Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Emerging Infectious Diseases journal

Synopses

  • Added Value of Next-Generation Sequencing for Multilocus Sequence Typing Analysis of a Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia Outbreak PDF Version [PDF - 1.24 MB - 9 pages]
    E. Charpentier et al.
        View Abstract

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a major threat for immunocompromised patients, and clusters of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) have been increasingly described in transplant units during the past decade. Exploring an outbreak transmission network requires complementary spatiotemporal and strain-typing approaches. We analyzed a PCP outbreak and demonstrated the added value of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) study of P. jirovecii strains. Thirty-two PCP patients were included. Among the 12 solid organ transplant patients, 5 shared a major and unique genotype that was also found as a minor strain in a sixth patient. A transmission map analysis strengthened the suspicion of nosocomial acquisition of this strain for the 6 patients. NGS-MLST enables accurate determination of subpopulation, which allowed excluding other patients from the transmission network. NGS-MLST genotyping approach was essential to deciphering this outbreak. This innovative approach brings new insights for future epidemiologic studies on this uncultivable opportunistic fungus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Charpentier E, Garnaud C, Wintenberger C, Bailly S, Murat J, Rendu J, et al. Added Value of Next-Generation Sequencing for Multilocus Sequence Typing Analysis of a Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1237-1245. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161295
    AMA Charpentier E, Garnaud C, Wintenberger C, et al. Added Value of Next-Generation Sequencing for Multilocus Sequence Typing Analysis of a Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1237-1245. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161295.
    APA Charpentier, E., Garnaud, C., Wintenberger, C., Bailly, S., Murat, J., Rendu, J....Maubon, D. (2017). Added Value of Next-Generation Sequencing for Multilocus Sequence Typing Analysis of a Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1237-1245. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161295.
        Email Email this Article
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Bartonella quintana, an Unrecognized Cause of Infective Endocarditis in Children in Ethiopia PDF Version [PDF - 1.01 MB - 7 pages]
    D. Tasher et al.
    View Summary

    Infection is probably not uncommon in those with heart defects, and diagnosis should be considered for patients with culture-negative endocarditis.

        View Abstract

    Bartonella quintana endocarditis, a common cause of culture-negative endocarditis in adults, has rarely been reported in children. We describe 5 patients 7–16 years of age from Ethiopia with heart defects and endocarditis; 4 cases were caused by infection with B. quintana and 1 by Bartonella of undetermined species. All 5 patients were afebrile and oligosymptomatic, although 3 had heart failure. C-reactive protein was normal or slightly elevated, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high. The diagnosis was confirmed by echocardiographic demonstration of vegetations, the presence of high Bartonella IgG titers, and identification of B. quintana DNA in excised vegetations. Embolic events were diagnosed in 2 patients. Our data suggest that B. quintana is not an uncommon cause of native valve endocarditis in children in Ethiopia with heart defects and that possible B. quintana infection should be suspected and pursued among residents of and immigrants from East Africa, including Ethiopia, with culture-negative endocarditis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tasher D, Raucher-Sternfeld A, Tamir A, Giladi M, Somekh E. Bartonella quintana, an Unrecognized Cause of Infective Endocarditis in Children in Ethiopia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1246-1252. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161037
    AMA Tasher D, Raucher-Sternfeld A, Tamir A, et al. Bartonella quintana, an Unrecognized Cause of Infective Endocarditis in Children in Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1246-1252. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161037.
    APA Tasher, D., Raucher-Sternfeld, A., Tamir, A., Giladi, M., & Somekh, E. (2017). Bartonella quintana, an Unrecognized Cause of Infective Endocarditis in Children in Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1246-1252. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161037.
        Email Email this Article
  • Characteristics of Dysphagia in Infants with Microcephaly Caused by Congenital Zika Virus Infection, Brazil, 2015 PDF Version [PDF - 844 KB - 7 pages]
    M. C. Leal et al.
    View Summary

    Oral motor dysfunction begins after 3 months of age and is severe.

        View Abstract

    We summarize the characteristics of dysphagia in 9 infants in Brazil with microcephaly caused by congenital Zika virus infection. The Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, and the videofluoroscopic swallowing study were used as noninstrumental and instrumental assessments. All infants had a degree of neurologic damage and showed abnormalities in the oral phase. Of the 9 infants, 8 lacked oral and upper respiratory tract sensitivity, leading to delays in initiation of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Those delays, combined with marked oral dysfunction, increased the risk for aspiration of food, particularly liquid foods. Dysphagia resulting from congenital Zika virus syndrome microcephaly can develop in infants >3 months of age and is severe.

        Cite This Article
    EID Leal MC, van der Linden V, Bezerra TP, de Valois L, Borges A, Antunes M, et al. Characteristics of Dysphagia in Infants with Microcephaly Caused by Congenital Zika Virus Infection, Brazil, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1253-1259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170354
    AMA Leal MC, van der Linden V, Bezerra TP, et al. Characteristics of Dysphagia in Infants with Microcephaly Caused by Congenital Zika Virus Infection, Brazil, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1253-1259. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170354.
    APA Leal, M. C., van der Linden, V., Bezerra, T. P., de Valois, L., Borges, A., Antunes, M....Ximenes, C. R. (2017). Characteristics of Dysphagia in Infants with Microcephaly Caused by Congenital Zika Virus Infection, Brazil, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1253-1259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170354.
        Email Email this Article
  • Zika Virus Infection in Patient with No Known Risk Factors, Utah, USA, 2016 PDF Version [PDF - 1.04 MB - 8 pages]
    E. R. Krow-Lucal et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2016, Zika virus disease developed in a man (patient A) who had no known risk factors beyond caring for a relative who died of this disease (index patient). We investigated the source of infection for patient A by surveying other family contacts, healthcare personnel, and community members, and testing samples for Zika virus. We identified 19 family contacts who had similar exposures to the index patient; 86 healthcare personnel had contact with the index patient, including 57 (66%) who had contact with body fluids. Of 218 community members interviewed, 28 (13%) reported signs/symptoms and 132 (61%) provided a sample. Except for patient A, no other persons tested had laboratory evidence of recent Zika virus infection. Of 5,875 mosquitoes collected, none were known vectors of Zika virus and all were negative for Zika virus. The mechanism of transmission to patient A remains unknown but was likely person-to-person contact with the index patient.

        Cite This Article
    EID Krow-Lucal ER, Novosad SA, Dunn AC, Brent CR, Savage HM, Faraji A, et al. Zika Virus Infection in Patient with No Known Risk Factors, Utah, USA, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1260-1267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170479
    AMA Krow-Lucal ER, Novosad SA, Dunn AC, et al. Zika Virus Infection in Patient with No Known Risk Factors, Utah, USA, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1260-1267. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170479.
    APA Krow-Lucal, E. R., Novosad, S. A., Dunn, A. C., Brent, C. R., Savage, H. M., Faraji, A....Nakashima, A. K. (2017). Zika Virus Infection in Patient with No Known Risk Factors, Utah, USA, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1260-1267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170479.
        Email Email this Article
  • Acute Febrile Illness and Complications Due to Murine Typhus, Texas, USA, PDF Version [PDF - 911 KB - 6 pages]
    Z. Afzal et al.
        View Abstract

    Murine typhus occurs relatively commonly in southern Texas, as well as in California. We reviewed records of 90 adults and children in whom murine typhus was diagnosed during a 3-year period in 2 hospitals in southern Texas, USA. Most patients lacked notable comorbidities; all were immunocompetent. Initial signs and symptoms included fever (99%), malaise (82%), headache (77%), fatigue (70%), myalgias (68%), and rash (39%). Complications, often severe, in 28% of patients included bronchiolitis, pneumonia, meningitis, septic shock, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, myositis, and rhabdomyolysis; the last 3 are previously unreported in murine typhus. Low serum albumin and elevated procalcitonin, consistent with bacterial sepsis, were observed in >70% of cases. Rash was more common in children; thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, elevated hepatic transaminases, and complications were more frequent in adults. Murine typhus should be considered as a diagnostic possibility in cases of acute febrile illness in southern and even in more northern US states.

        Cite This Article
    EID Afzal Z, Kallumadanda S, Wang F, Hemmige V, Musher D. Acute Febrile Illness and Complications Due to Murine Typhus, Texas, USA,. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1268-1273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161861
    AMA Afzal Z, Kallumadanda S, Wang F, et al. Acute Febrile Illness and Complications Due to Murine Typhus, Texas, USA,. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1268-1273. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161861.
    APA Afzal, Z., Kallumadanda, S., Wang, F., Hemmige, V., & Musher, D. (2017). Acute Febrile Illness and Complications Due to Murine Typhus, Texas, USA,. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1268-1273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161861.
        Email Email this Article

Research

  • High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus PDF Version [PDF - 750 KB - 7 pages]
    A. D. Haddow et al.
        View Abstract

    Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present.

        Cite This Article
    EID Haddow AD, Nalca A, Rossi FD, Miller LJ, Wiley MR, Perez-Sautu U, et al. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1274-1281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170036
    AMA Haddow AD, Nalca A, Rossi FD, et al. High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1274-1281. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170036.
    APA Haddow, A. D., Nalca, A., Rossi, F. D., Miller, L. J., Wiley, M. R., Perez-Sautu, U....Nasar, F. (2017). High Infection Rates for Adult Macaques after Intravaginal or Intrarectal Inoculation with Zika Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1274-1281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170036.
        Email Email this Article
  • Lyme Borreliosis in Finland, 1995–2014 PDF Version [PDF - 2.10 MB - 7 pages]
    E. Sajanti et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated the epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis (LB) in Finland for the period 1995–2014 by using data from 3 different healthcare registers. We reviewed data on disseminated LB cases from the National Infectious Diseases Register (21,051 cases) and the National Hospital Discharge Register (10,402 cases) and data on primary LB (erythema migrans) cases from the Register for Primary Health Care Visits (11,793 cases). Incidence of microbiologically confirmed disseminated LB cases increased from 7/100,000 population in 1995 to 31/100,000 in 2014. Incidence of primary LB cases increased from 44/100,000 in 2011 to 61/100,000 in 2014. Overall, cases occurred predominantly in women, and we observed a bimodal age distribution in all 3 registers. Our results clearly demonstrate that the geographic distribution of LB has expanded in Finland and underscore the importance of LB as an increasing public health concern in Finland and in northern Europe in general.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sajanti E, Virtanen M, Helve O, Kuusi M, Lyytikäinen O, Hytönen J, et al. Lyme Borreliosis in Finland, 1995–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1282-1288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161273
    AMA Sajanti E, Virtanen M, Helve O, et al. Lyme Borreliosis in Finland, 1995–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1282-1288. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161273.
    APA Sajanti, E., Virtanen, M., Helve, O., Kuusi, M., Lyytikäinen, O., Hytönen, J....Sane, J. (2017). Lyme Borreliosis in Finland, 1995–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1282-1288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161273.
        Email Email this Article
  • Characterization of Fitzroy River Virus and Serologic Evidence of Human and Animal Infection PDF Version [PDF - 2.15 MB - 11 pages]
    C. A. Johansen et al.
        View Abstract

    In northern Western Australia in 2011 and 2012, surveillance detected a novel arbovirus in mosquitoes. Genetic and phenotypic analyses confirmed that the new flavivirus, named Fitzroy River virus, is related to Sepik virus and Wesselsbron virus, in the yellow fever virus group. Most (81%) isolates came from Aedes normanensis mosquitoes, providing circumstantial evidence of the probable vector. In cell culture, Fitzroy River virus replicated in mosquito (C6/36), mammalian (Vero, PSEK, and BSR), and avian (DF-1) cells. It also infected intraperitoneally inoculated weanling mice and caused mild clinical disease in 3 intracranially inoculated mice. Specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in sentinel horses (12.6%), cattle (6.6%), and chickens (0.5%) in the Northern Territory of Australia and in a subset of humans (0.8%) from northern Western Australia.

        Cite This Article
    EID Johansen CA, Williams SH, Melville L, Nicholson J, Hall RA, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, et al. Characterization of Fitzroy River Virus and Serologic Evidence of Human and Animal Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1289-1299. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161440
    AMA Johansen CA, Williams SH, Melville L, et al. Characterization of Fitzroy River Virus and Serologic Evidence of Human and Animal Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1289-1299. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161440.
    APA Johansen, C. A., Williams, S. H., Melville, L., Nicholson, J., Hall, R. A., Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H....Smith, D. W. (2017). Characterization of Fitzroy River Virus and Serologic Evidence of Human and Animal Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1289-1299. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161440.
        Email Email this Article
  • Genomic Characterization of Recrudescent Plasmodium malariae after Treatment with Artemether/Lumefantrine PDF Version [PDF - 3.39 MB - 8 pages]
    G. G. Rutledge et al.
        View Abstract

    Plasmodium malariae is the only human malaria parasite species with a 72-hour intraerythrocytic cycle and the ability to persist in the host for life. We present a case of a P. malariae infection with clinical recrudescence after directly observed administration of artemether/lumefantrine. By using whole-genome sequencing, we show that the initial infection was polyclonal and the recrudescent isolate was a single clone present at low density in the initial infection. Haplotypic analysis of the clones in the initial infection revealed that they were all closely related and were presumably recombinant progeny originating from the same infective mosquito bite. We review possible explanations for the P. malariae treatment failure and conclude that a 3-day artemether/lumefantrine regimen is suboptimal for this species because of its long asexual life cycle.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rutledge GG, Marr I, Huang G, Auburn S, Marfurt J, Sanders M, et al. Genomic Characterization of Recrudescent Plasmodium malariae after Treatment with Artemether/Lumefantrine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1300-1307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161582
    AMA Rutledge GG, Marr I, Huang G, et al. Genomic Characterization of Recrudescent Plasmodium malariae after Treatment with Artemether/Lumefantrine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1300-1307. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161582.
    APA Rutledge, G. G., Marr, I., Huang, G., Auburn, S., Marfurt, J., Sanders, M....Price, R. N. (2017). Genomic Characterization of Recrudescent Plasmodium malariae after Treatment with Artemether/Lumefantrine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1300-1307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161582.
        Email Email this Article
  • Molecular Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Outbreak Isolates, South Africa, March–June 2015 PDF Version [PDF - 1.20 MB - 8 pages]
    M. du Plessis et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2015, a cluster of respiratory diphtheria cases was reported from KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa. By using whole-genome analysis, we characterized 21 Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates collected from 20 patients and contacts during the outbreak (1 patient was infected with 2 variants of C. diphtheriae). In addition, we included 1 cutaneous isolate, 2 endocarditis isolates, and 2 archived clinical isolates (ca. 1980) for comparison. Two novel lineages were identified, namely, toxigenic sequence type (ST) ST-378 (n = 17) and nontoxigenic ST-395 (n = 3). One archived isolate and the cutaneous isolate were ST-395, suggesting ongoing circulation of this lineage for >30 years. The absence of preexisting molecular sequence data limits drawing conclusions pertaining to the origin of these strains; however, these findings provide baseline genotypic data for future cases and outbreaks. Neither ST has been reported in any other country; this ST appears to be endemic only in South Africa.

        Cite This Article
    EID du Plessis M, Wolter N, Allam M, de Gouveia L, Moosa F, Ntshoe G, et al. Molecular Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Outbreak Isolates, South Africa, March–June 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1308-1315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.162039
    AMA du Plessis M, Wolter N, Allam M, et al. Molecular Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Outbreak Isolates, South Africa, March–June 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1308-1315. doi:10.3201/eid2308.162039.
    APA du Plessis, M., Wolter, N., Allam, M., de Gouveia, L., Moosa, F., Ntshoe, G....von Gottberg, A. (2017). Molecular Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Outbreak Isolates, South Africa, March–June 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1308-1315. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.162039.
        Email Email this Article
  • Clinical Laboratory Values as Early Indicators of Ebola Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates PDF Version [PDF - 1.15 MB - 9 pages]
    R. B. Reisler et al.
        View Abstract

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa during 2013–2016 demonstrated the need to improve Ebola virus disease (EVD) diagnostics and standards of care. This retrospective study compared laboratory values and clinical features of 3 nonhuman primate models of lethal EVD to assess associations with improved survival time. In addition, the study identified laboratory values useful as predictors of survival, surrogates for EBOV viral loads, and triggers for initiation of therapeutic interventions in these nonhuman primate models. Furthermore, the data support that, in nonhuman primates, the Makona strain of EBOV may be less virulent than the Kikwit strain of EBOV. The applicability of these findings as potential diagnostic and management tools for EVD in humans warrants further investigation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Reisler RB, Yu C, Donofrio MJ, Warren TK, Wells JB, Stuthman KS, et al. Clinical Laboratory Values as Early Indicators of Ebola Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1316-1324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170029
    AMA Reisler RB, Yu C, Donofrio MJ, et al. Clinical Laboratory Values as Early Indicators of Ebola Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1316-1324. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170029.
    APA Reisler, R. B., Yu, C., Donofrio, M. J., Warren, T. K., Wells, J. B., Stuthman, K. S....Cardile, A. P. (2017). Clinical Laboratory Values as Early Indicators of Ebola Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1316-1324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170029.
        Email Email this Article
  • Maguari Virus Associated with Human Disease PDF Version [PDF - 2.28 MB - 6 pages]
    A. Groseth et al.
        View Abstract

    Despite the lack of evidence for symptomatic human infection with Maguari virus (MAGV), its close relation to Cache Valley virus (CVV), which does infect humans, remains a concern. We sequenced the complete genome of a MAGV-like isolate (OBS6657) obtained from a febrile patient in Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru, in 1998. To facilitate its classification, we generated additional full-length sequences for the MAGV prototype strain, 3 additional MAGV-like isolates, and the closely related CVV (7 strains), Tlacotalpan (1 strain), Playas (3 strains), and Fort Sherman (1 strain) viruses. The OBS6657 isolate is similar to the MAGV prototype, whereas 2 of the other MAGV-like isolates are located on a distinct branch and most likely warrant classification as a separate virus species and 1 is, in fact, a misclassified CVV strain. Our findings provide clear evidence that MAGV can cause human disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Groseth A, Vine V, Weisend C, Guevara C, Watts D, Russell B, et al. Maguari Virus Associated with Human Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1325-1331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161254
    AMA Groseth A, Vine V, Weisend C, et al. Maguari Virus Associated with Human Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1325-1331. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161254.
    APA Groseth, A., Vine, V., Weisend, C., Guevara, C., Watts, D., Russell, B....Ebihara, H. (2017). Maguari Virus Associated with Human Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1325-1331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161254.
        Email Email this Article
  • Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China PDF Version [PDF - 2.04 MB - 9 pages]
    C. Ke et al.
        View Abstract

    The recent increase in zoonotic avian influenza A(H7N9) disease in China is a cause of public health concern. Most of the A(H7N9) viruses previously reported have been of low pathogenicity. We report the fatal case of a patient in China who was infected with an A(H7N9) virus having a polybasic amino acid sequence at its hemagglutinin cleavage site (PEVPKRKRTAR/GL), a sequence suggestive of high pathogenicity in birds. Its neuraminidase also had R292K, an amino acid change known to be associated with neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. Both of these molecular features might have contributed to the patient’s adverse clinical outcome. The patient had a history of exposure to sick and dying poultry, and his close contacts had no evidence of A(H7N9) disease, suggesting human-to-human transmission did not occur. Enhanced surveillance is needed to determine whether this highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus will continue to spread.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ke C, Mok C, Zhu W, Zhou H, He J, Guan W, et al. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1332-1340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170600
    AMA Ke C, Mok C, Zhu W, et al. Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1332-1340. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170600.
    APA Ke, C., Mok, C., Zhu, W., Zhou, H., He, J., Guan, W....Peiris, J. (2017). Human Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1332-1340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170600.
        Email Email this Article
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Human Metapneumovirus and Other Respiratory Viral Infections during Pregnancy and Birth, Nepal PDF Version [PDF - 897 KB - 9 pages]
    J. L. Lenahan et al.
    View Summary

    Women infected with human metapneumovirus during pregnancy had an increased risk of delivering infants who were small for gestational age.

        View Abstract

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a respiratory virus that can cause severe lower respiratory tract disease and even death, primarily in young children. The incidence and characteristics of HMPV have not been well described in pregnant women. As part of a trial of maternal influenza immunization in rural southern Nepal, we conducted prospective, longitudinal, home-based active surveillance for febrile respiratory illness during pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. During 2011–2014, HMPV was detected in 55 of 3,693 women (16.4 cases/1,000 person-years). Twenty-five women were infected with HMPV during pregnancy, compared with 98 pregnant women who contracted rhinovirus and 7 who contracted respiratory syncytial virus. Women with HMPV during pregnancy had an increased risk of giving birth to infants who were small for gestational age. An intervention to reduce HMPV febrile respiratory illness in pregnant women may have the potential to decrease risk of adverse birth outcomes in developing countries.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lenahan JL, Englund JA, Katz J, Kuypers J, Wald A, Magaret A, et al. Human Metapneumovirus and Other Respiratory Viral Infections during Pregnancy and Birth, Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1341-1349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161358
    AMA Lenahan JL, Englund JA, Katz J, et al. Human Metapneumovirus and Other Respiratory Viral Infections during Pregnancy and Birth, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1341-1349. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161358.
    APA Lenahan, J. L., Englund, J. A., Katz, J., Kuypers, J., Wald, A., Magaret, A....Chu, H. Y. (2017). Human Metapneumovirus and Other Respiratory Viral Infections during Pregnancy and Birth, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1341-1349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161358.
        Email Email this Article

Dispatches

  • Preliminary Epidemiology of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017 PDF Version [PDF - 2.31 MB - 5 pages]
    L. Zhou et al.
        View Abstract

    We compared the characteristics of cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N9) virus infections in China. HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients were more likely to have had exposure to sick and dead poultry in rural areas and were hospitalized earlier than were LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zhou L, Tan Y, Kang M, Liu F, Ren R, Wang Y, et al. Preliminary Epidemiology of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1355-1359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170640
    AMA Zhou L, Tan Y, Kang M, et al. Preliminary Epidemiology of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1355-1359. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170640.
    APA Zhou, L., Tan, Y., Kang, M., Liu, F., Ren, R., Wang, Y....Li, Q. (2017). Preliminary Epidemiology of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1355-1359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170640.
        Email Email this Article
  • Global Spread of Norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 308, 2014–2016 PDF Version [PDF - 1.74 MB - 6 pages]
    M. Chan et al.
        View Abstract

    Analysis of complete capsid sequences of the emerging norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 308 from 13 countries demonstrated that they originated from a single haplotype since the initial emergence in China in late 2014. Global spread of a sublineage SL2 was identified. A new sublineage SL3 emerged in China in 2016.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chan M, Hu Y, Chen H, Podkolzin AT, Zaytseva EV, Komano J, et al. Global Spread of Norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 308, 2014–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1359-1354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161138
    AMA Chan M, Hu Y, Chen H, et al. Global Spread of Norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 308, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1359-1354. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161138.
    APA Chan, M., Hu, Y., Chen, H., Podkolzin, A. T., Zaytseva, E. V., Komano, J....Chan, P. (2017). Global Spread of Norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 308, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1359-1354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161138.
        Email Email this Article
  • Real-Time Evolution of Zika Virus Disease Outbreak, Roatán, Honduras PDF Version [PDF - 1.22 MB - 4 pages]
    T. Brooks et al.
        View Abstract

    A Zika virus disease outbreak occurred in Roatán, Honduras, during September 2015–July 2016. Blood samples and clinical information were obtained from 183 patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue virus infection. A total of 79 patients were positive for Zika virus, 13 for chikungunya virus, and 6 for dengue virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Brooks T, Roy-Burman A, Tuholske C, Busch MP, Bakkour S, Stone M, et al. Real-Time Evolution of Zika Virus Disease Outbreak, Roatán, Honduras. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1360-1363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161944
    AMA Brooks T, Roy-Burman A, Tuholske C, et al. Real-Time Evolution of Zika Virus Disease Outbreak, Roatán, Honduras. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1360-1363. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161944.
    APA Brooks, T., Roy-Burman, A., Tuholske, C., Busch, M. P., Bakkour, S., Stone, M....Bloch, E. M. (2017). Real-Time Evolution of Zika Virus Disease Outbreak, Roatán, Honduras. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1360-1363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161944.
        Email Email this Article
  • Clonal Expansion of New Penicillin-Resistant Clade of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Clonal Complex 11, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 1.23 MB - 4 pages]
    S. Mowlaboccus et al.
        View Abstract

    In Western Australia, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W clonal complex 11 became the predominant cause of invasive meningococcal disease in 2016. We used core-genome analysis to show emergence of a penicillin-resistant clade that had the penA_253 allele. This new penicillin-resistant clade might affect treatment regimens for this disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mowlaboccus S, Jolley KA, Bray JE, Pang S, Lee Y, Bew JD, et al. Clonal Expansion of New Penicillin-Resistant Clade of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Clonal Complex 11, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1364-1367. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170259
    AMA Mowlaboccus S, Jolley KA, Bray JE, et al. Clonal Expansion of New Penicillin-Resistant Clade of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Clonal Complex 11, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1364-1367. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170259.
    APA Mowlaboccus, S., Jolley, K. A., Bray, J. E., Pang, S., Lee, Y., Bew, J. D....Kahler, C. M. (2017). Clonal Expansion of New Penicillin-Resistant Clade of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Clonal Complex 11, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1364-1367. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170259.
        Email Email this Article
  • Genesis of Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses PDF Version [PDF - 1.88 MB - 4 pages]
    R. El-Shesheny et al.
        View Abstract

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) clade 2.3.4.4 virus emerged in 2016 and spread to Russia, Europe, and Africa. Our analysis of viruses from domestic ducks at Tanguar haor, Bangladesh, showed genetic similarities with other viruses from wild birds in central Asia, suggesting their potential role in the genesis of A(H5N8).

        Cite This Article
    EID El-Shesheny R, Barman S, Feeroz MM, Hasan M, Jones-Engel L, Franks J, et al. Genesis of Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1368-1371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170143
    AMA El-Shesheny R, Barman S, Feeroz MM, et al. Genesis of Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1368-1371. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170143.
    APA El-Shesheny, R., Barman, S., Feeroz, M. M., Hasan, M., Jones-Engel, L., Franks, J....Webster, R. G. (2017). Genesis of Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1368-1371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170143.
        Email Email this Article
  • West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014 PDF Version [PDF - 1.38 MB - 5 pages]
    D. Martinez et al.
        View Abstract

    Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season.

        Cite This Article
    EID Martinez D, Murray KO, Reyna M, Arafat RR, Gorena R, Shah UA, et al. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1372-1376. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170384
    AMA Martinez D, Murray KO, Reyna M, et al. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1372-1376. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170384.
    APA Martinez, D., Murray, K. O., Reyna, M., Arafat, R. R., Gorena, R., Shah, U. A....Debboun, M. (2017). West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1372-1376. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170384.
        Email Email this Article
  • Density-Dependent Prevalence of Francisella tularensis in Fluctuating Vole Populations, Northwestern Spain PDF Version [PDF - 497 KB - 3 pages]
    R. Rodríguez-Pastor et al.
        View Abstract

    Tularemia in humans in northwestern Spain is associated with increases in vole populations. Prevalence of infection with Francisella tularensis in common voles increased to 33% during a vole population fluctuation. This finding confirms that voles are spillover agents for zoonotic outbreaks. Ecologic interactions associated with tularemia prevention should be considered.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rodríguez-Pastor R, Escudero R, Vidal D, Mougeot F, Arroyo B, Lambin X, et al. Density-Dependent Prevalence of Francisella tularensis in Fluctuating Vole Populations, Northwestern Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1377-1379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161194
    AMA Rodríguez-Pastor R, Escudero R, Vidal D, et al. Density-Dependent Prevalence of Francisella tularensis in Fluctuating Vole Populations, Northwestern Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1377-1379. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161194.
    APA Rodríguez-Pastor, R., Escudero, R., Vidal, D., Mougeot, F., Arroyo, B., Lambin, X....Luque-Larena, J. J. (2017). Density-Dependent Prevalence of Francisella tularensis in Fluctuating Vole Populations, Northwestern Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1377-1379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161194.
        Email Email this Article
  • Occupational Exposures to Ebola Virus in Ebola Treatment Center, Conakry, Guinea PDF Version [PDF - 830 KB - 4 pages]
    H. Savini et al.
        View Abstract

    We report 77 cases of occupational exposures for 57 healthcare workers at the Ebola Treatment Center in Conakry, Guinea, during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in 2014−2015. Despite the high incidence of 3.5 occupational exposures/healthcare worker/year, only 18% of workers were at high risk for transmission, and no infections occurred.

        Cite This Article
    EID Savini H, Janvier F, Karkowski L, Billhot M, Aletti M, Bordes J, et al. Occupational Exposures to Ebola Virus in Ebola Treatment Center, Conakry, Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1380-1383. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161804
    AMA Savini H, Janvier F, Karkowski L, et al. Occupational Exposures to Ebola Virus in Ebola Treatment Center, Conakry, Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1380-1383. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161804.
    APA Savini, H., Janvier, F., Karkowski, L., Billhot, M., Aletti, M., Bordes, J....Rapp, C. (2017). Occupational Exposures to Ebola Virus in Ebola Treatment Center, Conakry, Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1380-1383. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161804.
        Email Email this Article
  • Serologic Evidence of Powassan Virus Infection in Patients with Suspected Lyme Disease PDF Version [PDF - 1.34 MB - 5 pages]
    H. M. Frost et al.
        View Abstract

    Powassan virus (POWV) lineage II is an emerging tickborne flavivirus with an unknown seroprevalence in humans. In a Lyme disease–endemic area, we examined the seroreactivity to POWV in 2 patient cohorts and described the clinical features of the POWV-seroreactive patients. POWV disease might be less neuroinvasive than previously thought.

        Cite This Article
    EID Frost HM, Schotthoefer AM, Thomm AM, Dupuis AP, Kehl SC, Kramer LD, et al. Serologic Evidence of Powassan Virus Infection in Patients with Suspected Lyme Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1384-1388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161971
    AMA Frost HM, Schotthoefer AM, Thomm AM, et al. Serologic Evidence of Powassan Virus Infection in Patients with Suspected Lyme Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1384-1388. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161971.
    APA Frost, H. M., Schotthoefer, A. M., Thomm, A. M., Dupuis, A. P., Kehl, S. C., Kramer, L. D....Knox, K. K. (2017). Serologic Evidence of Powassan Virus Infection in Patients with Suspected Lyme Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1384-1388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161971.
        Email Email this Article
  • Serologic Evidence of Scrub Typhus in the Peruvian Amazon PDF Version [PDF - 764 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Kocher et al.
        View Abstract

    Using a large, passive, febrile surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we retrospectively tested human blood specimens for scrub typhus group orientiae by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay, and PCR. Of 1,124 participants, 60 (5.3%) were seropositive, and 1 showed evidence of recent active infection. Our serologic data indicate that scrub typhus is present in the Peruvian Amazon.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kocher C, Jiang J, Morrison AC, Castillo R, Leguia M, Loyola S, et al. Serologic Evidence of Scrub Typhus in the Peruvian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1389-1391. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170050
    AMA Kocher C, Jiang J, Morrison AC, et al. Serologic Evidence of Scrub Typhus in the Peruvian Amazon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1389-1391. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170050.
    APA Kocher, C., Jiang, J., Morrison, A. C., Castillo, R., Leguia, M., Loyola, S....Richards, A. L. (2017). Serologic Evidence of Scrub Typhus in the Peruvian Amazon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1389-1391. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170050.
        Email Email this Article
  • Influenza D Virus in Animal Species in Guangdong Province, Southern China PDF Version [PDF - 3.01 MB - 5 pages]
    S. Zhai et al.
        View Abstract

    Molecular tests revealed influenza D viruses of D/OK lineage widely circulating in farmed animal species in Guangdong Province, southern China. In particular, we found high levels of influenza D virus infection in goats and pigs. We also detected viral RNA in serum specimens and feces of animals with certain severe diseases.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zhai S, Zhang H, Chen S, Zhou X, Lin T, Liu R, et al. Influenza D Virus in Animal Species in Guangdong Province, Southern China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1392-1396. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170059
    AMA Zhai S, Zhang H, Chen S, et al. Influenza D Virus in Animal Species in Guangdong Province, Southern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1392-1396. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170059.
    APA Zhai, S., Zhang, H., Chen, S., Zhou, X., Lin, T., Liu, R....Li, F. (2017). Influenza D Virus in Animal Species in Guangdong Province, Southern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1392-1396. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170059.
        Email Email this Article
  • Seroprevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis Infection among Humans, Santa Barbara County, California, USA, 2014–2016 PDF Version [PDF - 1.12 MB - 3 pages]
    S. B. Weinstein et al.
        View Abstract

    Baylisascaris procyonis (raccoon roundworm) infection is common in raccoons and can cause devastating pathology in other animals, including humans. Limited information is available on the frequency of asymptomatic human infection. We tested 150 adults from California, USA, for B. procyonis antibodies; 11 were seropositive, suggesting that subclinical infection does occur.

        Cite This Article
    EID Weinstein SB, Lake CM, Chastain HM, Fisk D, Handali S, Kahn PL, et al. Seroprevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis Infection among Humans, Santa Barbara County, California, USA, 2014–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1397-1399. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170222
    AMA Weinstein SB, Lake CM, Chastain HM, et al. Seroprevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis Infection among Humans, Santa Barbara County, California, USA, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1397-1399. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170222.
    APA Weinstein, S. B., Lake, C. M., Chastain, H. M., Fisk, D., Handali, S., Kahn, P. L....Lafferty, K. D. (2017). Seroprevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis Infection among Humans, Santa Barbara County, California, USA, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1397-1399. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170222.
        Email Email this Article
  • Opiate Injection–Associated Skin, Soft Tissue, and Vascular Infections, England, UK, 1997–2016 PDF Version [PDF - 715 KB - 4 pages]
    D. Lewer et al.
        View Abstract

    In England, UK, hospital admissions caused by bacterial infections associated with opioid use have increased annually since 2012, after 9 years of decline, mirroring trends in overdose deaths. The increase occurred among persons of both sexes and in all age groups and suggests preventive measures need reviewing.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lewer D, Harris M, Hope V. Opiate Injection–Associated Skin, Soft Tissue, and Vascular Infections, England, UK, 1997–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1400-1403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170439
    AMA Lewer D, Harris M, Hope V. Opiate Injection–Associated Skin, Soft Tissue, and Vascular Infections, England, UK, 1997–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1400-1403. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170439.
    APA Lewer, D., Harris, M., & Hope, V. (2017). Opiate Injection–Associated Skin, Soft Tissue, and Vascular Infections, England, UK, 1997–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1400-1403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170439.
        Email Email this Article
  • Risk for Death among Children with Pneumonia, Afghanistan PDF Version [PDF - 1.18 MB - 5 pages]
    R. Zabihullah et al.
        View Abstract

    In Afghanistan, childhood deaths from pneumonia are high. Among 639 children at 1 hospital, the case-fatality rate was 12.1%, and 46.8% of pneumococcal serotypes detected were covered by the 13-valent vaccine. Most deaths occurred within 2 days of hospitalization; newborns and malnourished children were at risk. Vaccination could reduce pneumonia and deaths.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zabihullah R, Dhoubhadel BG, Rauf FA, Shafiq SA, Suzuki M, Watanabe K, et al. Risk for Death among Children with Pneumonia, Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1404-1408. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.151550
    AMA Zabihullah R, Dhoubhadel BG, Rauf FA, et al. Risk for Death among Children with Pneumonia, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1404-1408. doi:10.3201/eid2308.151550.
    APA Zabihullah, R., Dhoubhadel, B. G., Rauf, F. A., Shafiq, S. A., Suzuki, M., Watanabe, K....Ariyoshi, K. (2017). Risk for Death among Children with Pneumonia, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1404-1408. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.151550.
        Email Email this Article

Research Letters

  • Detection of Elizabethkingia spp. in Culicoides Biting Midges, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 335 KB - 2 pages]
    P. T. Mee et al.
        View Abstract

    The bacterial pathogen Elizabethkingia is known to exist in certain species of mosquito but was unknown in other arthropods. We report the detection and identification of Elizabethkingia in species of Culicoides biting midge in Australia, raising the possibility of bacterial transmission via this species.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mee PT, Lynch SE, Walker PJ, Melville L, Duchemin J. Detection of Elizabethkingia spp. in Culicoides Biting Midges, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1409-1410. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161565
    AMA Mee PT, Lynch SE, Walker PJ, et al. Detection of Elizabethkingia spp. in Culicoides Biting Midges, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1409-1410. doi:10.3201/eid2308.161565.
    APA Mee, P. T., Lynch, S. E., Walker, P. J., Melville, L., & Duchemin, J. (2017). Detection of Elizabethkingia spp. in Culicoides Biting Midges, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1409-1410. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161565.
        Email Email this Article
  • Early Evidence for Zika Virus Circulation among Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 299 KB - 2 pages]
    T. Ayllón et al.
        View Abstract

    During 2014–2016, we conducted mosquito-based Zika virus surveillance in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results suggest that Zika virus was probably introduced into the area during May–November 2013 via multiple in-country sources. Furthermore, our results strengthen the hypothesis that Zika virus in the Americas originated in Brazil during October 2012–May 2013.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ayllón T, Campos R, Brasil P, Morone F, Câmara D, Meira G, et al. Early Evidence for Zika Virus Circulation among Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1411-1412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.162007
    AMA Ayllón T, Campos R, Brasil P, et al. Early Evidence for Zika Virus Circulation among Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1411-1412. doi:10.3201/eid2308.162007.
    APA Ayllón, T., Campos, R., Brasil, P., Morone, F., Câmara, D., Meira, G....Honório, N. (2017). Early Evidence for Zika Virus Circulation among Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1411-1412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.162007.
        Email Email this Article
  • Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014 PDF Version [PDF - 304 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Tshokey et al.
        View Abstract

    Scrub typhus in Bhutan was first reported in 2009. We investigated an outbreak of scrub typhus in a remote primary school during August–October 2014. Delay in recognition and treatment resulted in 2 deaths from meningoencephalitis. Scrub typhus warrants urgent public health interventions in Bhutan.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tshokey T, Graves S, Tshering D, Phuntsho K, Tshering K, Stenos J, et al. Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1412-1414. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.162021
    AMA Tshokey T, Graves S, Tshering D, et al. Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1412-1414. doi:10.3201/eid2308.162021.
    APA Tshokey, T., Graves, S., Tshering, D., Phuntsho, K., Tshering, K., & Stenos, J. (2017). Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1412-1414. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.162021.
        Email Email this Article
  • Scrub Typhus as a Cause of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India PDF Version [PDF - 340 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Mittal et al.
        View Abstract

    Outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) have been occurring in Gorakhpur Division, Uttar Pradesh, India, for several years. In 2016, we conducted a case–control study. Our findings revealed a high proportion of AES cases with Orientia tsutsugamushi IgM and IgG, indicating that scrub typhus is a cause of AES.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mittal M, Thangaraj J, Rose W, Verghese V, Kumar C, Mittal M, et al. Scrub Typhus as a Cause of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1414-1416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170025
    AMA Mittal M, Thangaraj J, Rose W, et al. Scrub Typhus as a Cause of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1414-1416. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170025.
    APA Mittal, M., Thangaraj, J., Rose, W., Verghese, V., Kumar, C., Mittal, M....Murhekar, M. V. (2017). Scrub Typhus as a Cause of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1414-1416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170025.
        Email Email this Article
  • Human Infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, China, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 934 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Chang et al.
        View Abstract

    Burkholderia thailandensis infection in humans is uncommon. We describe a case of B. thailandensis infection in a person in China, a location heretofore unknown for B. thailandensis. We identified the specific virulence factors of B. thailandensis, which may indicate a transition to a new virulent form.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chang K, Luo J, Xu H, Li M, Zhang F, Li J, et al. Human Infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1416-1418. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170048
    AMA Chang K, Luo J, Xu H, et al. Human Infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1416-1418. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170048.
    APA Chang, K., Luo, J., Xu, H., Li, M., Zhang, F., Li, J....Lu, W. (2017). Human Infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1416-1418. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170048.
        Email Email this Article
  • mcr-1 and bla in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 744 after Meropenem and Colistin Therapy, Portugal PDF Version [PDF - 366 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Tacão et al.
        View Abstract

    Escherichia coli Ec36 was recovered from a patient in Portugal after treatment with meropenem and colistin. Besides an IncF plasmid with Tn1441d-blaKPC-3, already reported in clinical strains in this country, E. coli Ec36 co-harbored an IncX4::mcr-1 gene. Results highlight emerging co-resistance to carbapenems and polymyxins after therapy with drugs from both classes.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tacão M, Tavares R, Teixeira P, Roxo I, Ramalheira E, Ferreira S, et al. mcr-1 and blaKPC-3 in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 744 after Meropenem and Colistin Therapy, Portugal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1419-1421. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170162
    AMA Tacão M, Tavares R, Teixeira P, et al. mcr-1 and blaKPC-3 in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 744 after Meropenem and Colistin Therapy, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1419-1421. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170162.
    APA Tacão, M., Tavares, R., Teixeira, P., Roxo, I., Ramalheira, E., Ferreira, S....Henriques, I. (2017). mcr-1 and blaKPC-3 in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 744 after Meropenem and Colistin Therapy, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1419-1421. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170162.
        Email Email this Article
  • Outcomes for 2 Children after Peripartum Acquisition of Zika Virus Infection, French Polynesia, 2013–2014 PDF Version [PDF - 315 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Besnard et al.
        View Abstract

    Congenital Zika virus infection is associated with severe brain anomalies and impaired function. To determine outcomes, we followed 2 affected children for ≈30 months. For 1 who was symptomatic at birth, transient hepatitis developed. However, neurodevelopment for both children was age appropriate.

        Cite This Article
    EID Besnard M, Dub T, Gérardin P. Outcomes for 2 Children after Peripartum Acquisition of Zika Virus Infection, French Polynesia, 2013–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1421-1423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170198
    AMA Besnard M, Dub T, Gérardin P. Outcomes for 2 Children after Peripartum Acquisition of Zika Virus Infection, French Polynesia, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1421-1423. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170198.
    APA Besnard, M., Dub, T., & Gérardin, P. (2017). Outcomes for 2 Children after Peripartum Acquisition of Zika Virus Infection, French Polynesia, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1421-1423. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170198.
        Email Email this Article
  • California Serogroup Virus Infection Associated with Encephalitis and Cognitive Decline, Canada, 2015 PDF Version [PDF - 287 KB - 2 pages]
    D. Webster et al.
        View Abstract

    California serogroup (CSG) viruses, such as Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses, are mosquitoborne pathogens that cause febrile illness and neurologic disease. Human exposures have been described across Canada, but infections are likely underdiagnosed. We describe a case of neuroinvasive illness in a New Brunswick, Canada, patient infected with a CSG virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Webster D, Dimitrova K, Holloway K, Makowski K, Safronetz D, Drebot MA, et al. California Serogroup Virus Infection Associated with Encephalitis and Cognitive Decline, Canada, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1423-1424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170239
    AMA Webster D, Dimitrova K, Holloway K, et al. California Serogroup Virus Infection Associated with Encephalitis and Cognitive Decline, Canada, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1423-1424. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170239.
    APA Webster, D., Dimitrova, K., Holloway, K., Makowski, K., Safronetz, D., & Drebot, M. A. (2017). California Serogroup Virus Infection Associated with Encephalitis and Cognitive Decline, Canada, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1423-1424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170239.
        Email Email this Article
  • Effects of Influenza Strain Label on Worry and Behavioral Intentions PDF Version [PDF - 333 KB - 2 pages]
    A. M. Scherer et al.
        View Abstract

    Persons who read information about a hypothetical influenza strain with scientific (H11N3 influenza) or exotic-sounding (Yarraman flu) name reported higher worry and vaccination intentions than did those who read about strains named after an animal reservoir (horse flu). These findings suggest that terms used for influenza in public communications can influence reactions.

        Cite This Article
    EID Scherer AM, Knaus M, Zikmund-Fisher BJ, Das E, Fagerlin A. Effects of Influenza Strain Label on Worry and Behavioral Intentions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1425-1426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170364
    AMA Scherer AM, Knaus M, Zikmund-Fisher BJ, et al. Effects of Influenza Strain Label on Worry and Behavioral Intentions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1425-1426. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170364.
    APA Scherer, A. M., Knaus, M., Zikmund-Fisher, B. J., Das, E., & Fagerlin, A. (2017). Effects of Influenza Strain Label on Worry and Behavioral Intentions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1425-1426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170364.
        Email Email this Article
  • Zika Virus Screening among Spanish Team Members After 2016 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Olympic Games PDF Version [PDF - 431 KB - 3 pages]
    N. Rodriguez-Valero et al.
        View Abstract

    We evaluated the risk for the Spanish Olympic Team acquiring Zika virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2016. We recruited 117 team members, and all tested negative for Zika virus. Lack of cases in this cohort supports the minimum risk estimates made before the Games.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rodriguez-Valero N, Borobia AM, Lago M, Sánchez-Seco M, de Ory F, Vázquez A, et al. Zika Virus Screening among Spanish Team Members After 2016 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Olympic Games. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1426-1428. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170415
    AMA Rodriguez-Valero N, Borobia AM, Lago M, et al. Zika Virus Screening among Spanish Team Members After 2016 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Olympic Games. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1426-1428. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170415.
    APA Rodriguez-Valero, N., Borobia, A. M., Lago, M., Sánchez-Seco, M., de Ory, F., Vázquez, A....Muñoz, J. (2017). Zika Virus Screening among Spanish Team Members After 2016 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Olympic Games. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1426-1428. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170415.
        Email Email this Article
  • Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis as Causative Agent of Human Ocular Filariosis after Travel to India PDF Version [PDF - 705 KB - 4 pages]
    S. Winkler et al.
        View Abstract

    We report a human case of ocular Dirofilaria infection in a traveler returning to Austria from India. Analysis of mitochondrial sequences identified the worm as Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis, a close relative of Dirofilaria repens, which was only recently described in Hong Kong and proposed as a new species.

        Cite This Article
    EID Winkler S, Pollreisz A, Georgopoulos M, Bagò-Horvath Z, Auer H, To K, et al. Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis as Causative Agent of Human Ocular Filariosis after Travel to India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1428-1431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170423
    AMA Winkler S, Pollreisz A, Georgopoulos M, et al. Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis as Causative Agent of Human Ocular Filariosis after Travel to India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1428-1431. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170423.
    APA Winkler, S., Pollreisz, A., Georgopoulos, M., Bagò-Horvath, Z., Auer, H., To, K....Walochnik, J. (2017). Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis as Causative Agent of Human Ocular Filariosis after Travel to India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1428-1431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170423.
        Email Email this Article
  • Mucus-Activatable Shiga Toxin Genotype stx2d in Escherichia coli O157:H7 PDF Version [PDF - 1.64 MB - 3 pages]
    S. Sánchez et al.
        View Abstract

    We identified the mucus-activatable Shiga toxin genotype stx2d in the most common hemolytic uremic syndrome–associated Escherichia coli serotype, O157:H7. stx2d was detected in a strain isolated from a 2-year-old boy with bloody diarrhea in Spain, and whole-genome sequencing was used to confirm and fully characterize the strain.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sánchez S, Llorente M, Herrera-León L, Ramiro R, Nebreda S, Remacha M, et al. Mucus-Activatable Shiga Toxin Genotype stx2d in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1431-1433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170570
    AMA Sánchez S, Llorente M, Herrera-León L, et al. Mucus-Activatable Shiga Toxin Genotype stx2d in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1431-1433. doi:10.3201/eid2308.170570.
    APA Sánchez, S., Llorente, M., Herrera-León, L., Ramiro, R., Nebreda, S., Remacha, M....Herrera-León, S. (2017). Mucus-Activatable Shiga Toxin Genotype stx2d in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1431-1433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.170570.
        Email Email this Article

Letters

Books and Media

  • Mosquito: A Discovery Channel Documentary PDF Version [PDF - 288 KB - 1 page]
    C. H. Calisher
            Cite This Article
    EID Calisher CH. Mosquito: A Discovery Channel Documentary. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1435. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.171064
    AMA Calisher CH. Mosquito: A Discovery Channel Documentary. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1435. doi:10.3201/eid2308.171064.
    APA Calisher, C. H. (2017). Mosquito: A Discovery Channel Documentary. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1435. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.171064.
        Email Email this Article

About the Cover

  • Hematophagous Endeavors, Fact and Fancy PDF Version [PDF - 1.40 MB - 2 pages]
    B. Breedlove and P. M. Arguin
            Cite This Article
    EID Breedlove B, Arguin PM. Hematophagous Endeavors, Fact and Fancy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(8):1436-1437. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.AC2308
    AMA Breedlove B, Arguin PM. Hematophagous Endeavors, Fact and Fancy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(8):1436-1437. doi:10.3201/eid2308.AC2308.
    APA Breedlove, B., & Arguin, P. M. (2017). Hematophagous Endeavors, Fact and Fancy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(8), 1436-1437. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.AC2308.
        Email Email this Article

Etymologia

Corrections

TOP