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Volume 19, Number 3—March 2013

Research

Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths to Food Commodities by using Outbreak Data, United States, 1998–2008

John A. PainterComments to Author , Robert M. Hoekstra, Tracy Ayers, Robert V. Tauxe, Christopher R. Braden, Frederick J. Angulo, and Patricia M. Griffin
Author affiliations: Author affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA

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Table 3

Estimates of annual deaths resulting from domestically acquired foodborne illnesses attributed to specific food commodities and commodity groups, by pathogen type, United States, 1998–2008*

Commodity or commodity group No. (%) deaths
All agents Bacterial Chemical Parasitic Viral
Aquatic animals† 94 (6.4) 24 (2.8) 61 (61.6) 2 (0.7) 6 (3.7)
Fish 71 (4.9) 8 (1.0) 60 (59.8) 0 (0.1) 2 (1.4)
Shellfish† 23 (1.6) 16 (1.8) 2 (1.8) 2 (0.6) 4 (2.3)
Crustaceans 3 (0.2) 2 (0.2) 0 (0.5) 0 (0.2)
Mollusks
20 (1.4)
14 (1.6)
1 (1.3)
2 (0.6)
3 (2.1)
Land animals† 629 (43.3) 570 (66.2) 13 (13.3) 0 45 (29.0)
Dairy 140 (9.7) 121 (14.0) 2 (1.5) 18 (11.8)
Eggs 71 (4.9) 57 (6.6) 3 (2.8) 11 (6.8)
Meat-poultry† 418 (28.8) 393 (45.5) 9 (8.9) 0 16 (10.4)
Meat† 140 (9.7) 130 (15.1) 1 (1.0) 0 9 (5.7)
Beef 55 (3.8) 51 (5.9) 0 (0.3) 4 (2.7)
Game 3 (0.2) 2 (0.2) 1 (0.6) 0 0 (0.1)
Pork 82 (5.7) 77 (9.0) 0 (0.1) 5 (2.9)
Poultry
278 (19.1)
262 (30.4)
8 (8.0)

7 (4.7)
Plants† 363 (25.0) 229 (26.5) 25 (25.2) 4 (1.2) 105 (67.4)
Grains-beans 27 (1.9) 16 (1.8) 5 (5.2) 6 (4.1)
Oils-sugars 3 (0.2) 1 (0.9) 2 (1.1)
Produce† 333 (22.9) 213 (24.7) 19 (19.0) 4 (1.2) 97 (62.2)
Fruits-nuts 93 (6.4) 55 (6.4) 12 (11.8) 4 (1.2) 22 (14.2)
Vegetables† 240 (16.5) 158 (18.3) 7 (7.2) 0 75 (48.0)
Fungi 2 (0.1) 0 2 (1.5)
Leafy 88 (6.0) 27 (3.1) 4 (3.7) 0 57 (36.7)
Root 21 (1.4) 12 (1.4) 0 (0.5) 9 (5.6)
Sprout 27 (1.9) 27 (3.2)
Vine-stalk
102 (7.0)
92 (10.6)
1 (1.5)
0
9 (5.7)
Undetermined
366 (25.2)
39 (4.5)

327 (98.1)
0
Total 1,451 (100.0) 862 (100.0) 100 (100.0) 333 (100.0) 156 (100.0)

*Most estimates from (1); some were made as described in Methods. Numbers of deaths are the most probable estimate, as described in Methods. Estimates are rounded; some row and column sums may differ from their totals. Blank cells indicate no data.
†Indicates commodity group.

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