Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Volume 19, Number 1—January 2013

Research

Risk Factors for Nipah Virus Infection among Pteropid Bats, Peninsular Malaysia

Sohayati A. Rahman, Latiffah HassanComments to Author , Jonathan H. Epstein, Zaini C. Mamat, Aziz M. Yatim, Sharifah S. Hassan, Hume E. Field, Tom Hughes, Justin Westrum, M.S. Naim, Arshad S. Suri, A. Aziz Jamaluddin, Peter Daszak, and the Henipavirus Ecology Research Group
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Veterinary Research Institute, Ipoh, Malaysia (S.A. Rahman, Z.C. Mamat, A.M. Yatim, M.S. Naim, A.A. Jamaluddin); Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia (L. Hassan, A.S. Suri); EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York, USA (J.H. Epstein, T. Hughes, J. Westrum, P. Daszak); Monash University, Selangor, (S.S. Hassan); Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (H.E. Field)

Main Article

Table 5

Univariate analysis of independent variables and Nipah virus seropositivity (without pup data) in 632 samples from Pteropus hypomelanus bats surveyed in Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia, January 2004–October 2006

Risk factor No. positive/no. tested (%) p value* Odds ratio (95% CI)
Sampling time

Jan 2004

10/50 (20) Referent 1.00

Apr 2004

7/50 (14) 0.297 0.57 (0.20–1.64)

Jul 2004

7/50 (14) 0.427 0.65 (0.23–1.88)

Sep 2004

12/51 (6.3) 0.668 1.23 (0.48–3.18)

Feb 2005

4/54 (6.9) 0.052 0.29 (0.08–1.01)

Apr 2005

5/41 (6.9) 0.262 0.53 (0.18–1.59)

Jun 2005

6/50 (12) 0.280 0.54 (0.18–1.63)

Sep 2005

2/61 (3.3) 0.013 0.13 (0.03–0.65)

Feb and Mar 2006†

1/71 (1.4) 0.007 0.05 (0.01–0.45)

May 2006

1/50 (2) 0.019 0.08 (0.01–0.66)

Jul 2006

7/50 (14) 0.427 0.65 (0.22–1.88)

Oct 2006


1/50 (2)
0.019
0.08 (0.10–0.66)
Age

Juvenile

7/194 (3.7) <0.001 1.00

Adult


56/438 (12.8)

3.91 (1.75–8.75)
Sex

M

44/395 (11.1) 0.213 1.00

F


19/237 (8.1)

0.69 (0.39–1.22)
Female reproductive status

Dry

4/65 (6.5) Referent 1.00

Pregnant

4/19 (21) 0.077 3.87 (0.86–17.29)

Carrying a pup

5/20 (25) 0.031 4.83 (1.15–20.24)

Nursing

4/23 (17.4) 0.139 3.05 (0.69–13.40)

Juvenile

2/113 (1.8) 0.128 0.26 (0.05–1.47)

*By χ2 test, Fisher exact, or simple logistic regression.
†Data were combined to enable analysis.

Main Article

1Members of the Henipavirus Ecology Research Group are listed on the group’s website (www.ecohealthalliance.org/herg).

Top of Page

USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO