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Expedited Ahead-of-Print Articles

Articles from Emerging Infectious Diseases

Synopses

Spatial Epidemiologic Trends and Hotspots of Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka, 2001–2018 [PDF - 3.73 MB - 10 pages]
N. D. Karunaweera et al.

Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, is on the decline in South Asia. However, cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis have risen in Sri Lanka since 2001, and the lack of in-depth research on its epidemiologic characteristics hampers control efforts. We analyzed data collected from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka during 2001–2018 to study temporal and geographic trends and identify and monitor disease hotspots. We noted a progression in case rates, including a sharp rise in 2018, showing temporal expansion of disease-prevalent areas and 2 persistent hotspots. The northern hotspot shifted and shrank over time, but the southern hotspot progressively expanded and remained spatially static. In addition, we noted regional incidence differences for age and sex. We provide evidence of temporally progressive and spatially expanding incidence of leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka with distinct geographic patterns and disease hotspots, signaling an urgent need for effective disease control interventions.

EID Karunaweera ND, Ginige S, Senanayake S, Silva H, Manamperi N, Samaranayake N, et al. Spatial Epidemiologic Trends and Hotspots of Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka, 2001–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):1-10. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190971
AMA Karunaweera ND, Ginige S, Senanayake S, et al. Spatial Epidemiologic Trends and Hotspots of Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka, 2001–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):1-10. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190971.
APA Karunaweera, N. D., Ginige, S., Senanayake, S., Silva, H., Manamperi, N., Samaranayake, N....Zhou, G. (2020). Spatial Epidemiologic Trends and Hotspots of Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka, 2001–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 1-10. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190971.

Candidatus Mycoplasma haemohominis in Human, Japan [PDF - 3.72 MB - 9 pages]
N. Hattori et al.

Hemotropic mycoplasmas are common pathogens in animals, but it remains unclear what role these pathogens play in human infections. We report clinical and biologic characterization of Candidatus Mycoplasma haemohominis infection in a 42-year-old man in Japan. The patient had severe hemophagocytic syndrome 1 month after an accidental needlestick injury. Metagenomic deep sequencing identified Candidatus M. haemohominis and determined its draft genome for an isolate from serum of the patient. A high copy number of the Candidatus M. haemohominis genome was detected in serum and bone marrow samples. Electron microscopy examination showed morphologic characteristics of Candidatus M. haemohominis. Levofloxacin monotherapy induced resistance caused by a gyrase A gene mutation in the quinolone resistance–determining region, but a combination treatment with moxifloxacin and minocycline was effective. We identified Candidatus M. haemohominis in a patient who had life-threatening symptoms related to multiple organ infection. Human infection with this mycoplasma might occur more frequently than has been generally recognized.

EID Hattori N, Kuroda M, Katano H, Takuma T, Ito T, Arai N, et al. Candidatus Mycoplasma haemohominis in Human, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):11-19. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190983
AMA Hattori N, Kuroda M, Katano H, et al. Candidatus Mycoplasma haemohominis in Human, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):11-19. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190983.
APA Hattori, N., Kuroda, M., Katano, H., Takuma, T., Ito, T., Arai, N....Niki, Y. (2020). Candidatus Mycoplasma haemohominis in Human, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 11-19. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190983.

Nutritional Care for Patients with Ebola Virus Disease [PDF - 1.05 MB - 6 pages]
M. Ververs and M. Gabra

During the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak of 2014–2016 in West Africa, practitioners faced challenges providing nutritional care for patients in Ebola treatment units (ETUs). The current EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo demonstrates the need to understand lessons learned from previous outbreaks and to update nutritional guidelines. We conducted a literature review to identify articles that included nutrition as an integral part of supportive care. We found little information on the specific nutritional care or practical challenges within an ETU. This review showed that nutritional care for EVD patients is poorly described, and therefore the optimal composition and implementation of nutritional care remain unknown. We recommend that researchers and practitioners share specific and practical details of their experiences in providing nutritional support within ETUs to expand the knowledge base and ultimately improve the nutritional care for an increasingly prevalent patient population.

EID Ververs M, Gabra M. Nutritional Care for Patients with Ebola Virus Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):20-25. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191024
AMA Ververs M, Gabra M. Nutritional Care for Patients with Ebola Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):20-25. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191024.
APA Ververs, M., & Gabra, M. (2020). Nutritional Care for Patients with Ebola Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 20-25. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191024.
Research

Medscape CME Activity
Paid Leave and Access to Telework as Work Attendance Determinants during Acute Respiratory Illness, United States, 2017–2018 [PDF - 625 KB - 8 pages]
F. Ahmed et al.

We assessed determinants of work attendance during the first 3 days after onset of acute respiratory illness (ARI) among workers 19–64 years of age who had medically attended ARI or influenza during the 2017–2018 influenza season. The total number of days worked included days worked at the usual workplace and days teleworked. Access to paid leave was associated with fewer days worked overall and at the usual workplace during illness. Participants who indicated that employees were discouraged from coming to work with influenza-like symptoms were less likely to attend their usual workplace. Compared with workers without a telework option, those with telework access worked more days during illness overall, but there was no difference in days worked at the usual workplace. Both paid leave benefits and business practices that actively encourage employees to stay home while sick are necessary to reduce the transmission of ARI and influenza in workplaces.

EID Ahmed F, Kim S, Nowalk M, King JP, VanWormer JJ, Gaglani M, et al. Paid Leave and Access to Telework as Work Attendance Determinants during Acute Respiratory Illness, United States, 2017–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):26-33. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190743
AMA Ahmed F, Kim S, Nowalk M, et al. Paid Leave and Access to Telework as Work Attendance Determinants during Acute Respiratory Illness, United States, 2017–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):26-33. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190743.
APA Ahmed, F., Kim, S., Nowalk, M., King, J. P., VanWormer, J. J., Gaglani, M....Uzicanin, A. (2020). Paid Leave and Access to Telework as Work Attendance Determinants during Acute Respiratory Illness, United States, 2017–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 26-33. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190743.

Preclinical Detection of Prions in Blood of Nonhuman Primates Infected with Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease [PDF - 2.70 MB - 10 pages]
L. Concha-Marambio et al.

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is caused by prion infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy and can be transmitted by blood transfusion. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) can detect prions in blood from vCJD patients with 100% sensitivity and specificity. To determine whether PMCA enables prion detection in blood during the preclinical stage of infection, we performed a blind study using blood samples longitudinally collected from 28 control macaques and 3 macaques peripherally infected with vCJD. Our results demonstrate that PMCA consistently detected prions in blood during the entire preclinical stage in all infected macaques, without false positives from noninfected animals, when using the optimized conditions for amplification of macaque prions. Strikingly, prions were detected as early as 2 months postinoculation (>750 days before disease onset). These findings suggest that PMCA has the potential to detect vCJD prions in blood from asymptomatic carriers during the preclinical phase of the disease.

EID Concha-Marambio L, Chacon MA, Soto C. Preclinical Detection of Prions in Blood of Nonhuman Primates Infected with Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):34-43. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181423
AMA Concha-Marambio L, Chacon MA, Soto C. Preclinical Detection of Prions in Blood of Nonhuman Primates Infected with Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):34-43. doi:10.3201/eid2601.181423.
APA Concha-Marambio, L., Chacon, M. A., & Soto, C. (2020). Preclinical Detection of Prions in Blood of Nonhuman Primates Infected with Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 34-43. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181423.

Effect of Acute Illness on Contact Patterns, Malawi, 2017 [PDF - 1.06 MB - 7 pages]
J. R. Glynn et al.

The way persons interact when ill could profoundly affect transmission of infectious agents. To obtain data on these patterns in Africa, we recorded self-reported named contacts and opportunities for casual contact in rural northern Malawi. We interviewed 384 patients and 257 caregivers about contacts over three 24-hour periods: day of the clinic visit for acute illness, the next day, and 2 weeks later when well. For participants of all ages, the number of adult contacts and the proportion using public transportation was higher on the day of the clinic visit than later when well. Compared with the day after the clinic visit, well participants (2 weeks later) named a mean of 0.4 extra contacts; the increase was larger for indoor or prolonged contacts. When well, participants were more likely to visit other houses and congregate settings. When ill, they had more visitors at home. These findings could help refine models of infection spread.

EID Glynn JR, McLean E, Malava J, Dube A, Katundu C, Crampin AC, et al. Effect of Acute Illness on Contact Patterns, Malawi, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):44-50. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181539
AMA Glynn JR, McLean E, Malava J, et al. Effect of Acute Illness on Contact Patterns, Malawi, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):44-50. doi:10.3201/eid2601.181539.
APA Glynn, J. R., McLean, E., Malava, J., Dube, A., Katundu, C., Crampin, A. C....Geis, S. (2020). Effect of Acute Illness on Contact Patterns, Malawi, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 44-50. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181539.

Outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants among Critically Endangered Mongolian Saiga and Other Wild Ungulates, Mongolia, 2016–2017 [PDF - 4.77 MB - 12 pages]
M. Pruvot et al.

The 2016–2017 introduction of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) into livestock in Mongolia was followed by mass mortality of the critically endangered Mongolian saiga antelope and other rare wild ungulates. To assess the nature and population effects of this outbreak among wild ungulates, we collected clinical, histopathologic, epidemiologic, and ecological evidence. Molecular characterization confirmed that the causative agent was PPRV lineage IV. The spatiotemporal patterns of cases among wildlife were similar to those among livestock affected by the PPRV outbreak, suggesting spillover of virus from livestock at multiple locations and time points and subsequent spread among wild ungulates. Estimates of saiga abundance suggested a population decline of 80%, raising substantial concerns for the species’ survival. Consideration of the entire ungulate community (wild and domestic) is essential for elucidating the epidemiology of PPRV in Mongolia, addressing the threats to wild ungulate conservation, and achieving global PPRV eradication.

EID Pruvot M, Fine AE, Hollinger C, Strindberg S, Damdinjav B, Buuveibaatar B, et al. Outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants among Critically Endangered Mongolian Saiga and Other Wild Ungulates, Mongolia, 2016–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):51-62. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181998
AMA Pruvot M, Fine AE, Hollinger C, et al. Outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants among Critically Endangered Mongolian Saiga and Other Wild Ungulates, Mongolia, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):51-62. doi:10.3201/eid2601.181998.
APA Pruvot, M., Fine, A. E., Hollinger, C., Strindberg, S., Damdinjav, B., Buuveibaatar, B....Shiilegdamba, E. (2020). Outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants among Critically Endangered Mongolian Saiga and Other Wild Ungulates, Mongolia, 2016–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 51-62. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181998.

Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Hemorrhagic Disease in Asian Elephant Calves in Logging Camps, Myanmar [PDF - 2.20 MB - 7 pages]
Z. Oo et al.

In recent years, an alarming number of cases of lethal acute hemorrhagic disease have occurred in Asian elephant calves raised in logging camps in Myanmar. To determine whether these deaths were associated with infection by elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), we conducted diagnostic PCR subtype DNA sequencing analysis on necropsy tissue samples collected from 3 locations. We found that EEHV DNA from 7 PCR loci was present at high levels in all 3 calves and was the same EEHV1A virus type that has been described in North America, Europe, and other parts of Asia. However, when analyzed over 5,610 bp, the strains showed major differences from each other and from all previously characterized EEHV1A strains. We conclude that these 3 elephant calves in Myanmar died from the same herpesvirus disease that has afflicted young Asian elephants in other countries over the past 20 years.

EID Oo Z, Aung Y, Aung T, San N, Tun Z, Hayward GS, et al. Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Hemorrhagic Disease in Asian Elephant Calves in Logging Camps, Myanmar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):63-69. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190159
AMA Oo Z, Aung Y, Aung T, et al. Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Hemorrhagic Disease in Asian Elephant Calves in Logging Camps, Myanmar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):63-69. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190159.
APA Oo, Z., Aung, Y., Aung, T., San, N., Tun, Z., Hayward, G. S....Zachariah, A. (2020). Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus Hemorrhagic Disease in Asian Elephant Calves in Logging Camps, Myanmar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 63-69. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190159.

Risk Factors for and Seroprevalence of Tickborne Zoonotic Diseases among Livestock Owners, Kazakhstan [PDF - 1.48 MB - 11 pages]
J. R. Head et al.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), Q fever, and Lyme disease are endemic to southern Kazakhstan, but population-based serosurveys are lacking. We assessed risk factors and seroprevalence of these zoonoses and conducted surveys for CCHF-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the Zhambyl region of Kazakhstan. Weighted seroprevalence for CCHF among all participants was 1.2%, increasing to 3.4% in villages with a known history of CCHF circulation. Weighted seroprevalence was 2.4% for Lyme disease and 1.3% for Q fever. We found evidence of CCHF virus circulation in areas not known to harbor the virus. We noted that activities that put persons at high risk for zoonotic or tickborne disease also were risk factors for seropositivity. However, recognition of the role of livestock in disease transmission and use of personal protective equipment when performing high-risk activities were low among participants.

EID Head JR, Bumburidi Y, Mirzabekova G, Rakhimov K, Dzhumankulov M, Salyer SJ, et al. Risk Factors for and Seroprevalence of Tickborne Zoonotic Diseases among Livestock Owners, Kazakhstan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):70-80. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190220
AMA Head JR, Bumburidi Y, Mirzabekova G, et al. Risk Factors for and Seroprevalence of Tickborne Zoonotic Diseases among Livestock Owners, Kazakhstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):70-80. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190220.
APA Head, J. R., Bumburidi, Y., Mirzabekova, G., Rakhimov, K., Dzhumankulov, M., Salyer, S. J....Moffett, D. (2020). Risk Factors for and Seroprevalence of Tickborne Zoonotic Diseases among Livestock Owners, Kazakhstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 70-80. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190220.

High Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Strawberry Fields, China, 2018 [PDF - 1.67 MB - 9 pages]
Y. Chen et al.

In 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate azole resistance in environmental Aspergillus fumigatus isolates obtained from different agricultural fields in China. Using 63 soil cores, we cultured for azole-resistant A. fumigatus and characterized isolates by their cyp51A gene type, short tandem repeat genotype, and mating type. Of 206 A. fumigatus isolates, 21 (10.2%) were azole resistant. Nineteen of 21 had mutations in their cyp51A gene (5 TR34/L98H, 8 TR34/L98H/S297T/F495I, 6 TR46/Y121F/T289A). Eighteen were cultured from soil samples acquired from strawberry fields, suggesting this soil type is a potential hotspot for azole resistance selection. Twenty resistant isolates were mating type MAT1-1, suggesting asexual sporulation contributed to their evolution. Prochloraz, difenoconazole, and tebuconazole were the most frequently detected fungicides in soil samples with azole-resistant fungus. Our study results suggest that managing the fungicides used in agriculture will help contain the problem of antifungal drug resistance in clinics.

EID Chen Y, Dong F, Zhao J, Fan H, Qin C, Li R, et al. High Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Strawberry Fields, China, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):81-89. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190885
AMA Chen Y, Dong F, Zhao J, et al. High Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Strawberry Fields, China, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):81-89. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190885.
APA Chen, Y., Dong, F., Zhao, J., Fan, H., Qin, C., Li, R....Han, L. (2020). High Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Strawberry Fields, China, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 81-89. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190885.

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, United Kingdom [PDF - 1.06 MB - 7 pages]
M. Holding et al.

During February 2018–January 2019, we conducted large-scale surveillance for the presence and prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and louping ill virus (LIV) in sentinel animals and ticks in the United Kingdom. Serum was collected from 1,309 deer culled across England and Scotland. Overall, 4% of samples were ELISA-positive for the TBEV serocomplex. A focus in the Thetford Forest area had the highest proportion (47.7%) of seropositive samples. Ticks collected from culled deer within seropositive regions were tested for viral RNA; 5 of 2,041 ticks tested positive by LIV/TBEV real-time reverse transcription PCR, all from within the Thetford Forest area. From 1 tick, we identified a full-length genomic sequence of TBEV. Thus, using deer as sentinels revealed a potential TBEV focus in the United Kingdom. This detection of TBEV genomic sequence in UK ticks has important public health implications, especially for undiagnosed encephalitis.

EID Holding M, Dowall SD, Medlock JM, Carter DP, Pullan ST, Lewis J, et al. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):90-96. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191085
AMA Holding M, Dowall SD, Medlock JM, et al. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):90-96. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191085.
APA Holding, M., Dowall, S. D., Medlock, J. M., Carter, D. P., Pullan, S. T., Lewis, J....Hewson, R. (2020). Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 90-96. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191085.

Phenotypic and Genotypic Correlates of Penicillin Susceptibility in Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae, British Columbia, Canada, 2015–2018 [PDF - 764 KB - 7 pages]
J. Zou et al.

In 2015, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) updated its breakpoints for penicillin susceptibility in Corynebacterium species from <1 mg/L to <0.12 mg/L. We assessed the effect of this change on C. diphtheriae susceptibility reported at an inner city, tertiary care center in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, during 2015–2018 and performed whole-genome sequencing to investigate phenotypic and genotypic resistance to penicillin. We identified 44/45 isolates that were intermediately susceptible to penicillin by the 2015 breakpoint, despite meeting previous CLSI criteria for susceptibility. Sequencing did not reveal β-lactam resistance genes. Multilocus sequence typing revealed a notable predominance of sequence type 76. Overall, we saw no evidence of penicillin nonsusceptibility at the phenotypic or genotypic level in C. diphtheriae isolates from our institution. The 2015 CLSI breakpoint change could cause misclassification of penicillin susceptibility in C. diphtheriae isolates, potentially leading to suboptimal antimicrobial treatment selection.

EID Zou J, Chorlton SD, Romney MG, Payne M, Lawson T, Wong A, et al. Phenotypic and Genotypic Correlates of Penicillin Susceptibility in Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae, British Columbia, Canada, 2015–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):97-103. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191241
AMA Zou J, Chorlton SD, Romney MG, et al. Phenotypic and Genotypic Correlates of Penicillin Susceptibility in Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae, British Columbia, Canada, 2015–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):97-103. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191241.
APA Zou, J., Chorlton, S. D., Romney, M. G., Payne, M., Lawson, T., Wong, A....Lowe, C. F. (2020). Phenotypic and Genotypic Correlates of Penicillin Susceptibility in Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae, British Columbia, Canada, 2015–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 97-103. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191241.

High Pathogenicity of Nipah Virus from Pteropus lylei Fruit Bats, Cambodia [PDF - 3.50 MB - 10 pages]
M. Gaudino et al.

We conducted an in-depth characterization of the Nipah virus (NiV) isolate previously obtained from a Pteropus lylei bat in Cambodia in 2003 (CSUR381). We performed full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses and confirmed CSUR381 is part of the NiV-Malaysia genotype. In vitro studies revealed similar cell permissiveness and replication of CSUR381 (compared with 2 other NiV isolates) in both bat and human cell lines. Sequence alignments indicated conservation of the ephrin-B2 and ephrin-B3 receptor binding sites, the glycosylation site on the G attachment protein, as well as the editing site in phosphoprotein, suggesting production of nonstructural proteins V and W, known to counteract the host innate immunity. In the hamster animal model, CSUR381 induced lethal infections. Altogether, these data suggest that the Cambodia bat-derived NiV isolate has high pathogenic potential and, thus, provide insight for further studies and better risk assessment for future NiV outbreaks in Southeast Asia.

EID Gaudino M, Aurine N, Dumont C, Fouret J, Ferren M, Mathieu C, et al. High Pathogenicity of Nipah Virus from Pteropus lylei Fruit Bats, Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):104-113. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191284
AMA Gaudino M, Aurine N, Dumont C, et al. High Pathogenicity of Nipah Virus from Pteropus lylei Fruit Bats, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):104-113. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191284.
APA Gaudino, M., Aurine, N., Dumont, C., Fouret, J., Ferren, M., Mathieu, C....Horvat, B. (2020). High Pathogenicity of Nipah Virus from Pteropus lylei Fruit Bats, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 104-113. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191284.
Dispatches

Varicella in Adult Foreigners at a Referral Hospital, Central Tokyo, Japan, 2012–2016 [PDF - 845 KB - 4 pages]
S. Takaya et al.

We report a case series of varicella among adult foreigners at a referral hospital in central Tokyo, Japan, during 2012–2016. This series highlights differences in varicella vaccination schedules by country and epidemiology by climate and identifies immigrants and international students as high-risk populations for varicella.

EID Takaya S, Kutsuna S, Katanami Y, Yamamoto K, Takeshita N, Hayakawa K, et al. Varicella in Adult Foreigners at a Referral Hospital, Central Tokyo, Japan, 2012–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):114-117. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.170565
AMA Takaya S, Kutsuna S, Katanami Y, et al. Varicella in Adult Foreigners at a Referral Hospital, Central Tokyo, Japan, 2012–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):114-117. doi:10.3201/eid2601.170565.
APA Takaya, S., Kutsuna, S., Katanami, Y., Yamamoto, K., Takeshita, N., Hayakawa, K....Ohmagari, N. (2020). Varicella in Adult Foreigners at a Referral Hospital, Central Tokyo, Japan, 2012–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 114-117. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.170565.

Geographic Distribution and Incidence of Melioidosis, Panama [PDF - 710 KB - 4 pages]
A. B. Araúz et al.

Melioidosis is an infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Most cases occur in Southeast Asia and northern Australia; <100 cases have been reported in the Americas. We conducted a retrospective study and identified 12 melioidosis cases in Panama during 2007–2017, suggesting possible endemicity and increased need for surveillance.

EID Araúz AB, Castillo K, Santiago E, Quintero Y, Adames E, Castillo B, et al. Geographic Distribution and Incidence of Melioidosis, Panama. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):118-121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.180870
AMA Araúz AB, Castillo K, Santiago E, et al. Geographic Distribution and Incidence of Melioidosis, Panama. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):118-121. doi:10.3201/eid2601.180870.
APA Araúz, A. B., Castillo, K., Santiago, E., Quintero, Y., Adames, E., Castillo, B....Henostroza, G. (2020). Geographic Distribution and Incidence of Melioidosis, Panama. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 118-121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.180870.

Shigella Bacteremia, Georgia, USA, 2002–2012 [PDF - 350 KB - 3 pages]
M. Tobin-D’Angelo et al.

Shigella commonly causes gastroenteritis but rarely spreads to the blood. During 2002–2012, we identified 11,262 Shigella infections through population-based active surveillance in Georgia; 72 (0.64%) were isolated from blood. Bacteremia was associated with age >18 years, black race, and S. flexneri. More than half of patients with bacteremia were HIV-infected.

EID Tobin-D’Angelo M, Oosmanally N, Wilson SN, Anderson EJ, Segler S, Poventud L. Shigella Bacteremia, Georgia, USA, 2002–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):122-124. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181698
AMA Tobin-D’Angelo M, Oosmanally N, Wilson SN, et al. Shigella Bacteremia, Georgia, USA, 2002–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):122-124. doi:10.3201/eid2601.181698.
APA Tobin-D’Angelo, M., Oosmanally, N., Wilson, S. N., Anderson, E. J., Segler, S., & Poventud, L. (2020). Shigella Bacteremia, Georgia, USA, 2002–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 122-124. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181698.

Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Japan and Southeast Asia, 2016–2018 [PDF - 1.83 MB - 4 pages]
R. Kuwata et al.

During 2016–2018, we conducted surveillance for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in mosquitoes and pigs in Japan, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that our isolates (genotypes Ia, Ib, III, IV) were related to JEV isolates obtained from the same regions many years ago. Indigenous JEV strains persist in Asia.

EID Kuwata R, Torii S, Shimoda H, Supriyono S, Phichitraslip T, Prasertsincharoen N, et al. Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Japan and Southeast Asia, 2016–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):125-128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190235
AMA Kuwata R, Torii S, Shimoda H, et al. Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Japan and Southeast Asia, 2016–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):125-128. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190235.
APA Kuwata, R., Torii, S., Shimoda, H., Supriyono, S., Phichitraslip, T., Prasertsincharoen, N....Maeda, K. (2020). Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Japan and Southeast Asia, 2016–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 125-128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190235.

Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N2) Virus in Broiler Chickens, Egypt [PDF - 1.93 MB - 5 pages]
K. E. Hassan et al.

We detected a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus in 3 poultry farms in Egypt. The virus carried genome segments of a pigeon H9N2 influenza virus detected in 2014, a nucleoprotein segment of contemporary chicken H9N2 viruses from Egypt, and hemagglutinin derived from the 2.3.4.4b H5N8 virus clade.

EID Hassan KE, King J, El-Kady M, Afifi M, Abozeid HH, Pohlmann A, et al. Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N2) Virus in Broiler Chickens, Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):129-133. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190570
AMA Hassan KE, King J, El-Kady M, et al. Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N2) Virus in Broiler Chickens, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):129-133. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190570.
APA Hassan, K. E., King, J., El-Kady, M., Afifi, M., Abozeid, H. H., Pohlmann, A....Harder, T. (2020). Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N2) Virus in Broiler Chickens, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 129-133. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190570.

Infectivity of Norovirus GI and GII from Bottled Mineral Water during a Waterborne Outbreak, Spain [PDF - 381 KB - 4 pages]
S. Guix et al.

During a waterborne outbreak of norovirus in Spain, we estimated 50% illness doses for a group of exposed (secretor) persons to be 556 (95% CI 319–957) genome copies/day for norovirus GI and 2,934 (95% CI 1,683–5,044) genome copies/day for norovirus GII. Use of a propidium monoazide viability assay reduced these values.

EID Guix S, Fuentes C, Pintó RM, Blanco A, Sabrià A, Anfruns-Estrada E, et al. Infectivity of Norovirus GI and GII from Bottled Mineral Water during a Waterborne Outbreak, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):134-137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190778
AMA Guix S, Fuentes C, Pintó RM, et al. Infectivity of Norovirus GI and GII from Bottled Mineral Water during a Waterborne Outbreak, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):134-137. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190778.
APA Guix, S., Fuentes, C., Pintó, R. M., Blanco, A., Sabrià, A., Anfruns-Estrada, E....Bosch, A. (2020). Infectivity of Norovirus GI and GII from Bottled Mineral Water during a Waterborne Outbreak, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 134-137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190778.

Effect of Pediatric Influenza Vaccination on Antibiotic Resistance, England and Wales [PDF - 878 KB - 5 pages]
C. Chae et al.

Vaccines against viral infections have been proposed to reduce prescribing of antibiotics and thereby help control resistant bacterial infections. However, by combining published data sources, we predict that pediatric live attenuated influenza vaccination in England and Wales will not substantially reduce antibiotic consumption or adverse health outcomes associated with antibiotic resistance.

EID Chae C, Davies NG, Jit M, Atkins KE. Effect of Pediatric Influenza Vaccination on Antibiotic Resistance, England and Wales. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):138-142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191110
AMA Chae C, Davies NG, Jit M, et al. Effect of Pediatric Influenza Vaccination on Antibiotic Resistance, England and Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):138-142. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191110.
APA Chae, C., Davies, N. G., Jit, M., & Atkins, K. E. (2020). Effect of Pediatric Influenza Vaccination on Antibiotic Resistance, England and Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 138-142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191110.

Locally Acquired Human Infection with Swine-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Virus, Australia, 2018 [PDF - 3.05 MB - 5 pages]
Y. Deng et al.

In 2018, a 15-year-old female adolescent in Australia was infected with swine influenza A(H3N2) variant virus. The virus contained hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes derived from 1990s-like human seasonal viruses and internal protein genes from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, highlighting the potential risk that swine influenza A virus poses to human health in Australia.

EID Deng Y, Wong F, Spirason N, Kaye M, Beazley R, Grau ML, et al. Locally Acquired Human Infection with Swine-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Virus, Australia, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):143-147. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191144
AMA Deng Y, Wong F, Spirason N, et al. Locally Acquired Human Infection with Swine-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Virus, Australia, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):143-147. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191144.
APA Deng, Y., Wong, F., Spirason, N., Kaye, M., Beazley, R., Grau, M. L....Dhanasekaran, V. (2020). Locally Acquired Human Infection with Swine-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Virus, Australia, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 143-147. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191144.
Research Letters

Use of Ambulance Dispatch Calls for Surveillance of Severe Acute Respiratory Infections [PDF - 754 KB - 3 pages]
S. Monge et al.

Ambulance dispatches for respiratory syndromes reflect incidence of influenza-like illness in primary care. Associations are highest in children (15%–34% of respiratory calls attributable to influenza), out-of-office hours (9%), and highest urgency-level calls (9%–11%). Ambulance dispatches might be an additional source of data for severe influenza surveillance.

EID Monge S, Duijster J, Kommer G, van de Kassteele J, Donker GA, Krafft T, et al. Use of Ambulance Dispatch Calls for Surveillance of Severe Acute Respiratory Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):148-150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181520
AMA Monge S, Duijster J, Kommer G, et al. Use of Ambulance Dispatch Calls for Surveillance of Severe Acute Respiratory Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):148-150. doi:10.3201/eid2601.181520.
APA Monge, S., Duijster, J., Kommer, G., van de Kassteele, J., Donker, G. A., Krafft, T....van Asten, L. (2020). Use of Ambulance Dispatch Calls for Surveillance of Severe Acute Respiratory Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 148-150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181520.

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Traveler Returning from Nepal to Spain [PDF - 267 KB - 4 pages]
E. Sulleiro et al.

Most human hantavirus infections occur in Asia, but some cases have been described in Europe in travelers returning from Asia. We describe a case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a previously healthy traveler occurring shortly after he returned to Spain from Nepal. Serologic tests suggested a Puumala virus–like infection.

EID Sulleiro E, Aznar M, Serre-Delcor N, Salvador F, Sanchez-Montalvá A, Espasa M, et al. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Traveler Returning from Nepal to Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):150-153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181685
AMA Sulleiro E, Aznar M, Serre-Delcor N, et al. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Traveler Returning from Nepal to Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):150-153. doi:10.3201/eid2601.181685.
APA Sulleiro, E., Aznar, M., Serre-Delcor, N., Salvador, F., Sanchez-Montalvá, A., Espasa, M....Oliveira, I. (2020). Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Traveler Returning from Nepal to Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 150-153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181685.

Visceral Leishmaniasis, Northern Somalia, 2013–2019 [PDF - 225 KB - 2 pages]
M. K. Aalto et al.

We identified visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in a previously unknown focus in northern Somalia. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 118 cases during 2013–2019 in Bosaso, the region’s commercial capital, have raised suspicion of visceral leishmaniasis endemicity status there.

EID Aalto MK, Sunyoto T, Yusuf M, Mohamed A, Van der Auwera G, Dujardin J. Visceral Leishmaniasis, Northern Somalia, 2013–2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):153-154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181851
AMA Aalto MK, Sunyoto T, Yusuf M, et al. Visceral Leishmaniasis, Northern Somalia, 2013–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):153-154. doi:10.3201/eid2601.181851.
APA Aalto, M. K., Sunyoto, T., Yusuf, M., Mohamed, A., Van der Auwera, G., & Dujardin, J. (2020). Visceral Leishmaniasis, Northern Somalia, 2013–2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 153-154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181851.

Autochthonous Human Fascioliasis, Belgium [PDF - 275 KB - 3 pages]
S. Milas et al.

We report 2 cases of human fascioliasis (HF) in Belgium, likely caused by consumption of vegetables from a garden that was flooded by pasture runoff. Because autochthonous HF is rare and the route of transmission was unusual, HF was not diagnosed until 6 months after symptom onset in both cases.

EID Milas S, Rossi C, Philippart I, Dorny P, Bottieau E. Autochthonous Human Fascioliasis, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):155-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190190
AMA Milas S, Rossi C, Philippart I, et al. Autochthonous Human Fascioliasis, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):155-157. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190190.
APA Milas, S., Rossi, C., Philippart, I., Dorny, P., & Bottieau, E. (2020). Autochthonous Human Fascioliasis, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 155-157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190190.

Recombinant Nontypeable Genotype II Human Noroviruses in the Americas [PDF - 2.30 MB - 3 pages]
K. Tohma et al.

We report multiple nontypeable genotype II noroviruses circulating in South America; nucleotides differed by >25% from those of other genotypes. These viruses have been circulating in the Americas for ≈20 years and show recombination with other genotypes. Clues to norovirus natural history can guide development of treatment and prevention plans.

EID Tohma K, Lepore CJ, Degiuseppe JI, Stupka JA, Saito M, Mayta H, et al. Recombinant Nontypeable Genotype II Human Noroviruses in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):157-159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190626
AMA Tohma K, Lepore CJ, Degiuseppe JI, et al. Recombinant Nontypeable Genotype II Human Noroviruses in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):157-159. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190626.
APA Tohma, K., Lepore, C. J., Degiuseppe, J. I., Stupka, J. A., Saito, M., Mayta, H....Parra, G. I. (2020). Recombinant Nontypeable Genotype II Human Noroviruses in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 157-159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190626.

Legionella pneumophila as Cause of Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia, China [PDF - 649 KB - 3 pages]
H. Yi et al.

We report a case of community-acquired pneumonia in a patient in China. We verified Legionella pneumophila infection through next-generation sequencing of blood, sputum, and pleural effusion samples. Our results show the usefulness of next-generation sequencing and of testing different samples early in the course of illness to identify this bacterium.

EID Yi H, Fang J, Huang J, Liu B, Qu J, Zhou M. Legionella pneumophila as Cause of Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):160-162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190655
AMA Yi H, Fang J, Huang J, et al. Legionella pneumophila as Cause of Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):160-162. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190655.
APA Yi, H., Fang, J., Huang, J., Liu, B., Qu, J., & Zhou, M. (2020). Legionella pneumophila as Cause of Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 160-162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190655.

Training for Foodborne Outbreak Investigations by Using Structured Learning Experience [PDF - 1.18 MB - 3 pages]
F. Burckhardt and E. Kissling

We created a free and interactive training activity based on playing cards (disease detective cards) that introduces foodborne outbreak investigations to public health professionals and students. Competencies taught cover selected descriptive and analytic epidemiologic topics, such as case definition, epidemic curve, 2-by-2 tables, relative risks, attack rates, stratification, and confounding.

EID Burckhardt F, Kissling E. Training for Foodborne Outbreak Investigations by Using Structured Learning Experience. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):162-164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190755
AMA Burckhardt F, Kissling E. Training for Foodborne Outbreak Investigations by Using Structured Learning Experience. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):162-164. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190755.
APA Burckhardt, F., & Kissling, E. (2020). Training for Foodborne Outbreak Investigations by Using Structured Learning Experience. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 162-164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190755.

Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Sequence Type 75 in Taiwan [PDF - 276 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Tu et al.

We investigated the epidemiology of cholera in Taiwan during 2002–2018. Vibrio cholerae sequence type (ST) 75 clone emerged in 2009 and has since become more prevalent than the ST69 clone from a previous pandemic. Closely related ST75 strains have emerged in 4 countries and may now be widespread in Asia.

EID Tu Y, Chen B, Hong Y, Liao Y, Chen Y, Liu Y, et al. Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Sequence Type 75 in Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):164-166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190934
AMA Tu Y, Chen B, Hong Y, et al. Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Sequence Type 75 in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):164-166. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190934.
APA Tu, Y., Chen, B., Hong, Y., Liao, Y., Chen, Y., Liu, Y....Chiou, C. (2020). Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Sequence Type 75 in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 164-166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190934.

Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and Death among 32 Patients with MERS-CoV Infection, Saudi Arabia [PDF - 398 KB - 3 pages]
K. H. Alanazi et al.

Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are recognized risk factors for severe clinical outcomes, including death, associated with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Among 32 virus-infected patients in Saudi Arabia, severity of illness and frequency of death corresponded closely with presence of multiple and more severe underlying conditions.

EID Alanazi KH, Abedi GR, Midgley CM, Alkhamis A, Alsaqer T, Almoaddi A, et al. Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and Death among 32 Patients with MERS-CoV Infection, Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):166-168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190952
AMA Alanazi KH, Abedi GR, Midgley CM, et al. Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and Death among 32 Patients with MERS-CoV Infection, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):166-168. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190952.
APA Alanazi, K. H., Abedi, G. R., Midgley, C. M., Alkhamis, A., Alsaqer, T., Almoaddi, A....Watson, J. T. (2020). Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and Death among 32 Patients with MERS-CoV Infection, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 166-168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190952.

Influenza D Virus of New Phylogenetic Lineage, Japan [PDF - 913 KB - 4 pages]
S. Murakami et al.

Influenza D virus (IDV) can potentially cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We isolated a new IDV strain from diseased cattle in Japan; this strain is phylogenetically and antigenically distinguished from the previously described IDVs.

EID Murakami S, Sato R, Ishida H, Katayama M, Takenaka-Uema A, Horimoto T. Influenza D Virus of New Phylogenetic Lineage, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):168-171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191092
AMA Murakami S, Sato R, Ishida H, et al. Influenza D Virus of New Phylogenetic Lineage, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):168-171. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191092.
APA Murakami, S., Sato, R., Ishida, H., Katayama, M., Takenaka-Uema, A., & Horimoto, T. (2020). Influenza D Virus of New Phylogenetic Lineage, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 168-171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191092.

Diagnosis of Syphilitic Bilateral Papillitis Mimicking Papilloedema [PDF - 258 KB - 3 pages]
A. Gonzalez-Martinez et al.

Syphilis produces myriad nonspecific signs and symptoms. For example, optic disk swelling might be seen in patients with syphilis as a result of cranial hypertension (papilloedema), inflammatory optic neuritis with papillitis, or optic perineuritis. We report a case involving differential diagnosis of syphilitic bilateral papillitis mimicking papilloedema.

EID Gonzalez-Martinez A, Quintas S, Vivancos D, Cebrián J, Vivancos J. Diagnosis of Syphilitic Bilateral Papillitis Mimicking Papilloedema. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):171-173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191122
AMA Gonzalez-Martinez A, Quintas S, Vivancos D, et al. Diagnosis of Syphilitic Bilateral Papillitis Mimicking Papilloedema. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):171-173. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191122.
APA Gonzalez-Martinez, A., Quintas, S., Vivancos, D., Cebrián, J., & Vivancos, J. (2020). Diagnosis of Syphilitic Bilateral Papillitis Mimicking Papilloedema. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 171-173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191122.

Influenza A Virus Infections in Dromedary Camels, Nigeria and Ethiopia, 2015–2017 [PDF - 1.41 MB - 4 pages]
D. Chu et al.

We examined nasal swabs and serum samples acquired from dromedary camels in Nigeria and Ethiopia during 2015–2017 for evidence of influenza virus infection. We detected antibodies against influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) viruses and isolated an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09–like virus from a camel in Nigeria. Influenza surveillance in dromedary camels is needed.

EID Chu D, Perera R, Ali A, Oladipo JO, Mamo G, So R, et al. Influenza A Virus Infections in Dromedary Camels, Nigeria and Ethiopia, 2015–2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):173-176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191165
AMA Chu D, Perera R, Ali A, et al. Influenza A Virus Infections in Dromedary Camels, Nigeria and Ethiopia, 2015–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):173-176. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191165.
APA Chu, D., Perera, R., Ali, A., Oladipo, J. O., Mamo, G., So, R....Peiris, M. (2020). Influenza A Virus Infections in Dromedary Camels, Nigeria and Ethiopia, 2015–2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 173-176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191165.

Bovine Kobuvirus in Calves with Diarrhea, United States [PDF - 820 KB - 3 pages]
L. Wang et al.

We detected bovine kobuvirus (BKV) in calves with diarrhea in the United States. The strain identified is related genetically to BKVs detected in other countries. Histopathologic findings also confirmed viral infection in 2 BKV cases. Our data show BKV is a potential causative agent for diarrhea in calves.

EID Wang L, Fredrickson R, Duncan M, Samuelson J, Hsiao S. Bovine Kobuvirus in Calves with Diarrhea, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):176-178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191227
AMA Wang L, Fredrickson R, Duncan M, et al. Bovine Kobuvirus in Calves with Diarrhea, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):176-178. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191227.
APA Wang, L., Fredrickson, R., Duncan, M., Samuelson, J., & Hsiao, S. (2020). Bovine Kobuvirus in Calves with Diarrhea, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 176-178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191227.

Imported Schistosomiasis, China, 2010–2018 [PDF - 255 KB - 2 pages]
S. Dai et al.

China has made remarkable progress in reducing schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum over the past 7 decades but now faces a severe threat from imported schistosomiasis. Results from national surveillance during 2010–2018 indicate integrating active surveillance into current surveillance models for imported cases is urgently needed to achieve schistosomiasis elimination in China.

EID Dai S, Guan Z, Zhang L, Lv S, Cao C, Li S, et al. Imported Schistosomiasis, China, 2010–2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):179-180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191250
AMA Dai S, Guan Z, Zhang L, et al. Imported Schistosomiasis, China, 2010–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):179-180. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191250.
APA Dai, S., Guan, Z., Zhang, L., Lv, S., Cao, C., Li, S....Xu, J. (2020). Imported Schistosomiasis, China, 2010–2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 179-180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191250.

Rare Case of Enteric Ancylostoma caninum Hookworm Infection, South Korea [PDF - 1.02 MB - 3 pages]
B. Jung et al.

A 60-year-old man from South Korea underwent a colonoscopy. A juvenile female worm showing 3 pairs of teeth in the buccal cavity was recovered from the descending colon. Partial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region showed 100% identity with Ancylostoma caninum, the dog hookworm.

EID Jung B, Lee J, Chang T, Song H, Chai J. Rare Case of Enteric Ancylostoma caninum Hookworm Infection, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):181-183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191335
AMA Jung B, Lee J, Chang T, et al. Rare Case of Enteric Ancylostoma caninum Hookworm Infection, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):181-183. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191335.
APA Jung, B., Lee, J., Chang, T., Song, H., & Chai, J. (2020). Rare Case of Enteric Ancylostoma caninum Hookworm Infection, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 181-183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191335.
Letters

Vaccine Effectiveness against DS-1–Like Rotavirus Strains [PDF - 182 KB - 1 page]
T. Nakagomi
EID Nakagomi T. Vaccine Effectiveness against DS-1–Like Rotavirus Strains. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191377
AMA Nakagomi T. Vaccine Effectiveness against DS-1–Like Rotavirus Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):184. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191377.
APA Nakagomi, T. (2020). Vaccine Effectiveness against DS-1–Like Rotavirus Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191377.
In Memoriam

In Memoriam: Jay Stephen Keystone (1943–2019) [PDF - 545 KB - 2 pages]
D. O. Freedman
EID Freedman DO. In Memoriam: Jay Stephen Keystone (1943–2019). Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):185-186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191500
AMA Freedman DO. In Memoriam: Jay Stephen Keystone (1943–2019). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):185-186. doi:10.3201/eid2601.191500.
APA Freedman, D. O. (2020). In Memoriam: Jay Stephen Keystone (1943–2019). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 185-186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.191500.
About the Cover

Hunters Searching among Starry Nights and at the Edges of Life [PDF - 1.16 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. Hunters Searching among Starry Nights and at the Edges of Life. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):187-188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.ac2601
AMA Breedlove B. Hunters Searching among Starry Nights and at the Edges of Life. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):187-188. doi:10.3201/eid2601.ac2601.
APA Breedlove, B. (2020). Hunters Searching among Starry Nights and at the Edges of Life. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 187-188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.ac2601.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Picobirnavirus [PDF - 379 KB - 1 page]
Y. S. Malik and S. Ghosh
EID Malik YS, Ghosh S. Etymologia: Picobirnavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):89. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.et2601
AMA Malik YS, Ghosh S. Etymologia: Picobirnavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):89. doi:10.3201/eid2601.et2601.
APA Malik, Y. S., & Ghosh, S. (2020). Etymologia: Picobirnavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 89. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.et2601.
Online Reports

Plans for Nationwide Serosurveillance Network in Vietnam [PDF - 265 KB - 6 pages]
D. Anh et al.

In recent years, serosurveillance has gained momentum as a way of determining disease transmission and immunity in populations, particularly with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases. At the end of 2017, the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit and the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology held a meeting in Vietnam with national policy makers, researchers, and international experts to discuss current seroepidemiologic projects in Vietnam and future needs and plans for nationwide serosurveillance. This report summarizes the meeting and the plans that were discussed to set up nationwide serosurveillance in Vietnam.

EID Anh D, Choisy M, Clapham HE, Cuong H, Dung V, Duong T, et al. Plans for Nationwide Serosurveillance Network in Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(1):1-6. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190641
AMA Anh D, Choisy M, Clapham HE, et al. Plans for Nationwide Serosurveillance Network in Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020;26(1):1-6. doi:10.3201/eid2601.190641.
APA Anh, D., Choisy, M., Clapham, H. E., Cuong, H., Dung, V., Duong, T....Rogier van Doorn, H. (2020). Plans for Nationwide Serosurveillance Network in Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 1-6. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.190641.
Conference Summaries

Data Behind Vaccine Hesitancy and Latest Updates on Vaccines in the Pipeline—2019 Annual Conference on Vaccinology Research, April 3–5, 2019
W. Schaffner et al.
Page created: December 18, 2019
Page updated: December 18, 2019
Page reviewed: December 18, 2019
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