Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 11, Number 10—October 2005

Volume 11, Number 10—October 2005   PDF Version [PDF - 6.12 MB - 159 pages]

Perspective

  • Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: "Prediction Is Very Difficult, Especially about the Future" PDF Version [PDF - 93 KB - 4 pages]
    P. Courvalin
    View Summary

    Although resistance cannot be prevented, much can be done to delay it.

        View Abstract

    Evolution of bacteria towards resistance to antimicrobial drugs, including multidrug resistance, is unavoidable because it represents a particular aspect of the general evolution of bacteria that is unstoppable. Therefore, the only means of dealing with this situation is to delay the emergence and subsequent dissemination of resistant bacteria or resistance genes. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs in bacteria can result from mutations in housekeeping structural or regulatory genes. Alternatively, resistance can result from the horizontal acquisition of foreign genetic information. The 2 phenomena are not mutually exclusive and can be associated in the emergence and more efficient spread of resistance. This review discusses the predictable future of the relationship between antimicrobial drugs and bacteria.

        Cite This Article
    EID Courvalin P. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: "Prediction Is Very Difficult, Especially about the Future". Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1503-1506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.051014
    AMA Courvalin P. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: "Prediction Is Very Difficult, Especially about the Future". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1503-1506. doi:10.3201/eid1110.051014.
    APA Courvalin, P. (2005). Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: "Prediction Is Very Difficult, Especially about the Future". Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1503-1506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.051014.
  • Emerging Foodborne Trematodiasis PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 8 pages]
    J. Keiser and J. Utzinger
    View Summary

    Foodborne trematodiasis is emerging because of increased aquaculture.

        View Abstract

    Foodborne trematodiasis is an emerging public health problem, particularly in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region. We summarize the complex life cycle of foodborne trematodes and discuss its contextual determinants. Currently, 601.0, 293.8, 91.1, and 79.8 million people are at risk for infection with Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus spp., Fasciola spp., and Opisthorchis spp., respectively. The relationship between diseases caused by trematodes and proximity of human habitation to suitable freshwater bodies is examined. Residents living near freshwater bodies have a 2.15-fold higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.38–3.36) for infections than persons living farther from the water. Exponential growth of aquaculture may be the most important risk factor for the emergence of foodborne trematodiasis. This is supported by reviewing aquaculture development in countries endemic for foodborne trematodiasis over the past 10–50 years. Future and sustainable control of foodborne trematodiasis is discussed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Keiser J, Utzinger J. Emerging Foodborne Trematodiasis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1507-1514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050614
    AMA Keiser J, Utzinger J. Emerging Foodborne Trematodiasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1507-1514. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050614.
    APA Keiser, J., & Utzinger, J. (2005). Emerging Foodborne Trematodiasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1507-1514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050614.

Research

  • Evolution of H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses in Asia PDF Version [PDF - 307 KB - 7 pages]
    View Summary

    Human infections were from a virus clade undergoing antigenic drift that showed resistance to adamantanes but sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors.

        View Abstract

    An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) has recently spread to poultry in 9 Asian countries. H5N1 infections have caused >52 human deaths in Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia from January 2004 to April 2005. Genomic analyses of H5N1 isolates from birds and humans showed 2 distinct clades with a nonoverlapping geographic distribution. All the viral genes were of avian influenza origin, which indicates absence of reassortment with human influenza viruses. All human H5N1 isolates tested belonged to a single clade and were resistant to the adamantane drugs but sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors. Most H5N1 isolates from humans were antigenically homogeneous and distinct from avian viruses circulating before the end of 2003. Some 2005 isolates showed evidence of antigenic drift. An updated nonpathogenic H5N1 reference virus, lacking the polybasic cleavage site in the hemagglutinin gene, was produced by reverse genetics in anticipation of the possible need to vaccinate humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Evolution of H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses in Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1515-1521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050644
    AMA Evolution of H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses in Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1515-1521. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050644.
    APA (2005). Evolution of H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses in Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1515-1521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050644.
  • New Measles Genotype, Uganda PDF Version [PDF - 203 KB - 5 pages]
    A. Muwonge et al.
    View Summary

    New measles virus genotype will increase epidemiologic and virologic surveillance in Africa.

        View Abstract

    We report the first genetic characterization of wildtype measles viruses from Uganda. Thirty-six virus isolates from outbreaks in 6 districts were analyzed from 2000 to 2002. Analyses of sequences of the nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes showed that the Ugandan isolates were all closely related, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses were members of a unique group within clade D. Sequences of the Ugandan viruses were not closely related to any of the World Health Organization reference sequences representing the 22 currently recognized genotypes. The minimum nucleotide divergence between the Ugandan viruses and the most closely related reference strain, genotype D2, was 3.1% for the N gene and 2.6% for the H gene. Therefore, Ugandan viruses should be considered a new, proposed genotype (d10). This new sequence information will expand the utility of molecular epidemiologic techniques for describing measles transmission patterns in eastern Africa.

        Cite This Article
    EID Muwonge A, Nanyunja M, Rota PA, Bwogi J, Lowe L, Liffick SL, et al. New Measles Genotype, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1522-1526. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050431
    AMA Muwonge A, Nanyunja M, Rota PA, et al. New Measles Genotype, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1522-1526. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050431.
    APA Muwonge, A., Nanyunja, M., Rota, P. A., Bwogi, J., Lowe, L., Liffick, S. L....Sylvester, S. (2005). New Measles Genotype, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1522-1526. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050431.
  • Pyrosequencing Bacillus anthracis PDF Version [PDF - 251 KB - 5 pages]
    T. Wahab et al.
    View Summary

    Pyrosequencing technology was used to rapidly and specifically identify Bacillus anthracis.

        View Abstract

    Pyrosequencing technology is a sequencing method that screens DNA nucleotide incorporation in real time. A set of coupled enzymatic reactions, together with bioluminescence, detects incorporated nucleotides in the form of light pulses, which produces a profile of characteristic peaks in a pyrogram. We used this technology to identify the warfare agent Bacillus anthracis by sequencing 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the rpoB gene as chromosomal markers for B. anthracis. In addition, 1 segment in each of the B. anthracis plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 was analyzed to determine the virulence status of the bacterial strains. Pyrosequencing technology is a powerful method to identify B. anthracis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wahab T, Hjalmarsson S, Wollin R, Engstrand L. Pyrosequencing Bacillus anthracis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1527-1531. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041316
    AMA Wahab T, Hjalmarsson S, Wollin R, et al. Pyrosequencing Bacillus anthracis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1527-1531. doi:10.3201/eid1110.041316.
    APA Wahab, T., Hjalmarsson, S., Wollin, R., & Engstrand, L. (2005). Pyrosequencing Bacillus anthracis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1527-1531. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041316.
  • Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Minnesota, 2000–2003 PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 7 pages]
    J. M. Buck et al.
    View Summary

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) invasive disease resembled healthcare-associated MRSA disease.

        View Abstract

    We compared characteristics of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and CA-MRSA invasive disease identified in Minnesota from 2000 through 2003. A total of 586 patients with SSTIs and 65 patients with invasive disease were identified. Patients with invasive disease were more likely to be smokers (p = 0.03), and report a history of immunosuppressive therapy (p = 0.03), emphysema (p = 0.011), or injection drug use (p = 0.020) than were SSTI patients. Invasive disease isolates were less likely to be susceptible to ciprofloxacin (p = 0.002) and clindamycin (p = 0.001) and more likely to have healthcare-associated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtypes than SSTI isolates (p<0.001). Patients with invasive disease may have had healthcare exposures that put them at risk of acquiring healthcare-associated MRSA and which were not exclusion criteria in the CA-MRSA case definition. Continued surveillance of MRSA is needed to better characterize CA-MRSA infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Buck JM, Como-Sabetti K, Harriman KH, Danila RN, Boxrud DJ, Glennen A, et al. Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Minnesota, 2000–2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1532-1538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050141
    AMA Buck JM, Como-Sabetti K, Harriman KH, et al. Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Minnesota, 2000–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1532-1538. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050141.
    APA Buck, J. M., Como-Sabetti, K., Harriman, K. H., Danila, R. N., Boxrud, D. J., Glennen, A....Lynfield, R. (2005). Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Minnesota, 2000–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1532-1538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050141.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci Co-colonization PDF Version [PDF - 163 KB - 6 pages]
    J. P. Furuno et al.
    View Summary

    High prevalence of co-colonization increases risk for colonization or infection by vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

        View Abstract

    We assessed the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of patients co-colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) upon admission to the medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary-care facility between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003. Co-colonization was defined as a VRE-positive perirectal surveillance culture with an MRSA-positive anterior nares surveillance culture collected concurrently. Among 2,440 patients, 65 (2.7%) were co-colonized. Independent risk factors included age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.05), admission to the medical ICU (OR 4.38, 95% CI 2.46–7.81), male sex (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.14–3.30), and receiving antimicrobial drugs on a previous admission within 1 year (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.85–5.07). None of the co-colonized patients would have been identified with clinical cultures alone. We report a high prevalence of VRE/MRSA co-colonization upon admission to ICUs at a tertiary-care hospital.

        Cite This Article
    EID Furuno JP, Perencevich EN, Johnson JA, Wright M, McGregor JC, Morris J, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci Co-colonization. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1539-1544. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050508
    AMA Furuno JP, Perencevich EN, Johnson JA, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci Co-colonization. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1539-1544. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050508.
    APA Furuno, J. P., Perencevich, E. N., Johnson, J. A., Wright, M., McGregor, J. C., Morris, J....Harris, A. D. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci Co-colonization. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1539-1544. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050508.
  • Mallards and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Ancestral Viruses, Northern Europe PDF Version [PDF - 264 KB - 7 pages]
    V. J. Munster et al.
    View Summary

    Surveillance studies in wild birds help generate prototypic vaccine candidates and diagnostic tests.

        View Abstract

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), which originate in poultry upon transmission of low pathogenic viruses from wild birds, have occurred relatively frequently in the last decade. During our ongoing surveillance studies in wild birds, we isolated several influenza A viruses of hemagglutinin subtype H5 and H7 that contain various neuraminidase subtypes. For each of the recorded H5 and H7 HPAI outbreaks in Europe since 1997, our collection contained closely related virus isolates recovered from wild birds, as determined by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin gene and antigenic characterization of the hemagglutinin glycoprotein. The minor genetic and antigenic diversity between the viruses recovered from wild birds and those causing HPAI outbreaks indicates that influenza A virus surveillance studies in wild birds can help generate prototypic vaccine candidates and design and evaluate diagnostic tests, before outbreaks occur in animals and humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Munster VJ, Wallensten A, Baas C, Rimmelzwaan GF, Schutten M, Olsen B, et al. Mallards and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Ancestral Viruses, Northern Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1545-1551. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050546
    AMA Munster VJ, Wallensten A, Baas C, et al. Mallards and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Ancestral Viruses, Northern Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1545-1551. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050546.
    APA Munster, V. J., Wallensten, A., Baas, C., Rimmelzwaan, G. F., Schutten, M., Olsen, B....Fouchier, R. (2005). Mallards and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Ancestral Viruses, Northern Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1545-1551. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050546.
  • Isolate Removal Methods and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 6 pages]
    F. Li et al.
    View Summary

    The first Staphylococcus aureus isolate from a patient should be used to calculate oxacillin susceptibility frequency.

        View Abstract

    The effect of duplicate isolate removal strategies on Staphylococcal aureus susceptibility to oxacillin was compared by using antimicrobial test results for 14,595 isolates from statewide surveillance in Hawaii in 2002. No removal was compared to most resistant and most susceptible methods at 365 days and to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) and Cerner algorithms at 3-, 10-, 30-, 90-, and 365-day analysis periods. Overall, no removal produced the lowest estimates of susceptibility. Estimates with either NCCLS or Cerner differed by <2% when the analysis period was the same; with either method, the difference observed between a 90- and a 365-day period was <1%. The effect of duplicate isolate removal was greater for inpatient than outpatient settings. Considering the ease of implementation and comparability of results, we recommend using the first isolate of a given species per patient to calculate susceptibility frequencies for S. aureus to oxacillin.

        Cite This Article
    EID Li F, Ayers TL, Park SY, Miller F, MacFadden R, Nakata M, et al. Isolate Removal Methods and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1552-1557. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050162
    AMA Li F, Ayers TL, Park SY, et al. Isolate Removal Methods and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1552-1557. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050162.
    APA Li, F., Ayers, T. L., Park, S. Y., Miller, F., MacFadden, R., Nakata, M....Effler, P. V. (2005). Isolate Removal Methods and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1552-1557. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050162.
  • Vancomycin and Home Health Care PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 7 pages]
    T. G. Fraser et al.
    View Summary

    Microbiologic diagnosis before hospital discharge and physician education may limit inappropriate vancomycin use in homecare patients.

        View Abstract

    The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee published guidelines for prudent use of vancomycin to combat increasing resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Studies examining compliance with these guidelines primarily involve hospitalized patients. The growing practice of home use of antimicrobial drugs led to this retrospective cohort study that evaluated parenteral vancomycin use in patients receiving it through a homecare agency. We found that 39.2% of outpatients received vancomycin outside the guidelines, mainly because of prolonged empiric therapy, dosing convenience, and prolonged use after surgery. Patients were more likely to receive vancomycin appropriately if they were >65 years of age, had a history of malignancy, or were discharged from a medical service. In addition, obtaining wound cultures and attempting a microbiologic diagnosis led to more appropriate vancomycin use. Recommendations for prudent vancomycin use are often overlooked when selecting antimicrobial drugs for home infusion. The public health impact of this practice remains unknown.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fraser TG, Stosor V, Wang Q, Allen A, Zembower TR. Vancomycin and Home Health Care. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1558-1564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050336
    AMA Fraser TG, Stosor V, Wang Q, et al. Vancomycin and Home Health Care. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1558-1564. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050336.
    APA Fraser, T. G., Stosor, V., Wang, Q., Allen, A., & Zembower, T. R. (2005). Vancomycin and Home Health Care. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1558-1564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050336.
  • Antibacterial Cleaning Products and Drug Resistance PDF Version [PDF - 151 KB - 6 pages]
    A. E. Aiello et al.
    View Summary

    Levels of antimicrobial drug resistance did not differ significantly between persons in households that used antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products and those that did not.

        View Abstract

    We examined whether household use of antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products is an emerging risk factor for carriage of antimicrobial drug–resistant bacteria on hands of household members. Households (N = 224) were randomized to use of antibacterial or nonantibacterial cleaning and hygiene products for 1 year. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of antibacterial product use in homes. Antibacterial product use did not lead to a significant increase in antimicrobial drug resistance after 1 year (odds ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 0.74–2.41), nor did it have an effect on bacterial susceptibility to triclosan. However, more extensive and longer term use of triclosan might provide a suitable environment for emergence of resistant species. Further research on this issue is needed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Aiello AE, Marshall B, Levy SB, Della-Latta P, Lin SX, Larson E, et al. Antibacterial Cleaning Products and Drug Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1565-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041276
    AMA Aiello AE, Marshall B, Levy SB, et al. Antibacterial Cleaning Products and Drug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1565-1570. doi:10.3201/eid1110.041276.
    APA Aiello, A. E., Marshall, B., Levy, S. B., Della-Latta, P., Lin, S. X., & Larson, E. (2005). Antibacterial Cleaning Products and Drug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1565-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041276.
  • Plasmodium falciparum Spatial Analysis, Western Kenya Highlands PDF Version [PDF - 218 KB - 7 pages]
    O. G. Munyekenye et al.
    View Summary

    Parasite transmission is intense in the highlands, and these areas are vulnerable to epidemics.

        View Abstract

    We carried out a population-based study to determine the unbiased, age-specific Plasmodium falciparum prevalence, asexual and sexual parasite density, and spatial distribution to establish rates of infection at a site in western Kenya. Three cross-sectional surveys were carried out in western Kenya highlands. Blood samples were taken from 1,388 persons from 6 months to 75 years of age. Parasite prevalence and densities in the population decreased with age and distance from valley bottoms. Children from 1 to 4 years of age had the highest parasite prevalence (38.8%–62.8%); in adults, prevalence declined to 2.9%–24.1%. Malaria prevalence declined by an average of 19% from July to December 2002 across age groups. These observations suggest that parasite transmission is intense at this altitude. Asexual parasite density indicated clustering near major vector breeding habitats. Variability in seasonal prevalence indicates transmission instability and susceptibility to epidemics.

        Cite This Article
    EID Munyekenye OG, Githeko AK, Zhou G, Mushinzimana E, Minakawa N, Yan G, et al. Plasmodium falciparum Spatial Analysis, Western Kenya Highlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1571-1577. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050106
    AMA Munyekenye OG, Githeko AK, Zhou G, et al. Plasmodium falciparum Spatial Analysis, Western Kenya Highlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1571-1577. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050106.
    APA Munyekenye, O. G., Githeko, A. K., Zhou, G., Mushinzimana, E., Minakawa, N., & Yan, G. (2005). Plasmodium falciparum Spatial Analysis, Western Kenya Highlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1571-1577. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050106.
  • Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection and Differentiation by Mass Spectrometry PDF Version [PDF - 264 KB - 6 pages]
    J. R. Barr et al.
    View Summary

    A new rapid, mass spectrometry-based method to detect and differentiate botulinal neurotoxins is described.

        View Abstract

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are proteases that cleave specific cellular proteins essential for neurotransmitter release. Seven BoNT serotypes (A–G) exist; 4 usually cause human botulism (A, B, E, and F). We developed a rapid, mass spectrometry–based method (Endopep-MS) to detect and differentiate active BoNTs A, B, E, and F. This method uses the highly specific protease activity of the toxins with target peptides specific for each toxin serotype. The product peptides derived from the endopeptidase activities of BoNTs are detected by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In buffer, this method can detect toxin equivalents of as little as 0.01 mouse lethal dose (MLD)50 and concentrations as low as 0.62 MLD50/mL. A high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for quantifying active toxin, where the amount of toxin can be correlated to the amount of product peptides, is also described.

        Cite This Article
    EID Barr JR, Moura H, Boyer AE, Woolfitt AR, Kalb SR, Pavlopoulos A, et al. Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection and Differentiation by Mass Spectrometry. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1578-1583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041279
    AMA Barr JR, Moura H, Boyer AE, et al. Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection and Differentiation by Mass Spectrometry. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1578-1583. doi:10.3201/eid1110.041279.
    APA Barr, J. R., Moura, H., Boyer, A. E., Woolfitt, A. R., Kalb, S. R., Pavlopoulos, A....Ashley, D. L. (2005). Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection and Differentiation by Mass Spectrometry. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1578-1583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041279.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Western Australia PDF Version [PDF - 226 KB - 7 pages]
    L. Dailey et al.
    View Summary

    Endemic MRSA persists in Western Australia despite control measures.

        View Abstract

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a notable cause of hospital-acquired infections. A statewide screening and control policy was implemented in Western Australia (WA) after an outbreak of epidemic MRSA in a Perth hospital in 1982. We report on statutory notifications from1998 to 2002 and review the 20-year period from 1983 to 2002. The rate of reporting of community-associated Western Australia MRSA (WAMRSA) escalated from 1998 to 2002 but may have peaked in 2001. Several outbreaks were halted, but they resulted in an increase in reports as a result of screening. A notable increase in ciprofloxacin resistance during the study period was observed as a result of more United Kingdom epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) -15 and -16. WA has seen a persistently low incidence of multidrug-resistant MRSA because of the screening and decolonization program. Non–multidrug-resistant, community-associated WAMRSA strains have not established in WA hospitals.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dailey L, Coombs GW, O'Brien FG, Pearman JW, Christiansen K, Grubb WB, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Western Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1584-1590. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050125
    AMA Dailey L, Coombs GW, O'Brien FG, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Western Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1584-1590. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050125.
    APA Dailey, L., Coombs, G. W., O'Brien, F. G., Pearman, J. W., Christiansen, K., Grubb, W. B....Riley, T. V. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Western Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1584-1590. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050125.

Dispatches

  • Atypical Infections in Tsunami Survivors PDF Version [PDF - 85 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Garzoni et al.
        View Abstract

    After a tsunami hit Asia in December 2004, 2 survivors had severe infections due to multidrug-resistant and atypical bacteria and rare fungi weeks afterwards. Treating these infections is challenging from a clinical and microbiologic point of view.

        Cite This Article
    EID Garzoni C, Emonet S, Legout L, Benedict R, Hoffmeyer P, Bernard L, et al. Atypical Infections in Tsunami Survivors. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1591-1593. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050715
    AMA Garzoni C, Emonet S, Legout L, et al. Atypical Infections in Tsunami Survivors. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1591-1593. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050715.
    APA Garzoni, C., Emonet, S., Legout, L., Benedict, R., Hoffmeyer, P., Bernard, L....Garbino, J. (2005). Atypical Infections in Tsunami Survivors. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1591-1593. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050715.
  • Genetic Characterization of Nipah Virus, Bangladesh, 2004 PDF Version [PDF - 142 KB - 4 pages]
    B. H. Harcourt et al.
        View Abstract

    Until 2004, identification of Nipah virus (NV)-like outbreaks in Bangladesh was based on serology. We describe the genetic characterization of a new strain of NV isolated during outbreaks in Bangladesh (NV-B) in 2004, which confirms that NV was the etiologic agent responsible for these outbreaks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Harcourt BH, Lowe L, Tamin A, Liu X, Bankamp B, Bowden N, et al. Genetic Characterization of Nipah Virus, Bangladesh, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1594-1597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050513
    AMA Harcourt BH, Lowe L, Tamin A, et al. Genetic Characterization of Nipah Virus, Bangladesh, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1594-1597. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050513.
    APA Harcourt, B. H., Lowe, L., Tamin, A., Liu, X., Bankamp, B., Bowden, N....Rota, P. A. (2005). Genetic Characterization of Nipah Virus, Bangladesh, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1594-1597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050513.
  • Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 284 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Sampaio et al.
        View Abstract

    Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sampaio J, Piana de Andrade V, Lucas M, Fung L, Gagliardi SB, Santos SP, et al. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1598-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050377
    AMA Sampaio J, Piana de Andrade V, Lucas M, et al. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1598-1600. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050377.
    APA Sampaio, J., Piana de Andrade, V., Lucas, M., Fung, L., Gagliardi, S. B., Santos, S. P....Dick, T. (2005). Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1598-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050377.
  • Poultry-handling Practices during Avian Influenza Outbreak, Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 77 KB - 3 pages]
    S. J. Olsen et al.
        View Abstract

    With poultry outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 continuing in Thailand, preventing human infection remains a priority. We surveyed residents of rural Thailand regarding avian influenza knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results suggest that public education campaigns have been effective in reaching those at greatest risk, although some high-risk behavior continues.

        Cite This Article
    EID Olsen SJ, Laosiritaworn Y, Pattanasin S, Praphasiri P, Dowell SF. Poultry-handling Practices during Avian Influenza Outbreak, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1601-1603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041267
    AMA Olsen SJ, Laosiritaworn Y, Pattanasin S, et al. Poultry-handling Practices during Avian Influenza Outbreak, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1601-1603. doi:10.3201/eid1110.041267.
    APA Olsen, S. J., Laosiritaworn, Y., Pattanasin, S., Praphasiri, P., & Dowell, S. F. (2005). Poultry-handling Practices during Avian Influenza Outbreak, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1601-1603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041267.
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer PDF Version [PDF - 94 KB - 3 pages]
    R. F. Massung et al.
        View Abstract

    We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white-tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

        Cite This Article
    EID Massung RF, Courtney JW, Hiratzka SL, Pitzer VE, Smith G, Dryden RL, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1604-1606. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041329
    AMA Massung RF, Courtney JW, Hiratzka SL, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1604-1606. doi:10.3201/eid1110.041329.
    APA Massung, R. F., Courtney, J. W., Hiratzka, S. L., Pitzer, V. E., Smith, G., & Dryden, R. L. (2005). Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1604-1606. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041329.
  • Melioidosis in New Caledonia PDF Version [PDF - 134 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Le Hello et al.
        View Abstract

    Recognized melioidosis-endemic areas are widening. In the South Pacific, melioidosis is endemic in New Caledonia, northern Australia, and Papua New Guinea. We report the first 4 documented cases of human melioidosis from New Caledonia. Molecular typing of 2 Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates suggests a link to Australian strains.

        Cite This Article
    EID Le Hello S, Currie BJ, Godoy D, Spratt BG, Mikulski M, Lacassin F, et al. Melioidosis in New Caledonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1607-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050823
    AMA Le Hello S, Currie BJ, Godoy D, et al. Melioidosis in New Caledonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1607-1609. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050823.
    APA Le Hello, S., Currie, B. J., Godoy, D., Spratt, B. G., Mikulski, M., Lacassin, F....Garin, B. (2005). Melioidosis in New Caledonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1607-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050823.
  • Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 213 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Nunes et al.
        View Abstract

    An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nunes M, Martins L, Rodrigues S, Chiang J, Azevedo R, Travassos da Rosa A, et al. Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1610-1613. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050464
    AMA Nunes M, Martins L, Rodrigues S, et al. Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1610-1613. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050464.
    APA Nunes, M., Martins, L., Rodrigues, S., Chiang, J., Azevedo, R., Travassos da Rosa, A....Vasconcelos, P. (2005). Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1610-1613. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050464.
  • Drug-resistant Escherichia coli, Rural Idaho PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 4 pages]
    E. L. Hannah et al.
        View Abstract

    Stool carriage of drug-resistant Escherichia coli in home-living residents of a rural community was examined. Carriage of nalidixic acid–resistant E. coli was associated with recent use of antimicrobial agents in the household. Household clustering of drug-resistant E. coli was observed. Most carriers of drug-resistant E. coli lacked conventional risk factors.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hannah EL, Angulo FJ, Johnson JR, Haddadin B, Williamson J, Samore MH, et al. Drug-resistant Escherichia coli, Rural Idaho. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1614-1617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050140
    AMA Hannah EL, Angulo FJ, Johnson JR, et al. Drug-resistant Escherichia coli, Rural Idaho. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1614-1617. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050140.
    APA Hannah, E. L., Angulo, F. J., Johnson, J. R., Haddadin, B., Williamson, J., & Samore, M. H. (2005). Drug-resistant Escherichia coli, Rural Idaho. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1614-1617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050140.
  • Canine Leishmaniasis, Italy PDF Version [PDF - 151 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Ferroglio et al.
        View Abstract

    We report the results of a survey to determine the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis and the presence of sand flies in northwestern Italy, where autochthonous foci of canine leishmaniasis have not been reported. Active foci of canine leishmaniasis were identified, which suggests that the disease is now also endemic in continental climate areas.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ferroglio E, Maroli M, Gastaldo S, Mignone W, Rossi L. Canine Leishmaniasis, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1618-1620. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.040966
    AMA Ferroglio E, Maroli M, Gastaldo S, et al. Canine Leishmaniasis, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1618-1620. doi:10.3201/eid1110.040966.
    APA Ferroglio, E., Maroli, M., Gastaldo, S., Mignone, W., & Rossi, L. (2005). Canine Leishmaniasis, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1618-1620. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.040966.
  • Myocarditis Outbreak among Adults, Illinois, 2003 PDF Version [PDF - 141 KB - 4 pages]
    G. D. Huhn et al.
        View Abstract

    An outbreak of myocarditis occurred among adults in Illinois in 2003. Diagnostic testing of myocardial tissues from 3 patients and comprehensive tests for enterovirus and adenovirus of other specimens from patients were inconclusive. Appropriate specimen collection from patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy and further enhancement of diagnostic techniques are needed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Huhn GD, Gross C, Schnurr D, Preas C, Yagi S, Reagan S, et al. Myocarditis Outbreak among Adults, Illinois, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1621-1624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041152
    AMA Huhn GD, Gross C, Schnurr D, et al. Myocarditis Outbreak among Adults, Illinois, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1621-1624. doi:10.3201/eid1110.041152.
    APA Huhn, G. D., Gross, C., Schnurr, D., Preas, C., Yagi, S., Reagan, S....Dworkin, M. S. (2005). Myocarditis Outbreak among Adults, Illinois, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1621-1624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041152.
  • Gastroenteritis Outbreak in British Troops, Iraq PDF Version [PDF - 510 KB - 4 pages]
    M. S. Bailey et al.
        View Abstract

    Gastroenteritis affected many British military personnel during the war in Iraq. In the first month, 1,340 cases were seen; 73% of patients required hospital admission and 36% were hospital staff. In a survey of 500 hospital staff, 76% reported gastroenteritis, which was more likely in clinical workers. Investigations showed only caliciviruses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bailey MS, Boos CJ, Vautier G, Green A, Appleton H, Gallimore CI, et al. Gastroenteritis Outbreak in British Troops, Iraq. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1625-1628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050298
    AMA Bailey MS, Boos CJ, Vautier G, et al. Gastroenteritis Outbreak in British Troops, Iraq. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1625-1628. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050298.
    APA Bailey, M. S., Boos, C. J., Vautier, G., Green, A., Appleton, H., Gallimore, C. I....Beeching, N. J. (2005). Gastroenteritis Outbreak in British Troops, Iraq. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1625-1628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050298.
  • Detecting Biological Warfare Agents PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 4 pages]
    L. Song et al.
        View Abstract

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

        Cite This Article
    EID Song L, Ahn S, Walt DR. Detecting Biological Warfare Agents. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1629-1632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050269
    AMA Song L, Ahn S, Walt DR. Detecting Biological Warfare Agents. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1629-1632. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050269.
    APA Song, L., Ahn, S., & Walt, D. R. (2005). Detecting Biological Warfare Agents. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1629-1632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050269.
  • Rapid West Nile Virus Antigen Detection PDF Version [PDF - 53 KB - 3 pages]
    N. A. Panella et al.
        View Abstract

    We compared the VecTest WNV antigen assay with standard methods of West Nile virus (WNV) detection in swabs from American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). The VecTest detected WNV more frequently than the plaque assay and was comparable to a TaqMan reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction.

        Cite This Article
    EID Panella NA, Burkhalter KL, Langevin SA, Brault AC, Schooley LM, Biggerstaff BJ, et al. Rapid West Nile Virus Antigen Detection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1633-1635. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.040394
    AMA Panella NA, Burkhalter KL, Langevin SA, et al. Rapid West Nile Virus Antigen Detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1633-1635. doi:10.3201/eid1110.040394.
    APA Panella, N. A., Burkhalter, K. L., Langevin, S. A., Brault, A. C., Schooley, L. M., Biggerstaff, B. J....Komar, N. (2005). Rapid West Nile Virus Antigen Detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1633-1635. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.040394.

Commentaries

  • Saving Lives through Global Safe Water PDF Version [PDF - 38 KB - 2 pages]
    J. M. Hughes and J. P. Koplan
            Cite This Article
    EID Hughes JM, Koplan JP. Saving Lives through Global Safe Water. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1636-1637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.051099
    AMA Hughes JM, Koplan JP. Saving Lives through Global Safe Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1636-1637. doi:10.3201/eid1110.051099.
    APA Hughes, J. M., & Koplan, J. P. (2005). Saving Lives through Global Safe Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1636-1637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.051099.

Another Dimension

  • The Worriers' Guild PDF Version [PDF - 78 KB - 1 page]
    P. F. Deaver
            Cite This Article
    EID Deaver PF. The Worriers' Guild. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.AD1110
    AMA Deaver PF. The Worriers' Guild. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1624. doi:10.3201/eid1110.AD1110.
    APA Deaver, P. F. (2005). The Worriers' Guild. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.AD1110.

Letters

  • Melioidosis in Tsunami Survivors PDF Version [PDF - 27 KB - 2 pages]
    E. Athan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Athan E, Allworth AM, Engler C, Bastian I, Cheng AC. Melioidosis in Tsunami Survivors. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1638-1639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050740
    AMA Athan E, Allworth AM, Engler C, et al. Melioidosis in Tsunami Survivors. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1638-1639. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050740.
    APA Athan, E., Allworth, A. M., Engler, C., Bastian, I., & Cheng, A. C. (2005). Melioidosis in Tsunami Survivors. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1638-1639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050740.
  • Chytrid Fungus in Europe PDF Version [PDF - 32 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Garner et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Garner T, Walker S, Bosch J, Hyatt AD, Cunningham AA, Fisher MC, et al. Chytrid Fungus in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1639-1641. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050109
    AMA Garner T, Walker S, Bosch J, et al. Chytrid Fungus in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1639-1641. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050109.
    APA Garner, T., Walker, S., Bosch, J., Hyatt, A. D., Cunningham, A. A., & Fisher, M. C. (2005). Chytrid Fungus in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1639-1641. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050109.
  • Vibrio metschnikovii Pneumonia PDF Version [PDF - 27 KB - 2 pages]
    F. Wallet et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Wallet F, Tachon M, Nseir S, Courcol R, Roussel-Delvallez M. Vibrio metschnikovii Pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1641-1642. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050177
    AMA Wallet F, Tachon M, Nseir S, et al. Vibrio metschnikovii Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1641-1642. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050177.
    APA Wallet, F., Tachon, M., Nseir, S., Courcol, R., & Roussel-Delvallez, M. (2005). Vibrio metschnikovii Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1641-1642. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050177.
  • Lassa Fever, Nigeria, 2003 and 2004 PDF Version [PDF - 48 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Omilabu et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Omilabu S, Badaru S, Okokhere P, Asogun D, Drosten C, Emmerich P, et al. Lassa Fever, Nigeria, 2003 and 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1642-1644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041343
    AMA Omilabu S, Badaru S, Okokhere P, et al. Lassa Fever, Nigeria, 2003 and 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1642-1644. doi:10.3201/eid1110.041343.
    APA Omilabu, S., Badaru, S., Okokhere, P., Asogun, D., Drosten, C., Emmerich, P....Günther, S. (2005). Lassa Fever, Nigeria, 2003 and 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1642-1644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041343.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Ma
            Cite This Article
    EID Ma J. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1644-1645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050680
    AMA Ma J. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1644-1645. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050680.
    APA Ma, J. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1644-1645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050680.
  • Angiostrongyliasis, Mainland China PDF Version [PDF - 45 KB - 3 pages]
    X. Chen et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Chen X, Li H, Lun Z. Angiostrongyliasis, Mainland China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1645-1647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041338
    AMA Chen X, Li H, Lun Z. Angiostrongyliasis, Mainland China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1645-1647. doi:10.3201/eid1110.041338.
    APA Chen, X., Li, H., & Lun, Z. (2005). Angiostrongyliasis, Mainland China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1645-1647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.041338.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Necrotizing Pneumonia PDF Version [PDF - 27 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Monaco et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Monaco M, Antonucci R, Palange P, Venditti M, Pantosti A. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Necrotizing Pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1647-1648. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050776
    AMA Monaco M, Antonucci R, Palange P, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Necrotizing Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1647-1648. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050776.
    APA Monaco, M., Antonucci, R., Palange, P., Venditti, M., & Pantosti, A. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Necrotizing Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1647-1648. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050776.
  • West Nile Virus Infection and Conjunctival Exposure PDF Version [PDF - 25 KB - 2 pages]
    K. Fonseca et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Fonseca K, Prince GD, Bratvold J, Fox JD, Pybus M, Preksaitis JK, et al. West Nile Virus Infection and Conjunctival Exposure. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1648-1649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.040212
    AMA Fonseca K, Prince GD, Bratvold J, et al. West Nile Virus Infection and Conjunctival Exposure. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1648-1649. doi:10.3201/eid1110.040212.
    APA Fonseca, K., Prince, G. D., Bratvold, J., Fox, J. D., Pybus, M., Preksaitis, J. K....Tilley, P. (2005). West Nile Virus Infection and Conjunctival Exposure. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1648-1649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.040212.

Books and Media

  • Revenge of the Microbes: How Bacterial Resistance is Undermining the Antibiotic Miracle PDF Version [PDF - 15 KB - 1 page]
    M. Toner
            Cite This Article
    EID Toner M. Revenge of the Microbes: How Bacterial Resistance is Undermining the Antibiotic Miracle. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1650. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050738
    AMA Toner M. Revenge of the Microbes: How Bacterial Resistance is Undermining the Antibiotic Miracle. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1650. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050738.
    APA Toner, M. (2005). Revenge of the Microbes: How Bacterial Resistance is Undermining the Antibiotic Miracle. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1650. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050738.
  • The Microbe-Host Interface in Respiratory Tract Infections
    M. R. Moore
            Cite This Article
    EID Moore MR. The Microbe-Host Interface in Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1650-1651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050831
    AMA Moore MR. The Microbe-Host Interface in Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1650-1651. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050831.
    APA Moore, M. R. (2005). The Microbe-Host Interface in Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1650-1651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050831.
  • Infections of Leisure, 3rd ed. PDF Version [PDF - 25 KB - 1 page]
    R. Dawood
            Cite This Article
    EID Dawood R. Infections of Leisure, 3rd ed.. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050828
    AMA Dawood R. Infections of Leisure, 3rd ed.. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1651. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050828.
    APA Dawood, R. (2005). Infections of Leisure, 3rd ed.. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1651. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050828.
  • Yellow Jack—How Yellow Fever Ravaged America and Walter Reed Discovered Its Deadly Secrets PDF Version [PDF - 25 KB - 1 page]
    S. Cope
            Cite This Article
    EID Cope S. Yellow Jack—How Yellow Fever Ravaged America and Walter Reed Discovered Its Deadly Secrets. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050958
    AMA Cope S. Yellow Jack—How Yellow Fever Ravaged America and Walter Reed Discovered Its Deadly Secrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1652. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050958.
    APA Cope, S. (2005). Yellow Jack—How Yellow Fever Ravaged America and Walter Reed Discovered Its Deadly Secrets. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.050958.

About the Cover

  • Of Tidal Waves and Human Frailty PDF Version [PDF - 97 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. Of Tidal Waves and Human Frailty. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1653-1654. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.AC1110
    AMA Potter P. Of Tidal Waves and Human Frailty. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1653-1654. doi:10.3201/eid1110.AC1110.
    APA Potter, P. (2005). Of Tidal Waves and Human Frailty. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1653-1654. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.AC1110.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: botulism
            Cite This Article
    EID Etymologia: botulism. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1606. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.ET1110
    AMA Etymologia: botulism. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1606. doi:10.3201/eid1110.ET1110.
    APA (2005). Etymologia: botulism. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1606. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.ET1110.

Conference Summaries

Corrections

  • Correction: Vol. 11, No. 4 PDF Version [PDF - 22 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Correction: Vol. 11, No. 4. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(10):1652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.C11110
    AMA Correction: Vol. 11, No. 4. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1652. doi:10.3201/eid1110.C11110.
    APA (2005). Correction: Vol. 11, No. 4. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.C11110.
TOP