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References

Follow Uniform Requirements style. Do not use endnotes for references. Place reference numbers in parentheses (do not use superscript style), and italicize numbers. Number citations in order of appearance, including references in figures and tables. If a reference is used in a figure key or label or in a figure legend, it should be numbered in order with any reference numbers that have preceded the first figure citation in text. For example, if references 1–10 have been cited in text, and the figure contains a previously uncited reference, that reference should be numbered as 11 (and text reference citations renumbered accordingly).

Consult List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus for accepted journal abbreviations; if a journal is not listed, spell out the journal title in full. List the first 6 authors followed by “et al.” For juniors and subsequent sequels, include the designation (with no punctuation) after the first initial: “von Hoffman J Jr” or “Snowden CM III.” When there are >6 individual authors and a working group, list the first 6 authors, followed by et al., then the group.

Doe, Smith, Jones, Lane, Carter, James, et al.; The XYZ Working Group.  

For organizations as author, spell out the full name of the organization (World Health Organization, not WHO) if it is the author, or just give the title with no author. Never use “Anonymous” or "No author given."

For publisher location, place US states or country names in parentheses.

Adelaide (Australia): Adelaide University

Ames (IA): Iowa University Press

Cite personal communications and unpublished data (including manuscripts in preparation or submitted for publication but not yet accepted) in parentheses in text:

(D.E. Berg, pers. comm.)

(D. Stantio, unpub. data)

Articles in press (accepted for publication but not yet published) should include publication name and current year (no comma).

Authors. Article name. Publication name. In press 2008.

The following cities should be used without the state or country name when listed in references, meeting, or publisher locations (e.g., New York: John Wiley & Sons).  Provide state or country name in text for manufacturer locations (e.g., Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA, USA)

Atlanta

Cincinnati

Madrid

Pittsburgh

Amsterdam

Cleveland

Mexico City

Prague

Baltimore

Copenhagen

Miami

Rome

Basel

Dallas

Milan

San Francisco

Beijing

Denver

Minneapolis

Seattle

Belgrade

Detroit

Montreal

St. Louis

Berlin

Dublin

Moscow

Stockholm

Bonn

Edinburgh

Munich

Tokyo

Boston

Frankfurt

Naples

Toronto

Brussels

Geneva

New Orleans

Turin

Budapest

Houston

New York

Uppsala

Buenos Aires

Kiev

Oslo

Vienna

Cairo

Leningrad

Oxford

Warsaw

Cambridge*

London

Paris

Washington

Chicago

Los Angeles

Philadelphia

 Zurich

*Cambridge, Massachusetts, should be listed with the state.

Abstracts

Abstracts can be cited in the references. If the abstract has only a number, cite the name of the booklet (e.g., Program and Abstracts).

Galil K, Singleton R, Levine O, Fitzgerald M, Ajello G, Bulkow L, et al. High prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) carriage among Alaska Natives despite widespread use of Hib-conjugate vaccine. In: Abstracts of the 35th Infectious Diseases Society of America; San Francisco; 1997 Sep 13–16; Abstract 421. Alexandria (VA): Infectious Diseases Society of America; 1997.

Dissertations, Theses

Dissertations can be used as references; theses cannot. Cite theses in the text, giving all information that would normally be included in a reference. International variations in terminology occur; the primary distinction is whether or not the work is published.

Electronic Citations

If a URL is provided, it is not necessary to say “Available from.” The URL alone is sufficient.  Do not give a URL for articles that have a Medline link. Include the date cited for each URL listed in references. Use the URL for the specific page where information can be found, not to the main page of the website.

Wikipedia information should be cited in text (see www.wikipedia.org/wiki/....), not as a numbered reference.

Below are some examples of references that may not be listed in Uniform Requirements.

Electronic Journal Citations

Ben Amor Y, Nemser B, Sing A, Sankin A, Schluger N. Underreported threat of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2008 Sep [date cited]. http://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/14/9/1345.htm

Note: If the citation references an e-published ahead of print article, do not update the reference.  The reference needs to reflect the source used at the time the reference was cited.  

Other Electronic Citations

World Health Organization. Outbreak encephalitis 2005: cases of Japanese encephalitis in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2005 Oct 21 [cited 2006 Jul 11]. http://w3.whosea.org/en/Section1226/Section2073.asp

ProMed Citations

Lipkin I. West Nile–like virus: PCR primers and protocols. ProMed. 1999 Oct 13. http://www.promedmail.org, archive no. 19991013.1826.

Foreign Language Citations

References published in a foreign language but translated into English should indicate the original language in brackets, after the article title.

Pablos-Mendez A, Lessnau K. Clinical mismanagement and other factors producing antituberculosis drug resistance [in Dutch]. Journal name;2000:159–76.

References that appear in a foreign language should be translated into English, if possible.

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