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Volume 19, Number 1—January 2013

Research

Risk Factors for Nipah Virus Infection among Pteropid Bats, Peninsular Malaysia

Sohayati A. Rahman, Latiffah HassanComments to Author , Jonathan H. Epstein, Zaini C. Mamat, Aziz M. Yatim, Sharifah S. Hassan, Hume E. Field, Tom Hughes, Justin Westrum, M.S. Naim, Arshad S. Suri, A. Aziz Jamaluddin, Peter Daszak, and the Henipavirus Ecology Research Group
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Veterinary Research Institute, Ipoh, Malaysia (S.A. Rahman, Z.C. Mamat, A.M. Yatim, M.S. Naim, A.A. Jamaluddin); Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia (L. Hassan, A.S. Suri); EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York, USA (J.H. Epstein, T. Hughes, J. Westrum, P. Daszak); Monash University, Selangor, (S.S. Hassan); Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (H.E. Field)

Main Article

Table 6

Risk factors for Nipah virus seropositivity (without pup data) in Pteropus hypomelanus bats sampled in Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia, January 2004­–October 2006*

Variable β SE p value OR (95% CI)
Time

Jan 2004

Referent Referent Referent 1.00

Apr 2004

−0.58 0.57 0.310 0.55 (0.17–1.72)

Jul 2004

0.52 0.59 0.373 1.69 (0.53–5.43)

Sep 2004

0.38 0.51 0.457 1.46 (0.53–3.97)

Feb 2005

−1.31 0.62 0.034 0.26 (0.07–0.90)

Apr 2005

−1.17 0.78 0.135 0.30 (0.06–1.44)

Jun 2005

−0.44 0.59 0.459 0.64 (0.19–2.07)

Sep 2005

−1.54 0.76 0.045 0.21 (0.04–0.96)

Feb and Mar 2006†

−2.59 1.09 0.018 0.07 (0.00–0.63)

May 2006

−2.13 1.09 0.051 0.11 (0.01–1.00)

Jul 2006

−0.32 0.56 0.564 0.72 (0.24–2.17)

Oct 2006


−2.47
1.08
0.022
0.08 (0.01–0.70)
Sexual and reproductive maturity

Adult males

Referent Referent Referent 1.00

Juvenile males

−0.78 0.52 0.132 0.45 (0.16–1.27)

Dry females

−0.84 0.53 0.114 0.42 (0.14–1.22)

Pregnant females

0.50 0.62 0.421 1.65 (0.48–5.61)

Carrying a female pup

1.24 0.69 0.074 3.48 (0.88−13.6)

Nursing females

0.50 0.63 0.427 1.65 (0.47–5.74)

Juvenile females

−2.34 0.70 0.001 0.09 (0.02–0.38)

*β, estimated coefficient; OR, odds ratio.
†Data were combined to enable analysis.

Main Article

1Members of the Henipavirus Ecology Research Group are listed on the group’s website (www.ecohealthalliance.org/herg).

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