Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Volume 19, Number 3—March 2013

Research

Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths to Food Commodities by using Outbreak Data, United States, 1998–2008

John A. PainterComments to Author , Robert M. Hoekstra, Tracy Ayers, Robert V. Tauxe, Christopher R. Braden, Frederick J. Angulo, and Patricia M. Griffin
Author affiliations: Author affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA

Main Article

Table 4

Estimated percentages of foodborne illnesses caused by each pathogen that were attributed to each food commodity, by etiology, United States, 1998–2008*

Etiologic agent 
(no. outbreaks 
analyzed) % Illnesses
Aquatic animals
Land animals
Plants
UND
Shellfish
Meat-poultry
Produce
Meat
Vegetables
Fish Crusta
ceans Mollusk Dairy Eggs Beef Game Pork Poultry Grains-
beans Oils-
sugars Fruits-
nuts Fungi Leafy Root Sprout Vine-
stalk
Bacterial (2,469) 0.4 0.9 2.6 18.0 4.9 13.2 0.1 9.8 17.9 5.0 6.3 0.0 5.2 2.7 0.9 12.0 0.0
Bacillus 
cereus (197) 1.0 8.1 0.9 8.6 7.8 16.2 36.8 19.9 0.8
Brucella spp. (4) 100.0
Campylobacter 
spp. (138) 0.1 6.3 64.8 0.0 1.4 7.6 1.1 8.8 5.8 4.1
Clostridium 
botulinum (30) 40.3 4.7 9.4 1.8 22.6 21.2
Clostridium 
perfringens (461) 0.4 0.6 1.2 33.1 7.2 31.3 12.7 0.6 1.3 11.6
Escherichia 
spp. (206) 5.8 2.3 28.4 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 40.5 17.3 0.4 4.2
ETEC (11) 51.4 48.6
O157 
STEC (186) 7.6 39.4 0.5 1.4 0.8 0.7 21.1 27.3 1.2
Non-O157 
STEC (6) 29.7 62.2 8.1
Other (3) 100.0
Listeria 
monocytogenes (21) 15.9 2.2 7.5 68.4 6.0
Mycobacterium 
bovis (0) 100.0
Salmonella 
enterica (877) 0.7 0.2 0.2 7.2 14.8 7.3 0.4 6.2 19.0 2.9 13.0 0.1 2.9 1.2 3.1 20.7
ser. Enteritidis (284) 0.3 0.6 1.2 60.3 2.0 1.0 17.4 3.3 1.3 1.3 11.3
ser. Heidelberg (66) 37.6 9.6 24.3 28.6
ser. Javiana (17) 10.1 1.4 48.4 6.7 5.4 28.1
ser. Newport (58) 9.1 12.2 5.8 10.1 11.5 7.4 5.8 38.2
ser. Typhimurium (106) 1.8 23.3 2.8 7.1 0.8 8.2 34.0 0.3 5.3 0.7 4.1 11.6
ser. Typhi (2) 0.8 0.1 3.5 5.7 8.8 0.5 7.5 15.9 6.3 17.8 1.5 0.8 4.5 26.2
Other (344) 100.0 .
Shigella spp. (63) 1.4 0.2 2.9 3.5 3.2 0.1 2.2 2.1 2.6 32.6 49.4
Staphylococcus 
aureus (384) 0.3 0.7 0.4 7.5 4.5 7.7 0.2 44.7 27.0 1.8 4.4 1.0
Streptococcus 
spp. group A (1) 100.0
Vibrio spp. (80) 7.4 16.7 72.9 2.8 0.2
V. cholerae, 
toxigenic (3) 50.0 50.0
V. parahaemolyticus (68) 25.1 70.6 4.2
V. vulnificus (0) 100.0
Other (9) 22.2 77.8
Yersinia 
enterocolitica (7)
.



.
.
.
.
100.0











Chemical (632) 59.8 0.5 1.3 1.5 2.8 0.3 0.6 0.1 8.0 5.2 0.9 11.8 1.5 3.7 0.5 1.5
Marine biotoxins (527) 97.3 0.5 2.2
Mycotoxins (16) 58.6 41.4
Other chemicals (89)
5.4
0.5
.

4.1
7.6
0.7
1.7
0.2
21.4

14.0
2.5
26.3
0.3
9.8
1.3

4.0

Parasitic (33) 0.4 32.9 0.1 25.9 3.1 0.5 37.1
Anisakis simplex (1) 100.0
Cryptosporidium spp. (3) 100.0 .
Cyclospora 
cayetanensis (16) 25.9 63.6 10.5
Giardia intestinalis (4) 100.0
Toxoplasma gondii (0) 100.0
Trichinella spp. (9)







100.0












Viral (1,455) 1.7 0.2 2.0 12.1 7.0 2.8 0.1 3.0 4.9 4.3 1.1 14.6 35.4 4.6 . 5.8 0.3
Astrovirus (0) 100.0
Hepatitis A virus (29) 0.6 3.1 1.0 4.2 63.2 26.0 2.0
Norovirus (1,419) 1.4 0.2 2.0 12.3 7.1 2.9 0.1 3.1 4.9 4.3 1.2 14.7 35.5 4.6 5.8
Rotavirus (5) 98.3 1.7
Sapovirus (2)











46.2



53.8




Total (4,589) 2.7 0.5 3.0 13.8 6.0 6.6 0.1 5.4 9.8 4.5 0.7 11.7 0.0 22.3 3.6 0.3 7.9 1.1

*See online Technical Appendix 1 Table 2 (wwwnc.cdc.gov/EID/article/19/3/11-1866-Techapp1.pdf) for breakdown of outbreaks by those involving simple food or complex food, number of outbreak-associated illnesses, and estimated annual number of illnesses used to determine the percentages. A value of 0.0 indicates percentage below 0.1%; blank cells indicate no illnesses in that category. UND, undetermined; ser., serotype; STEC, Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli; ETEC, enterotoxigenic E. coli; other, diarrheagenic E. coli other than STEC or ETEC.

Main Article

Top of Page

USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO