Spain, systematic reporting of pulmonary infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria is not mandatory. Therefore, to determine trends, we retrospectively identified cases for January 1994–December 2014 in Catalonia. Over the 21 years, prevalence increased and was associated with being male. Mycobacterium avium complex and M. abscessus prevalence increased; M. kansasii prevalence decreased.

        Cite This Article
    EID Santin M, Barrabeig I, Malchair P, Gonzalez-Luquero L, Benitez MA, Sabria J, et al. Pulmonary Infections with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Catalonia, Spain, 1994–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1091-1094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172095
    AMA Santin M, Barrabeig I, Malchair P, et al. Pulmonary Infections with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Catalonia, Spain, 1994–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1091-1094. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172095.
    APA Santin, M., Barrabeig, I., Malchair, P., Gonzalez-Luquero, L., Benitez, M. A., Sabria, J....Alcaide, F. (2018). Pulmonary Infections with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Catalonia, Spain, 1994–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1091-1094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172095.
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  • Westward Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus among Humans, China PDF Version [PDF - 1.53 MB - 4 pages]
    Q. Yang et al.
        View Abstract

    We report infection of humans with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shaanxi, China, in May 2017. We obtained complete genomes for samples from 5 patients and from live poultry markets or farms in 4 cities. Results indicate that H7N9 is spreading westward from southern and eastern China.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yang Q, Shi W, Zhang L, Xu Y, Xu J, Li S, et al. Westward Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus among Humans, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1095-1098. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171135
    AMA Yang Q, Shi W, Zhang L, et al. Westward Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus among Humans, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1095-1098. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171135.
    APA Yang, Q., Shi, W., Zhang, L., Xu, Y., Xu, J., Li, S....Tian, H. (2018). Westward Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus among Humans, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1095-1098. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171135.
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  • Importation of Human Seoul Virus Infection to Germany from Indonesia PDF Version [PDF - 2.40 MB - 4 pages]
    J. Hofmann et al.
        View Abstract

    Seoul hantavirus–associated hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases are rare outside Asia and have not yet been found in Germany. We report clinical and molecular evidence for a Seoul virus infection in a patient in Germany. The infection was most likely acquired during a stay in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hofmann J, Weiss S, Kuhns M, Zinke A, Heinsberger H, Kruger DH, et al. Importation of Human Seoul Virus Infection to Germany from Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1099-1102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172044
    AMA Hofmann J, Weiss S, Kuhns M, et al. Importation of Human Seoul Virus Infection to Germany from Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1099-1102. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172044.
    APA Hofmann, J., Weiss, S., Kuhns, M., Zinke, A., Heinsberger, H., & Kruger, D. H. (2018). Importation of Human Seoul Virus Infection to Germany from Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1099-1102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172044.
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  • Rickettsia parkeri in Dermacentor parumapertus Ticks, Mexico PDF Version [PDF - 1.47 MB - 4 pages]
    S. Sánchez-Montes et al.
        View Abstract

    During a study to identify zoonotic pathogens in northwestern Mexico, we detected the presence of a rickettsial agent in Dermacentor parumapertus ticks from black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus). Comparison of 4 gene sequences (gltA, htrA, ompA, and ompB) of this agent showed 99%–100% identity with sequences of Rickettsia parkeri.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sánchez-Montes S, López-Pérez AM, Guzmán-Cornejo C, Colunga-Salas P, Becker I, Delgado-de la Mora J, et al. Rickettsia parkeri in Dermacentor parumapertus Ticks, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1108-1111. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180058
    AMA Sánchez-Montes S, López-Pérez AM, Guzmán-Cornejo C, et al. Rickettsia parkeri in Dermacentor parumapertus Ticks, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1108-1111. doi:10.3201/eid2406.180058.
    APA Sánchez-Montes, S., López-Pérez, A. M., Guzmán-Cornejo, C., Colunga-Salas, P., Becker, I., Delgado-de la Mora, J....Suzán, G. (2018). Rickettsia parkeri in Dermacentor parumapertus Ticks, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1108-1111. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180058.
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  • Novel Focus of Sin Nombre Virus in Peromyscus eremicus Mice, Death Valley National Park, California, USA PDF Version [PDF - 2.32 MB - 4 pages]
    J. E. Burns et al.
        View Abstract

    The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) is the primary reservoir for Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in the western United States. Rodent surveillance for hantavirus in Death Valley National Park, California, USA, revealed cactus mice (P. eremicus) as a possible focal reservoir for SNV in this location. We identified SNV antibodies in 40% of cactus mice sampled.

        Cite This Article
    EID Burns JE, Metzger ME, Messenger S, Fritz CL, Vilcins IE, Enge B, et al. Novel Focus of Sin Nombre Virus in Peromyscus eremicus Mice, Death Valley National Park, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1112-1115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180089
    AMA Burns JE, Metzger ME, Messenger S, et al. Novel Focus of Sin Nombre Virus in Peromyscus eremicus Mice, Death Valley National Park, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1112-1115. doi:10.3201/eid2406.180089.
    APA Burns, J. E., Metzger, M. E., Messenger, S., Fritz, C. L., Vilcins, I. E., Enge, B....Hu, R. (2018). Novel Focus of Sin Nombre Virus in Peromyscus eremicus Mice, Death Valley National Park, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1112-1115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180089.
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  • Listeriosis Outbreaks Associated with Soft Cheeses, United States, 1998–2014 PDF Version [PDF - 397 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Jackson et al.
        View Abstract

    Since 2006, the number of reported US listeriosis outbreaks associated with cheese made under unsanitary conditions has increased. Two-thirds were linked to Latin-style soft cheese, often affecting pregnant Hispanic women and their newborns. Adherence to pasteurization protocols and sanitation measures to avoid contamination after pasteurization can reduce future outbreaks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jackson K, Gould L, Hunter JC, Kucerova Z, Jackson B. Listeriosis Outbreaks Associated with Soft Cheeses, United States, 1998–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1116-1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171051
    AMA Jackson K, Gould L, Hunter JC, et al. Listeriosis Outbreaks Associated with Soft Cheeses, United States, 1998–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1116-1118. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171051.
    APA Jackson, K., Gould, L., Hunter, J. C., Kucerova, Z., & Jackson, B. (2018). Listeriosis Outbreaks Associated with Soft Cheeses, United States, 1998–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1116-1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171051.
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  • Intense Focus of Alveolar Echinococcosis, South Kyrgyzstan PDF Version [PDF - 910 KB - 4 pages]
    B. Bebezov et al.
        View Abstract

    Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. An ultrasound study in southern Kyrgyzstan during 2012 revealed a prevalence of 4.2% probable or confirmed AE and an additional 2.2% possible AE, representing an emerging situation. The risk for probable or confirmed AE was significantly higher in dog owners.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bebezov B, Mamashev N, Umetaliev T, Ziadinov I, Craig PS, Joekel DE, et al. Intense Focus of Alveolar Echinococcosis, South Kyrgyzstan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1119-1122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.161641
    AMA Bebezov B, Mamashev N, Umetaliev T, et al. Intense Focus of Alveolar Echinococcosis, South Kyrgyzstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1119-1122. doi:10.3201/eid2406.161641.
    APA Bebezov, B., Mamashev, N., Umetaliev, T., Ziadinov, I., Craig, P. S., Joekel, D. E....Torgerson, P. R. (2018). Intense Focus of Alveolar Echinococcosis, South Kyrgyzstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1119-1122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.161641.
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  • Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Insectivorous Bats, China, 2015 PDF Version [PDF - 2.47 MB - 4 pages]
    H. Han et al.
        View Abstract

    PCR amplification of the rrs2 gene indicated that 50% (62/124) of insectivorous bats from eastern China were infected with Leptospira borgpetersenii, L. kirschneri, and several potentially new Leptospira species. Multilocus sequence typing defined 3 novel sequence types in L. kirschneri, suggesting that bats are major carriers of Leptospira.

        Cite This Article
    EID Han H, Wen H, Liu J, Qin X, Zhao M, Wang L, et al. Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Insectivorous Bats, China, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1123-1126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171585
    AMA Han H, Wen H, Liu J, et al. Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Insectivorous Bats, China, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1123-1126. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171585.
    APA Han, H., Wen, H., Liu, J., Qin, X., Zhao, M., Wang, L....Yu, X. (2018). Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Insectivorous Bats, China, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1123-1126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171585.
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  • Brucella suis Infection in Dog Fed Raw Meat, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 578 KB - 3 pages]
    M. van Dijk et al.
        View Abstract

    A Brucella suis biovar 1 infection was diagnosed in a dog without typical exposure risks, but the dog had been fed a raw meat–based diet (hare carcasses imported from Argentina). Track and trace investigations revealed that the most likely source of infection was the dog’s raw meat diet.

        Cite This Article
    EID van Dijk M, Engelsma MY, Visser V, Spierenburg M, Holtslag ME, Willemsen P, et al. Brucella suis Infection in Dog Fed Raw Meat, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1127-1129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171887
    AMA van Dijk M, Engelsma MY, Visser V, et al. Brucella suis Infection in Dog Fed Raw Meat, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1127-1129. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171887.
    APA van Dijk, M., Engelsma, M. Y., Visser, V., Spierenburg, M., Holtslag, M. E., Willemsen, P....Roest, H. (2018). Brucella suis Infection in Dog Fed Raw Meat, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1127-1129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171887.
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  • Veal Liver as Food Vehicle for Human Campylobacter Infections PDF Version [PDF - 773 KB - 4 pages]
    C. Gaulin et al.
        View Abstract

    A matched case–control study in Quebec, Canada, evaluated consumption of veal liver as a risk factor for campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter was identified in 28 of 97 veal livers collected concurrently from slaughterhouses and retailers. Veal liver was associated with human Campylobacter infection, particularly when consumed undercooked.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gaulin C, Ramsay D, Dion R, Simard M, Gariépy C, Levac É, et al. Veal Liver as Food Vehicle for Human Campylobacter Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1130-1133. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171900
    AMA Gaulin C, Ramsay D, Dion R, et al. Veal Liver as Food Vehicle for Human Campylobacter Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1130-1133. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171900.
    APA Gaulin, C., Ramsay, D., Dion, R., Simard, M., Gariépy, C., Levac, É....Fiset, M. (2018). Veal Liver as Food Vehicle for Human Campylobacter Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1130-1133. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171900.
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  • Marburg Virus Infection in Egyptian Rousette Bats, South Africa, 2013–2014 PDF Version [PDF - 602 KB - 5 pages]
    J. T. Pawęska et al.
        View Abstract

    We detected a high seroprevalence of Marburg virus (MARV) antibodies in fruit bats in South Africa; 19.1% of recaptured bats seroconverted. The MARV RNA isolated closely resembled the 1975 Ozolin strain. These findings indicate endemic MARV circulation in bats in South Africa and should inform policies on MARV disease risk reduction.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pawęska JT, Jansen van Vuren P, Kemp A, Storm N, Grobbelaar AA, Wiley MR, et al. Marburg Virus Infection in Egyptian Rousette Bats, South Africa, 2013–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1134-1137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172165
    AMA Pawęska JT, Jansen van Vuren P, Kemp A, et al. Marburg Virus Infection in Egyptian Rousette Bats, South Africa, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1134-1137. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172165.
    APA Pawęska, J. T., Jansen van Vuren, P., Kemp, A., Storm, N., Grobbelaar, A. A., Wiley, M. R....Markotter, W. (2018). Marburg Virus Infection in Egyptian Rousette Bats, South Africa, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1134-1137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172165.
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  • Mixed Leptospira Infections in a Diverse Reservoir Host Community, Madagascar, 2013–2015 PDF Version [PDF - 412 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Moseley et al.
        View Abstract

    We identified mixed infections of pathogenic Leptospira in small mammals across a landscape-scale study area in Madagascar by using primers targeting different Leptospira spp. Using targeted primers increased prevalence estimates and evidence for transmission between endemic and invasive hosts. Future studies should assess rodentborne transmission of Leptospira to humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Moseley M, Rahelinirina S, Rajerison M, Garin B, Piertney S, Telfer S, et al. Mixed Leptospira Infections in a Diverse Reservoir Host Community, Madagascar, 2013–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1138-1140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180035
    AMA Moseley M, Rahelinirina S, Rajerison M, et al. Mixed Leptospira Infections in a Diverse Reservoir Host Community, Madagascar, 2013–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1138-1140. doi:10.3201/eid2406.180035.
    APA Moseley, M., Rahelinirina, S., Rajerison, M., Garin, B., Piertney, S., & Telfer, S. (2018). Mixed Leptospira Infections in a Diverse Reservoir Host Community, Madagascar, 2013–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1138-1140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180035.
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  • Detection of Low Pathogenicity Influenza A(H7N3) Virus during Duck Mortality Event, Cambodia, 2017 PDF Version [PDF - 2.59 MB - 5 pages]
    A. Suttie et al.
        View Abstract

    In January 2017, an estimated 3,700 (93%) of 4,000 Khaki Campbell ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) died in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. We detected low pathogenicity avian influenza A(H7N3) virus and anatid herpesvirus 1 (duck plague) in the affected flock; however, the exact cause of the mortality event remains unclear.

        Cite This Article
    EID Suttie A, Yann S, Y P, Tum S, Deng Y, Hul V, et al. Detection of Low Pathogenicity Influenza A(H7N3) Virus during Duck Mortality Event, Cambodia, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1103-1107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172099
    AMA Suttie A, Yann S, Y P, et al. Detection of Low Pathogenicity Influenza A(H7N3) Virus during Duck Mortality Event, Cambodia, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1103-1107. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172099.
    APA Suttie, A., Yann, S., Y, P., Tum, S., Deng, Y., Hul, V....Dussart, P. (2018). Detection of Low Pathogenicity Influenza A(H7N3) Virus during Duck Mortality Event, Cambodia, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1103-1107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172099.
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Research Letters

  • Mosquitoborne Sindbis Virus Infection and Long-Term Illness PDF Version [PDF - 447 KB - 2 pages]
    Å. Gylfe et al.
        View Abstract

    An unexpected human outbreak of the mosquitoborne Sindbis virus occurred in a previously nonendemic area of Sweden. At follow-up, 6–8 months after infection, 39% of patients had chronic arthralgia that affected their daily activities. Vectorborne infections may disseminate rapidly into new areas and cause acute and chronic disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gylfe Å, Ribers Å, Forsman O, Bucht G, Alenius G, Wållberg-Jonsson S, et al. Mosquitoborne Sindbis Virus Infection and Long-Term Illness. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1141-1142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.170892
    AMA Gylfe Å, Ribers Å, Forsman O, et al. Mosquitoborne Sindbis Virus Infection and Long-Term Illness. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1141-1142. doi:10.3201/eid2406.170892.
    APA Gylfe, Å., Ribers, Å., Forsman, O., Bucht, G., Alenius, G., Wållberg-Jonsson, S....Evander, M. (2018). Mosquitoborne Sindbis Virus Infection and Long-Term Illness. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1141-1142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.170892.
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  • Ehrlichia muris in Ixodes cookei Ticks, Northeastern United States, 2016–2017 PDF Version [PDF - 428 KB - 2 pages]
    G. Xu et al.
        View Abstract

    Ehrlichia muris is an agent of human ehrlichiosis. To determine its geographic spread in the United States, during 2016–2017, we tested 8,760 ticks from 45 states. A distinct clade of E. muris found in 3 Ixodes cookei ticks from the northeastern United States suggests transmission by these ticks in this region.

        Cite This Article
    EID Xu G, Pearson P, Rich SM. Ehrlichia muris in Ixodes cookei Ticks, Northeastern United States, 2016–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1143-1144. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171755
    AMA Xu G, Pearson P, Rich SM. Ehrlichia muris in Ixodes cookei Ticks, Northeastern United States, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1143-1144. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171755.
    APA Xu, G., Pearson, P., & Rich, S. M. (2018). Ehrlichia muris in Ixodes cookei Ticks, Northeastern United States, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1143-1144. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171755.
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  • Human Pasteurella multocida Infection with Likely Zoonotic Transmission from a Pet Dog, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 484 KB - 2 pages]
    F. Abreu et al.
        View Abstract

    We report a case of urinary tract infection caused by an unusual genotype (sequence type 211) of Pasteurella multocida associated with human infection. Molecular genetic analysis of P. multocida isolates obtained from the human patient and his pet strongly suggests a zoonotic transmission of this bacterium.

        Cite This Article
    EID Abreu F, Rodríguez-Lucas C, Rodicio M, Vela AI, Fernández-Garayzábal J, Leiva PS, et al. Human Pasteurella multocida Infection with Likely Zoonotic Transmission from a Pet Dog, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1145-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171998
    AMA Abreu F, Rodríguez-Lucas C, Rodicio M, et al. Human Pasteurella multocida Infection with Likely Zoonotic Transmission from a Pet Dog, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1145-1146. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171998.
    APA Abreu, F., Rodríguez-Lucas, C., Rodicio, M., Vela, A. I., Fernández-Garayzábal, J., Leiva, P. S....Fernández, J. (2018). Human Pasteurella multocida Infection with Likely Zoonotic Transmission from a Pet Dog, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1145-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171998.
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  • Reassortant Clade 2.3.4.4 of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus, Taiwan, 2017 PDF Version [PDF - 558 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Chen et al.
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    A highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus of clade 2.3.4.4 was detected in a domestic duck found dead in Taiwan during February 2017. The endemic situation and continued evolution of various reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Taiwan warrant concern about further reassortment and a fifth wave of intercontinental spread.

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    EID Chen L, Lee D, Liu Y, Li W, Swayne DE, Chang J, et al. Reassortant Clade 2.3.4.4 of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus, Taiwan, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1147-1149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172071
    AMA Chen L, Lee D, Liu Y, et al. Reassortant Clade 2.3.4.4 of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus, Taiwan, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1147-1149. doi:10.3201/eid2406.172071.
    APA Chen, L., Lee, D., Liu, Y., Li, W., Swayne, D. E., Chang, J....Lin, Y. (2018). Reassortant Clade 2.3.4.4 of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus, Taiwan, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1147-1149. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.172071.
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  • Reemergence of Human Monkeypox in Nigeria, 2017 PDF Version [PDF - 586 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Yinka-Ogunleye et al.
        View Abstract

    In Nigeria, before 2017 the most recent case of human monkeypox had been reported in 1978. By mid-November 2017, a large outbreak caused by the West African clade resulted in 146 suspected cases and 42 laboratory-confirmed cases from 14 states. Although the source is unknown, multiple sources are suspected.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yinka-Ogunleye A, Aruna O, Ogoina D, Aworabhi N, Eteng W, Badaru S, et al. Reemergence of Human Monkeypox in Nigeria, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1149-1151. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180017
    AMA Yinka-Ogunleye A, Aruna O, Ogoina D, et al. Reemergence of Human Monkeypox in Nigeria, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1149-1151. doi:10.3201/eid2406.180017.
    APA Yinka-Ogunleye, A., Aruna, O., Ogoina, D., Aworabhi, N., Eteng, W., Badaru, S....Ihekweazu, C. (2018). Reemergence of Human Monkeypox in Nigeria, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1149-1151. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180017.
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  • Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France PDF Version [PDF - 430 KB - 4 pages]
    L. Michelet et al.
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    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Michelet L, De Cruz K, Hénault S, Tambosco J, Richomme C, Réveillaud É, et al. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1150-1153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180094
    AMA Michelet L, De Cruz K, Hénault S, et al. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1150-1153. doi:10.3201/eid2406.180094.
    APA Michelet, L., De Cruz, K., Hénault, S., Tambosco, J., Richomme, C., Réveillaud, É....Boschiroli, M. (2018). Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1150-1153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180094.
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  • Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection of Central Nervous System, Guiana Shield PDF Version [PDF - 745 KB - 3 pages]
    A. L. Defo et al.
        View Abstract

    We report a case of eosinophilic meningitis complicated by transverse myelitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a 10-year-old boy from Brazil who had traveled to Suriname. We confirmed diagnosis by serology and real-time PCR in the cerebrospinal fluid. The medical community should be aware of angiostrongyliasis in the Guiana Shield.

        Cite This Article
    EID Defo AL, Lachaume N, Cuadro-Alvarez E, Maniassom C, Martin E, Njuieyon F, et al. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection of Central Nervous System, Guiana Shield. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1153-1155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180168
    AMA Defo AL, Lachaume N, Cuadro-Alvarez E, et al. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection of Central Nervous System, Guiana Shield. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1153-1155. doi:10.3201/eid2406.180168.
    APA Defo, A. L., Lachaume, N., Cuadro-Alvarez, E., Maniassom, C., Martin, E., Njuieyon, F....Elenga, N. (2018). Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection of Central Nervous System, Guiana Shield. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1153-1155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180168.
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  • Molecular Diagnosis of Taenia saginata Tapeworm Infection in 2 Schoolchildren, Myanmar PDF Version [PDF - 939 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Won et al.
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    Taenia saginata is the most common human tapeworm worldwide but has been unknown in Myanmar. In 2017, fecal examination in Yangon, Myanmar, revealed eggs of Taenia species in 2 children from a monastic school. Several proglottids expelled after medication with praziquantel were morphologically and molecularly confirmed to be T. saginata tapeworms.

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    EID Won E, Jung B, Song H, Kim M, Kim H, Lee K, et al. Molecular Diagnosis of Taenia saginata Tapeworm Infection in 2 Schoolchildren, Myanmar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1156-1158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180217
    AMA Won E, Jung B, Song H, et al. Molecular Diagnosis of Taenia saginata Tapeworm Infection in 2 Schoolchildren, Myanmar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1156-1158. doi:10.3201/eid2406.180217.
    APA Won, E., Jung, B., Song, H., Kim, M., Kim, H., Lee, K....Chai, J. (2018). Molecular Diagnosis of Taenia saginata Tapeworm Infection in 2 Schoolchildren, Myanmar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1156-1158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180217.
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  • Strengthening of Surveillance during Monkeypox Outbreak, Republic of the Congo, 2017 PDF Version [PDF - 448 KB - 3 pages]
    R. H. Doshi et al.
        View Abstract

    Reports of 10 suspected cases of monkeypox in Likouala Department, Republic of the Congo, triggered an investigation and response in March 2017 that included community education and surveillance strengthening. Increasing numbers of outbreaks suggest that monkeypox virus is becoming a more prevalent human pathogen. Diverse approaches are necessary for disease control and prevention.

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    EID Doshi RH, Guagliardo SJ, Dzabatou-Babeaux A, Likouayoulou C, Ndakala N, Moses C, et al. Strengthening of Surveillance during Monkeypox Outbreak, Republic of the Congo, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1158-1160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180248
    AMA Doshi RH, Guagliardo SJ, Dzabatou-Babeaux A, et al. Strengthening of Surveillance during Monkeypox Outbreak, Republic of the Congo, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1158-1160. doi:10.3201/eid2406.180248.
    APA Doshi, R. H., Guagliardo, S. J., Dzabatou-Babeaux, A., Likouayoulou, C., Ndakala, N., Moses, C....Petersen, B. W. (2018). Strengthening of Surveillance during Monkeypox Outbreak, Republic of the Congo, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1158-1160. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180248.
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  • Zooanthroponotic Transmission of Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 477 KB - 3 pages]
    M. R. Fernandes et al.
        View Abstract

    We recovered VIM-2 carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from an infected dog, its owner, and the domestic environment. Genomic investigation revealed household transmission of the high-risk hospital clone sequence type 233 in the human–animal–environment interface. Results suggest zooanthroponotic transmission of VIM-2–producing P. aeruginosa in the household following the patient's hospital discharge.

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    EID Fernandes MR, Sellera FP, Moura Q, Carvalho M, Rosato PN, Cerdeira L, et al. Zooanthroponotic Transmission of Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1160-1162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180335
    AMA Fernandes MR, Sellera FP, Moura Q, et al. Zooanthroponotic Transmission of Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1160-1162. doi:10.3201/eid2406.180335.
    APA Fernandes, M. R., Sellera, F. P., Moura, Q., Carvalho, M., Rosato, P. N., Cerdeira, L....Lincopan, N. (2018). Zooanthroponotic Transmission of Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1160-1162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.180335.
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  • Symptom-Based Ebola Risk Score for Ebola Virus Disease, Conakry, Guinea PDF Version [PDF - 290 KB - 1 page]
    B. Ingelbeen et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ingelbeen B, De Weggheleire A, Van Herp M, van Griensven J. Symptom-Based Ebola Risk Score for Ebola Virus Disease, Conakry, Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171812
    AMA Ingelbeen B, De Weggheleire A, Van Herp M, et al. Symptom-Based Ebola Risk Score for Ebola Virus Disease, Conakry, Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1162. doi:10.3201/eid2406.171812.
    APA Ingelbeen, B., De Weggheleire, A., Van Herp, M., & van Griensven, J. (2018). Symptom-Based Ebola Risk Score for Ebola Virus Disease, Conakry, Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.171812.
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About the Cover

  • A Tale of Two Kitchens, Meals and Microbes PDF Version [PDF - 2.76 MB - 2 pages]
    B. Breedlove and M. I. Meltzer
            Cite This Article
    EID Breedlove B, Meltzer MI. A Tale of Two Kitchens, Meals and Microbes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1165-1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.AC2406
    AMA Breedlove B, Meltzer MI. A Tale of Two Kitchens, Meals and Microbes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1165-1166. doi:10.3201/eid2406.AC2406.
    APA Breedlove, B., & Meltzer, M. I. (2018). A Tale of Two Kitchens, Meals and Microbes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1165-1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.AC2406.
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Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Angiostrongylus PDF Version [PDF - 390 KB - 1 page]
    R. Henry
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    EID Henry R. Etymologia: Angiostrongylus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.ET2406
    AMA Henry R. Etymologia: Angiostrongylus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;24(6):1155. doi:10.3201/eid2406.ET2406.
    APA Henry, R. (2018). Etymologia: Angiostrongylus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(6), 1155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2406.ET2406.
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