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Volume 18, Number 12—December 2012

Research

Transmission Routes for Nipah Virus from Malaysia and Bangladesh

Bronwyn A. Clayton, Deborah Middleton, Jemma Bergfeld, Jessica Haining, Rachel Arkinstall, Linfa Wang, and Glenn A. MarshComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Livestock Industries, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (B.A. Clayton, D. Middleton, J. Bergfeld, J. Haining, R. Arkinstall, L. Wang, G.A. Marsh); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (B.A. Clayton); Duke–National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore (L. Wang)

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Table 3

Viral RNA and virus isolation results from ferrets experimentally infected with Nipah virus, Malaysia strain*

Dpi 1 Dpi 2 Dpi 3 Dpi 4 Dpi 5 Dpi 6 Dpi 7 Dpi 8 Dpi 9 Dpi 10
M9

NW

+/− +/−‡ +/+

OS

+/+ –‡ +/−

RS

+/+‡ +/−

Blood






+/−‡

+/+



M10

NW

+/− +/+‡ +/+

OS

–‡ +/+

RS

+/−‡ +/−

Blood






–‡

+/+



M11

NW

+/− +/+

OS

+/−

RS

Blood






+/+





M12

NW

+/+ +/+‡ +/− +/+

OS

–‡ Indet +/−

RS

–‡ +/− +/+

Blood





–‡

+/+

+/+


M13

NW

+/− +/+‡ NS +/+

OS

–‡ NS +/+

RS

+/+‡ NS +/−

Blood







–‡

NS
+/+

M14

NW

+/− +/+‡ +/+

OS

+/−‡ +/+

RS

–‡ +/−

Blood







+/+‡

+/+


M15

NW

+/− +/+ +/−‡ +/+

OS

+/− –‡ +/+

RS

+/− +/§ +/−

Blood

+/+ +/+‡ +/+

*Dpi, days postinfection; NW, nasal wash; –, Nipah virus not detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) for N gene; therefore, virus isolation was not attempted for this sample; empty cells represent days on which sampling was not scheduled for that animal; +/−, virus detected by RT-PCR but negative by virus isolation; +/+, sample positive by RT-PCR and virus isolation; OS, oral sample; RS, rectal sample; Indet, mean cycle threshold value >39.1 (the defined cutoff value for positive samples); NS ,not sampled
†RNA detection by RT-PCR.
‡Pyrexia first detected.
§Virus isolation not attempted for this sample.

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