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Lyme Disease

Lyme borreliosis is caused by various species of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes ticks. These ticks are found in temperate forested regions of North America, Europe, and Asia, generally at elevations less than 1300 meters.

Typical symptoms of Lyme borreliosis include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash. If left untreated, infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system. Symptoms may vary depending on the specific type of Borrelia. In North America, the principal species is B. burgdorferi sensu strictu, which is particular likely to cause arthritis. In contrast, the European species B. garinii and B. afzelii are more often associated with neurological and chronic dermatologic manifestations, respectively.  Approximately 85,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported annually in Europe. In the United States, recent studies suggest that approximately 300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year.


Increasing Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto–Infected Blacklegged Ticks in Tennessee Valley, Tennessee, USA
Graham J. Hickling et al. (Volume 24, Number 9) Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato in Père David Deer and Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks
Yi Yang et al. (Volume 24, Number 5) Dynamics of Spirochetemia and Early PCR Detection of Borrelia miyamotoi
Lyudmila Karan et al. (Volume 24, Number 5) Relative Risk for Ehrlichiosis and Lyme Disease Where Vectors for Both Are Sympatric, Southeastern United States
Marcia E. Herman-Giddens et al. (Volume 24, Number 2)


Lyme Borreliosis in Finland, 1995–2014
Eeva Sajanti et al. (Volume 23, Number 8) Serologic Evidence of Powassan Virus Infection in Patients with Suspected Lyme Disease1
Holly M. Frost et al. (Volume 23, Number 8) Podcast Relative Risk for Ehrlichiosis and Lyme Disease in an Area Where Vectors for Both Are Sympatric, New Jersey, USA
Andrea Egizi et al. (Volume 23, Number 6) Listen to the podcast Use of Mass-Participation Outdoor Events to Assess Human Exposure to Tickborne Pathogens
Jessica L. Hall et al. (Volume 23, Number 3)


Jennifer B. Nuzzo et al. (Volume 22, Number 10) Borrelia miyamotoi–Associated Neuroborreliosis in Immunocompromised Person
Katharina Boden et al. (Volume 22, Number 9) Current Guidelines, Common Clinical Pitfalls, and Future Directions for Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease, United States
Andrew Moore et al. (Volume 22, Number 7) Differences in Genotype, Clinical Features, and Inflammatory Potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto Strains from Europe and the United States
Tjasa Cerar et al. (Volume 22, Number 5) Lyme Disease in Hispanics, United States, 2000–2013
Christina A. Nelson et al. (Volume 22, Number 3)


No Geographic Correlation between Lyme Disease and Death Due to 4 Neurodegenerative Disorders, United States, 2001–2010
Joseph D. Forrester et al. (Volume 21, Number 11) Epidemiology of Lyme Disease, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2002–2013
Todd F. Hatchette et al. (Volume 21, Number 10) Enhancing Lyme Disease Surveillance by Using Administrative Claims Data, Tennessee, USA
Joshua L. Clayton et al. (Volume 21, Number 9) Incidence of Clinician-Diagnosed Lyme Disease, United States, 2005–2010
Christina A. Nelson et al. (Volume 21, Number 9) TickNET—A Collaborative Public Health Approach to Tickborne Disease Surveillance and Research
Paul S. Mead et al. (Volume 21, Number 9) Geographic Distribution and Expansion of Human Lyme Disease, United States
Kiersten J. Kugeler et al. (Volume 21, Number 8) Oligoarthritis Caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014
Mateusz Markowicz et al. (Volume 21, Number 6) Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008–2011
Hendrik Wilking et al. (Volume 21, Number 1)


Molecular Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from Case of Autochthonous Lyme Arthritis
Sharon I. Brummitt et al. (Volume 20, Number 12) Borrelia garinii and Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Algeria
Wassila Benredjem et al. (Volume 20, Number 10) Lyme Disease, Virginia, USA, 2000–2011
R. Jory Brinkerhoff et al. (Volume 20, Number 10) Human Infections with Borrelia miyamotoi, Japan
Kozue Sato et al. (Volume 20, Number 8) Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato Seroreactivity and Seroprevalence in the Northeastern United States
Peter J. Krause et al. (Volume 20, Number 7) Human Exposure to Tickborne Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, the Netherlands
Manoj Fonville et al. (Volume 20, Number 7) Tick-borne Pathogens in Northwestern California, USA
Daniel J. Salkeld et al. (Volume 20, Number 3) Monitoring Human Babesiosis Emergence through Vector Surveillance New England, USA
Maria A. Diuk-Wasser et al. (Volume 20, Number 2)


Potential Role of Deer Tick Virus in Powassan Encephalitis Cases in Lyme Disease–endemic Areas of New York, USA
Marc Y. El Khoury et al. (Volume 19, Number 12) Atypical Erythema Migrans in Patients with PCR-Positive Lyme Disease
Steven E. Schutzer et al. (Volume 19, Number 5) Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa
Sandrine Goutier et al. (Volume 19, Number 2)


Bartonella spp. Bacteremia and Rheumatic Symptoms in Patients from Lyme Disease–endemic Region
C. Ben Beard et al. (Volume 18, Number 11) Bartonella spp. Bacteremia and Rheumatic Symptoms in Patients from Lyme Disease–endemic Region
Ricardo G. Maggi et al. (Volume 18, Number 11) Bartonella spp. Bacteremia and Rheumatic Symptoms in Patients from Lyme Disease–endemic Region
Ricardo G. Maggi et al. (Volume 18, Number 5) Effect of Surveillance Method on Reported Characteristics of Lyme Disease, Connecticut, 1996–2007
Starr-Hope Ertel et al. (Volume 18, Number 2)


Canine Serology as Adjunct to Human Lyme Disease Surveillance
Paul S. Mead et al. (Volume 17, Number 9) Differential Risk for Lyme Disease along Hiking Trail, Germany
Dania Richter et al. (Volume 17, Number 9) Multitarget Test for Emerging Lyme Disease and Anaplasmosis in a Serosurvey of Dogs, Maine, USA
Peter W. Rand et al. (Volume 17, Number 5)


Erythema Migrans–like Illness among Caribbean Islanders
Anu Sharma et al. (Volume 16, Number 10) Geographic Differences in Genetic Locus Linkages for Borrelia burgdorferi
Bridgit Travinsky et al. (Volume 16, Number 7) Evolution of Northeastern and Midwestern Borrelia burgdorferi, United States
Dustin Brisson et al. (Volume 16, Number 6) Bartonella spp. Transmission by Ticks Not Established
Sam R. Telford et al. (Volume 16, Number 3)


Correlation between Tick Density and Pathogen Endemicity, New Hampshire
Seth T. Walk et al. (Volume 15, Number 4)


Wide Distribution of a High-Virulence Borrelia burgdorferi Clone in Europe and North America
Wei-Gang Qiu et al. (Volume 14, Number 7) Effectiveness of Personal Protective Measures to Prevent Lyme Disease
Marietta Vázquez et al. (Volume 14, Number 2)


Lyme Disease in Urban Areas, Chicago
Dean A. Jobe et al. (Volume 13, Number 11) Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Cutaneous Lyme Disease, Mexico
Guadalupe Gordillo-Pérez et al. (Volume 13, Number 10) Zoonotic Pathogens in Ixodes scapularis, Michigan
Sarah A. Hamer et al. (Volume 13, Number 7) Human Babesia microti Incidence and Ixodes scapularis Distribution, Rhode Island, 1998–2004
Sarah E. Rodgers et al. (Volume 13, Number 4)


Borrelia lusitaniae and Green Lizards (Lacerta viridis), Karst Region, Slovakia
Viktória Majláthová et al. (Volume 12, Number 12) Modulatory Effect of Cattle on Risk for Lyme Disease
Dania Richter et al. (Volume 12, Number 12) Lyme Borreliosis and Borrelia spielmanii
Vera Maraspin et al. (Volume 12, Number 7) Migratory Passerine Birds as Reservoirs of Lyme Borreliosis in Europe
Pär Comstedt et al. (Volume 12, Number 7) Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Chicago Area
Dean A. Jobe et al. (Volume 12, Number 6) Economic Impact of Lyme Disease
Xinzhi Zhang et al. (Volume 12, Number 4) Epidemic Spread of Lyme Borreliosis, Northeastern United States
Klára Hanincová et al. (Volume 12, Number 4)


Third Borrelia Species in White-footed Mice
Jonas Bunikis et al. (Volume 11, Number 7) Antibody Testing and Lyme Disease Risk
Elizabeth G. Stone et al. (Volume 11, Number 5) Hypersensitivity to Ticks and Lyme Disease Risk
Georgine Burke et al. (Volume 11, Number 1)


Do Antiborrelial Antibodies Suggest Lyme Disease in Cuba?
Islay Rodríguez et al. (Volume 10, Number 9) Typing of Borrelia Relapsing Fever Group Strains
Jonas Bunikis et al. (Volume 10, Number 9) Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis, Southern Coastal Maine
Mary S. Holman et al. (Volume 10, Number 4)


Relapsing Fever–Like Spirochetes Infecting European Vector Tick of Lyme Disease Agent
Dania Richter et al. (Volume 9, Number 6)


Co-feeding Transmission and Its Contribution to the Perpetuation of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia afzelii
Dania Richter et al. (Volume 8, Number 12) Mapping Lyme Disease Incidence for Diagnostic and Preventive Decisions, Maryland
Christina Frank et al. (Volume 8, Number 4) Predicting the Risk of Lyme Disease: Habitat Suitability for Ixodes scapularis in the North Central United States
Marta Guerra et al. (Volume 8, Number 3) Vector Interactions and Molecular Adaptations of Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes Associated with Transmission by Ticks
Tom G. Schwan et al. (Volume 8, Number 2)


Borrelia lonestari DNA in Adult Amblyomma americanum Ticks, Alabama
Thomas R. Burkot et al. (Volume 7, Number 3)


Borrelia burgdorferi and the Causative Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Deer Ticks, Delaware
Kathleen L. Curran et al. (Volume 6, Number 4) First Report of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis from Southern Europe (Spain)
José A. Oteo et al. (Volume 6, Number 4) Lyme Disease Surveillance in England and Wales, 1986-1998
Robert Smith et al. (Volume 6, Number 4) Competence of American Robins as Reservoir Hosts for Lyme Disease Spirochetes
Dania Richter et al. (Volume 6, Number 2) The bdr Gene Families of the Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: Potential Influence on Biology, Pathogenesis, and Evolution
David M. Roberts et al. (Volume 6, Number 2)

Other Resources

CDC Lyme Disease information