Mycobacterial Lineages Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Ethiopia
Rebuma Firdessa12, Stefan Berg1, Elena Hailu1, Esther Schelling, Balako Gumi, Girume Erenso, Endalamaw Gadisa, Teklu Kiros, Meseret Habtamu, Jemal Hussein, Jakob Zinsstag, Brian D. Robertson, Gobena Ameni, Amanda J. Lohan, Brendan Loftus, Iñaki Comas, Sebastien Gagneux, Rea Tschopp, Lawrence Yamuah, Glyn Hewinson, Stephen V. Gordon, Douglas B. Young, and Abraham Aseffa
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (R. Firdessa, E. Hailu, B. Gumi, G. Erenso, E. Gadisa, T. Kiros, M. Habtamu, J. Hussein, R. Tschopp, L. Yamuah, A. Aseffa); Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, UK (S. Berg, G. Hewinson); Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland (E. Schelling, J. Zinsstag, S. Gagneux, R. Tschopp); University of Basel, Basel (E. Schelling, J. Zinsstag, S. Gagneux); Imperial College, London, London, UK (B.D. Robertson, D.B. Young); Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa (G. Ameni); University College Dublin Conway Institute, Dublin, Ireland (A.J. Lohan, B. Loftus, S.V. Gordon); National Institute for Medical Research, London (I. Comas, D.B. Young); Centre for Public Health Research, Valencia, Spain (I. Comas); Centro de Investigación y Educación en Red en Epidemiología Biomédica Pública, Madrid, Spain (I. Comas)
Figure 2. . . Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) networks of major spoligotype clusters, Ethiopia, 2006–2010. Two large spoligotype clusters from lineage 4 (A) (90 isolates of sopligotype 149) and lineage 3 (B) (73 isolates of spoligotype 25) were further characterized by 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing (Technical Appendix Table 2). Minimum-spanning trees were calculated for each cluster by using MIRU-VNTRplus (www.miru-vntrplus.org). Each circle indicates an individual genotype. Genotypes L and E1 include >15 isolates and remaining genotypes include <15 isolates. Genotypes indicated by a black circle were isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB); those in light gray were isolated from patients with TB lymphadenitis in cervical lymph nodes (TBLN); and those in dashed circles were isolated from patients with pulmonary TB and those with TBLN. Numbers on lines between circles indicate distance between 2 genotypes.
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