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Volume 19, Number 2—February 2013

Volume 19, Number 2—February 2013   PDF Version [PDF - 8.69 MB - 175 pages]

Perspective

  • Rift Valley Fever and a New Paradigm of Research and Development for Zoonotic Disease Control PDF Version [PDF - 554 KB - 5 pages]
    O. Dar et al.
    View Summary

    To control this disease, funding and research should be prioritized on the basis of determined needs.

        View Abstract

    Although Rift Valley fever is a disease that, through its wider societal effects, disproportionately affects vulnerable communities with poor resilience to economic and environmental challenge, Rift Valley fever virus has since its discovery in 1931 been neglected by major global donors and disease control programs. We describe recent outbreaks affecting humans and animals and discuss the serious socioeconomic effects on the communities affected and the slow pace of development of new vaccines. We also discuss the mixed global response, which has largely been fueled by the classification of the virus as a potential bioterrorism agent and its potential to migrate beyond its traditional eastern African boundaries. We argue for a refocus of strategy with increased global collaboration and a greater sense of urgency and investment that focuses on an equity-based approach in which funding and research are prioritized by need, inspired by principles of equity and social justice.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dar O, McIntyre S, Hogarth S, Heymann D. Rift Valley Fever and a New Paradigm of Research and Development for Zoonotic Disease Control. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):189-193. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120941
    AMA Dar O, McIntyre S, Hogarth S, et al. Rift Valley Fever and a New Paradigm of Research and Development for Zoonotic Disease Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):189-193. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120941.
    APA Dar, O., McIntyre, S., Hogarth, S., & Heymann, D. (2013). Rift Valley Fever and a New Paradigm of Research and Development for Zoonotic Disease Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 189-193. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120941.

Synopses

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Children, Massachusetts and New Hampshire,USA, 1970–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 2.48 MB - 9 pages]
    M. A. Silverman et al.
    View Summary

    A short prodrome in children is associated with more severe disease and increased risk for death.

        View Abstract

    We describe the clinical, laboratory, and radiographic characteristics of 15 cases of eastern equine encephalitis in children during 1970–2010. The most common clinical and laboratory features were fever, headache, seizures, peripheral leukocytosis, and cerebrospinal fluid neutrophilic pleocytosis. Radiographic lesions were found in the basal ganglia, thalami, and cerebral cortex. Clinical outcomes included severe neurologic deficits in 5 (33%) patients, death of 4 (27%), full recovery of 4 (27%), and mild neurologic deficits in 2 (13%). We identify an association between a short prodrome and an increased risk for death or for severe disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Silverman MA, Misasi J, Smole S, Feldman HA, Cohen AB, Santagata S, et al. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Children, Massachusetts and New Hampshire,USA, 1970–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):194-201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120039
    AMA Silverman MA, Misasi J, Smole S, et al. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Children, Massachusetts and New Hampshire,USA, 1970–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):194-201. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120039.
    APA Silverman, M. A., Misasi, J., Smole, S., Feldman, H. A., Cohen, A. B., Santagata, S....Ahmed, A. A. (2013). Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Children, Massachusetts and New Hampshire,USA, 1970–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 194-201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120039.
  • Lessons and Challenges for Measles Control from Unexpected Large Outbreak, Malawi PDF Version [PDF - 791 KB - 8 pages]
    A. Minetti et al.
    View Summary

    Supplementary immunization activities are crucial to reduce the number of susceptible children.

        View Abstract

    Despite high reported coverage for routine and supplementary immunization, in 2010 in Malawi, a large measles outbreak occurred that comprised 134,000 cases and 304 deaths. Although the highest attack rates were for young children (2.3%, 7.6%, and 4.5% for children <6, 6–8, and 9–11 months, respectively), persons >15 years of age were highly affected (1.0% and 0.4% for persons 15–19 and >19 years, respectively; 28% of all cases). A survey in 8 districts showed routine coverage of 95.0% for children 12–23 months; 57.9% for children 9–11 months; and 60.7% for children covered during the last supplementary immunization activities in 2008. Vaccine effectiveness was 83.9% for 1 dose and 90.5% for 2 doses. A continuous accumulation of susceptible persons during the past decade probably accounts for this outbreak. Countries en route to measles elimination, such as Malawi, should improve outbreak preparedness. Timeliness and the population chosen are crucial elements for reactive campaigns.

        Cite This Article
    EID Minetti A, Kagoli M, Katsulukuta A, Huerga H, Featherstone A, Chiotcha H, et al. Lessons and Challenges for Measles Control from Unexpected Large Outbreak, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):202-209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120301
    AMA Minetti A, Kagoli M, Katsulukuta A, et al. Lessons and Challenges for Measles Control from Unexpected Large Outbreak, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):202-209. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120301.
    APA Minetti, A., Kagoli, M., Katsulukuta, A., Huerga, H., Featherstone, A., Chiotcha, H....Luquero, F. J. (2013). Lessons and Challenges for Measles Control from Unexpected Large Outbreak, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 202-209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120301.
  • Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak with Nosocomial and Corpse-to-Human Transmission, Bangladesh PDF Version [PDF - 881 KB - 8 pages]
    H. Sazzad et al.
    View Summary

    Particularly vulnerable are health care workers who do not use personal protective equipment and persons who do not wash hands after traditional burial practices.

        View Abstract

    Active Nipah virus encephalitis surveillance identified an encephalitis cluster and sporadic cases in Faridpur, Bangladesh, in January 2010. We identified 16 case-patients; 14 of these patients died. For 1 case-patient, the only known exposure was hugging a deceased patient with a probable case, while another case-patient’s exposure involved preparing the same corpse for burial by removing oral secretions and anogenital excreta with a cloth and bare hands. Among 7 persons with confirmed sporadic cases, 6 died, including a physician who had physically examined encephalitis patients without gloves or a mask. Nipah virus–infected patients were more likely than community-based controls to report drinking raw date palm sap and to have had physical contact with an encephalitis patient (29% vs. 4%, matched odds ratio undefined). Efforts to prevent transmission should focus on reducing caregivers’ exposure to infected patients’ bodily secretions during care and traditional burial practices.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sazzad H, Hossain M, Gurley ES, Ameen K, Parveen S, Islam M, et al. Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak with Nosocomial and Corpse-to-Human Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):210-217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120971
    AMA Sazzad H, Hossain M, Gurley ES, et al. Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak with Nosocomial and Corpse-to-Human Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):210-217. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120971.
    APA Sazzad, H., Hossain, M., Gurley, E. S., Ameen, K., Parveen, S., Islam, M....Luby, S. P. (2013). Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak with Nosocomial and Corpse-to-Human Transmission, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 210-217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120971.

Research

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 635 KB - 6 pages]
    J. Drobeniuc et al.
    View Summary

    Clinicians should consider this virus in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis, regardless of patient travel history.

        View Abstract

    To investigate characteristics of hepatitis E cases in the United States, we tested samples from persons seronegative for acute hepatitis A and B whose clinical specimens were referred to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during June 2005–March 2012 for hepatitis E virus (HEV) testing. We found that 26 (17%) of 154 persons tested had hepatitis E. Of these, 15 had not recently traveled abroad (nontravelers), and 11 had (travelers). Compared with travelers, nontravelers were older (median 61 vs. 32 years of age) and more likely to be anicteric (53% vs. 8%); the nontraveler group also had fewer persons of South Asian ethnicity (7% vs. 73%) and more solid-organ transplant recipients (47% vs. 0). HEV genotype 3 was characterized from 8 nontravelers and genotypes 1 or 4 from 4 travelers. Clinicians should consider HEV infection in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis, regardless of patient travel history.

        Cite This Article
    EID Drobeniuc J, Greene-Montfort T, Le N, Mixson-Hayden TR, Ganova-Raeva L, Dong C, et al. Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):218-222. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120961
    AMA Drobeniuc J, Greene-Montfort T, Le N, et al. Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):218-222. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120961.
    APA Drobeniuc, J., Greene-Montfort, T., Le, N., Mixson-Hayden, T. R., Ganova-Raeva, L., Dong, C....Teo, C. (2013). Laboratory-based Surveillance for Hepatitis E Virus Infection, United States, 2005–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 218-222. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120961.
  • Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Early Infancy and Pneumonia Hospitalizations among Children, Kenya PDF Version [PDF - 467 KB - 7 pages]
    P. Munywoki et al.
    View Summary

    Close postdischarge follow-up could help prevent future severe respiratory disease.

        View Abstract

    Severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been associated with later pneumonia hospitalization among children. To determine risk for pneumonia after RSV hospitalization in infancy, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 2,813 infants admitted to a hospital in Kenya and identified readmissions for pneumonia among this group during early childhood (<60 months of age). Incidence of readmission for pneumonia was higher for children whose first admission as infants was for LRTI and who were <3 months of age than for children who were first admitted as infants for non-LRTI, irrespective of RSV status. Incidence of readmission for pneumonia with wheeze was higher for children whose first admission involved RSV compared with those who had non-RSV LRTI. Excess pneumonia risk persisted for 2 years after the initial hospitalization. Close postdischarge follow-up of infants with LRTI, with or without RSV, could help prevent severe pneumonia later in childhood.

        Cite This Article
    EID Munywoki P, Ohuma EO, Ngama M, Bauni E, Scott J, Nokes D, et al. Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Early Infancy and Pneumonia Hospitalizations among Children, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):223-229. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120940
    AMA Munywoki P, Ohuma EO, Ngama M, et al. Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Early Infancy and Pneumonia Hospitalizations among Children, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):223-229. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120940.
    APA Munywoki, P., Ohuma, E. O., Ngama, M., Bauni, E., Scott, J., & Nokes, D. (2013). Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Early Infancy and Pneumonia Hospitalizations among Children, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 223-229. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120940.
  • Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria PDF Version [PDF - 3.25 MB - 7 pages]
    N. Cabanel et al.
    View Summary

    Neighboring but independent (unlinked) plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya.

    Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009

        View Abstract

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cabanel N, Leclercq A, Chenal-Francisque V, Annajar B, Rajerison M, Bekkhoucha S, et al. Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):230-236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121031
    AMA Cabanel N, Leclercq A, Chenal-Francisque V, et al. Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):230-236. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121031.
    APA Cabanel, N., Leclercq, A., Chenal-Francisque, V., Annajar, B., Rajerison, M., Bekkhoucha, S....Carniel, E. (2013). Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 230-236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121031.
  • Phylogenetic and Ecologic Perspectives of a Monkeypox Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2005 PDF Version [PDF - 1.56 MB - 9 pages]
    Y. Nakazawa et al.
        View Abstract

    Identification of human monkeypox cases during 2005 in southern Sudan (now South Sudan) raised several questions about the natural history of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in Africa. The outbreak area, characterized by seasonally dry riverine grasslands, is not identified as environmentally suitable for MPXV transmission. We examined possible origins of this outbreak by performing phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences of MPXV isolates from the outbreak in Sudan and from differing localities. We also compared the environmental suitability of study localities for monkeypox transmission. Phylogenetically, the viruses isolated from Sudan outbreak specimens belong to a clade identified in the Congo Basin. This finding, added to the political instability of the area during the time of the outbreak, supports the hypothesis of importation by infected animals or humans entering Sudan from the Congo Basin, and person-to-person transmission of virus, rather than transmission of indigenous virus from infected animals to humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nakazawa Y, Emerson GL, Carroll DS, Zhao H, Li Y, Reynolds MG, et al. Phylogenetic and Ecologic Perspectives of a Monkeypox Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):237-245. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121220
    AMA Nakazawa Y, Emerson GL, Carroll DS, et al. Phylogenetic and Ecologic Perspectives of a Monkeypox Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):237-245. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121220.
    APA Nakazawa, Y., Emerson, G. L., Carroll, D. S., Zhao, H., Li, Y., Reynolds, M. G....Damon, I. K. (2013). Phylogenetic and Ecologic Perspectives of a Monkeypox Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 237-245. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121220.
  • Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 1.05 MB - 8 pages]
    I. E. Aradaib et al.
    View Summary

    Viral sequences analyzed indicate recent virus movement and support the need for surveillance.

        View Abstract

    To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006–2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas.

        Cite This Article
    EID Aradaib IE, Erickson BR, Elageb RM, Khristova ML, Carroll SA, Elkhidir IM, et al. Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):246-253. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120834
    AMA Aradaib IE, Erickson BR, Elageb RM, et al. Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):246-253. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120834.
    APA Aradaib, I. E., Erickson, B. R., Elageb, R. M., Khristova, M. L., Carroll, S. A., Elkhidir, I. M....Nichol, S. T. (2013). Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 246-253. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120834.

Historical Review

  • Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A PDF Version [PDF - 1.94 MB - 6 pages]
    E. Tognotti
    View Summary

    The complex and controversial history of this centuries-old public health strategy offers guidance for its future use.

        View Abstract

    In the new millennium, the centuries-old strategy of quarantine is becoming a powerful component of the public health response to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. During the 2003 pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome, the use of quarantine, border controls, contact tracing, and surveillance proved effective in containing the global threat in just over 3 months. For centuries, these practices have been the cornerstone of organized responses to infectious disease outbreaks. However, the use of quarantine and other measures for controlling epidemic diseases has always been controversial because such strategies raise political, ethical, and socioeconomic issues and require a careful balance between public interest and individual rights. In a globalized world that is becoming ever more vulnerable to communicable diseases, a historical perspective can help clarify the use and implications of a still-valid public health strategy.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tognotti E. Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):254-259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120312
    AMA Tognotti E. Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):254-259. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120312.
    APA Tognotti, E. (2013). Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 254-259. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120312.

Dispatches

  • Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks from Migratory Birds, Morocco PDF Version [PDF - 6.65 MB - 4 pages]
    A. M. Palomar et al.
        View Abstract

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus was detected in ticks removed from migratory birds in Morocco. This finding demonstrates the circulation of this virus in northwestern Africa and supports the hypothesis that the virus can be introduced into Europe by infected ticks transported from Africa by migratory birds.

        Cite This Article
    EID Palomar AM, Portillo A, Santibáñez P, Mazuelas D, Arizaga J, Crespo A, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks from Migratory Birds, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):260-263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121193
    AMA Palomar AM, Portillo A, Santibáñez P, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks from Migratory Birds, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):260-263. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121193.
    APA Palomar, A. M., Portillo, A., Santibáñez, P., Mazuelas, D., Arizaga, J., Crespo, A....Oteo, J. A. (2013). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks from Migratory Birds, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 260-263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121193.
  • Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France PDF Version [PDF - 2.25 MB - 3 pages]
    A. Berto et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated viability of hepatitis E virus (HEV) identified in contaminated pork liver sausages obtained from France. HEV replication was demonstrated in 1 of 4 samples by using a 3-dimensional cell culture system. The risk for human infection with HEV by consumption of these sausages should be considered to be high.

        Cite This Article
    EID Berto A, Grierson S, Hakze-van der Honing R, Martelli F, Johne R, Reetz J, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):264-266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121255
    AMA Berto A, Grierson S, Hakze-van der Honing R, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):264-266. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121255.
    APA Berto, A., Grierson, S., Hakze-van der Honing, R., Martelli, F., Johne, R., Reetz, J....Banks, M. (2013). Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Liver Sausage, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 264-266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121255.
  • Human Infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, Spain, 2007–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 3.21 MB - 3 pages]
    J. M. Ramos et al.
        View Abstract

    Human infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was initially reported in 1996, and reports of a total of 18 cases have been published. We describe 6 additional cases that occurred in the Mediterranean coast region of Spain during 2007–2011. Clinicians should consider this infection in patients who have traveled to this area.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ramos JM, Jado I, Padilla S, Masiá M, Anda P, Gutiérrez F, et al. Human Infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, Spain, 2007–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):267-269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.111706
    AMA Ramos JM, Jado I, Padilla S, et al. Human Infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, Spain, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):267-269. doi:10.3201/eid1902.111706.
    APA Ramos, J. M., Jado, I., Padilla, S., Masiá, M., Anda, P., & Gutiérrez, F. (2013). Human Infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, Spain, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 267-269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.111706.
  • Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh PDF Version [PDF - 13.19 MB - 4 pages]
    K. J. Olival et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

        Cite This Article
    EID Olival KJ, Islam A, Yu M, Anthony SJ, Epstein JH, Khan S, et al. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):270-273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120524
    AMA Olival KJ, Islam A, Yu M, et al. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):270-273. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120524.
    APA Olival, K. J., Islam, A., Yu, M., Anthony, S. J., Epstein, J. H., Khan, S....Daszak, P. (2013). Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 270-273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120524.
  • Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996 PDF Version [PDF - 2.54 MB - 4 pages]
    H. Weissenböck et al.
        View Abstract

    Retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples from bird deaths in the Tuscany region of Italy in 1996 identified Usutu virus. Partial sequencing confirmed identity with the 2001 Vienna strain and provided evidence for a much earlier introduction of this virus into Europe than previously assumed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Weissenböck H, Bakonyi T, Rossi G, Mani P, Nowotny N. Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):274-277. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121191
    AMA Weissenböck H, Bakonyi T, Rossi G, et al. Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):274-277. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121191.
    APA Weissenböck, H., Bakonyi, T., Rossi, G., Mani, P., & Nowotny, N. (2013). Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 274-277. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121191.
  • Kyasanur Forest Disease, India, 2011–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 32.27 MB - 4 pages]
    G. S. Kasabi et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the cause of the recent upsurge in Kyasanur Forest disease, we investigated the outbreak that occurred during December 2011–March 2012 in India. Male patients >14 years of age were most commonly affected. Although vaccination is the key strategy for preventing disease, vaccine for boosters was unavailable during 2011, which might be a reason for the increased cases.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kasabi GS, Murhekar MV, Yadav PD, Raghunandan R, Kiran S, Sandhya V, et al. Kyasanur Forest Disease, India, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):278-281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120544
    AMA Kasabi GS, Murhekar MV, Yadav PD, et al. Kyasanur Forest Disease, India, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):278-281. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120544.
    APA Kasabi, G. S., Murhekar, M. V., Yadav, P. D., Raghunandan, R., Kiran, S., Sandhya, V....Mehendale, S. M. (2013). Kyasanur Forest Disease, India, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 278-281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120544.
  • Macrolide- and Rifampin-Resistant Rhodococcus equi on a Horse Breeding Farm, Kentucky, USA PDF Version [PDF - 947 KB - 4 pages]
    A. J. Burton et al.
        View Abstract

    Macrolide and rifampin resistance developed on a horse breeding farm after widespread use was instituted for treatment of subclinical pulmonary lesions in foals. Resistance occurred in 6 (24%) of 25 pretreatment and 8 (62%) of 13 (62%) posttreatment isolates from affected foals. Drug-resistant isolates formed 2 distinct genotypic clusters.

        Cite This Article
    EID Burton AJ, Giguère S, Sturgill TL, Berghaus LJ, Slovis NM, Whitman JL, et al. Macrolide- and Rifampin-Resistant Rhodococcus equi on a Horse Breeding Farm, Kentucky, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):282-285. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121210
    AMA Burton AJ, Giguère S, Sturgill TL, et al. Macrolide- and Rifampin-Resistant Rhodococcus equi on a Horse Breeding Farm, Kentucky, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):282-285. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121210.
    APA Burton, A. J., Giguère, S., Sturgill, T. L., Berghaus, L. J., Slovis, N. M., Whitman, J. L....Cohen, N. D. (2013). Macrolide- and Rifampin-Resistant Rhodococcus equi on a Horse Breeding Farm, Kentucky, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 282-285. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121210.
  • Campylobacter Infection in Poultry-Processing Workers, Virginia, USA, 2008–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 558 KB - 3 pages]
    M. A. de Perio et al.
        View Abstract

    During a health hazard evaluation, we investigated 29 cases of laboratory-diagnosed Campylobacter infection among workers at a poultry-processing plant. Most infected employees worked at the plant <1 month, worked as live hangers, and lived at a state-operated center. To lessen the infection risk, we recommended improvements to engineering and administrative controls at the plant.

        Cite This Article
    EID de Perio MA, Niemeier R, Levine SJ, Gruszynski K, Gibbins JD. Campylobacter Infection in Poultry-Processing Workers, Virginia, USA, 2008–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):286-288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121147
    AMA de Perio MA, Niemeier R, Levine SJ, et al. Campylobacter Infection in Poultry-Processing Workers, Virginia, USA, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):286-288. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121147.
    APA de Perio, M. A., Niemeier, R., Levine, S. J., Gruszynski, K., & Gibbins, J. D. (2013). Campylobacter Infection in Poultry-Processing Workers, Virginia, USA, 2008–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 286-288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121147.
  • Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan PDF Version [PDF - 4.12 MB - 4 pages]
    N. Ohashi et al.
        View Abstract

    We retrospectively confirmed 2 cases of human Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Patient blood samples contained unique p44/msp2 for the pathogen, and antibodies bound to A. phagocytophilum antigens propagated in THP-1 rather than HL60 cells. Unless both cell lines are used for serodiagnosis of rickettsiosis-like infections, cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis could go undetected.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ohashi N, Gaowa, Wuritu N, Kawamori F, Wu D, Yoshikawa Y, et al. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):289-292. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120855
    AMA Ohashi N, Gaowa, Wuritu N, et al. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):289-292. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120855.
    APA Ohashi, N., Gaowa., Wuritu, N., Kawamori, F., Wu, D., Yoshikawa, Y....Kishimoto, T. (2013). Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 289-292. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120855.
  • Genetic Variants of Echovirus 13, Northern India, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 1.18 MB - 4 pages]
    H. Maan et al.
        View Abstract

    Nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis is increasing in India. To determine viral causes, we conducted cell culture and molecular analysis identification of nonpolio human enteroviruses associated with acute flaccid paralysis during March–August 2010 in northern India. The predominant nonpolio enterovirus found was echovirus 13, a serotype rarely isolated in India.

        Cite This Article
    EID Maan H, Chowdhary R, Shakya A, Dhole TN. Genetic Variants of Echovirus 13, Northern India, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):293-296. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.111832
    AMA Maan H, Chowdhary R, Shakya A, et al. Genetic Variants of Echovirus 13, Northern India, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):293-296. doi:10.3201/eid1902.111832.
    APA Maan, H., Chowdhary, R., Shakya, A., & Dhole, T. N. (2013). Genetic Variants of Echovirus 13, Northern India, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 293-296. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.111832.
  • Transmission and Maintenance Cycle of Bartonella quintana among Rhesus Macaques, China PDF Version [PDF - 772 KB - 4 pages]
    H. Li et al.
        View Abstract

    We detected Bartonella quintana in 48.6% of captive rhesus macaques from an animal facility in Beijing, China. Prevalence of infection increased over the period of observation. Our findings suggest that macaques may serve as reservoir hosts for B. quintana and that Pedicinus obtusus lice might act as efficient vectors.

        Cite This Article
    EID Li H, Liu W, Zhang G, Sun Z, Bai J, Jiang B, et al. Transmission and Maintenance Cycle of Bartonella quintana among Rhesus Macaques, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):297-300. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120816
    AMA Li H, Liu W, Zhang G, et al. Transmission and Maintenance Cycle of Bartonella quintana among Rhesus Macaques, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):297-300. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120816.
    APA Li, H., Liu, W., Zhang, G., Sun, Z., Bai, J., Jiang, B....Cao, W. (2013). Transmission and Maintenance Cycle of Bartonella quintana among Rhesus Macaques, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 297-300. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120816.
  • Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa PDF Version [PDF - 1.12 MB - 4 pages]
    S. Goutier et al.
        View Abstract

    Borrelia crocidurae–associated relapsing fever is endemic to West Africa and is considered benign. We report 4 patients with B. crocidurae–associated neurologic symptoms; 2 of their cases had been misdiagnosed. Frequency and severity of this disease could be underestimated; molecular methods and serodiagnostic tests for Lyme disease might be helpful in its detection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Goutier S, Ferquel E, Pinel C, Bosseray A, Hoen B, Couetdic G, et al. Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):301-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121325
    AMA Goutier S, Ferquel E, Pinel C, et al. Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):301-304. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121325.
    APA Goutier, S., Ferquel, E., Pinel, C., Bosseray, A., Hoen, B., Couetdic, G....Cornet, M. (2013). Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 301-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121325.
  • Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Surveillance at Live Poultry Markets, Cambodia, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 19.73 MB - 4 pages]
    S. Horm et al.
        View Abstract

    In Cambodia, influenza A(H5N1) virus surveillance at live poultry markets (LPMs) relies on virus isolation from poultry specimens; however, virus is rarely detected by this method. We tested 502 environmental LPM samples: 90 were positive by PCR, 10 by virus isolation. Virus circulation could be better monitored by environmental sampling of LPMs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Horm S, Sorn S, Allal L, Buchy P. Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Surveillance at Live Poultry Markets, Cambodia, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):305-308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121201
    AMA Horm S, Sorn S, Allal L, et al. Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Surveillance at Live Poultry Markets, Cambodia, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):305-308. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121201.
    APA Horm, S., Sorn, S., Allal, L., & Buchy, P. (2013). Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Surveillance at Live Poultry Markets, Cambodia, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 305-308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121201.
  • Risk Factors for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among Students, Beijing, China PDF Version [PDF - 610 KB - 4 pages]
    Y. Zheng et al.
        View Abstract

    To identify risk factors associated with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among students in Beijing, China, we conducted a case–control study. Participants (304 case-patients and 608 controls, age range 6–19 years) were interviewed by using a standardized questionnaire. We found that in addition to vaccination, nonpharmaceutical interventions appeared to be protective.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zheng Y, Duan W, Yang P, Zhang Y, Wang X, Zhang L, et al. Risk Factors for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among Students, Beijing, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):309-312. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120628
    AMA Zheng Y, Duan W, Yang P, et al. Risk Factors for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among Students, Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):309-312. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120628.
    APA Zheng, Y., Duan, W., Yang, P., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Zhang, L....Wang, Q. (2013). Risk Factors for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among Students, Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 309-312. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120628.
  • Risk Perceptions for Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Poultry Workers, China PDF Version [PDF - 3.42 MB - 4 pages]
    Q. Yu et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine risk for avian influenza virus infection, we conducted serologic surveillance for H5 and H9 subtypes among poultry workers in Beijing, China, 2009–2010, and assessed workers’ understanding of avian influenza. We found that poultry workers had considerable risk for infection with H9 subtypes. Increasing their knowledge could prevent future infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yu Q, Liu L, Pu J, Zhao J, Sun Y, Shen G, et al. Risk Perceptions for Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Poultry Workers, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):313-316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120251
    AMA Yu Q, Liu L, Pu J, et al. Risk Perceptions for Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Poultry Workers, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):313-316. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120251.
    APA Yu, Q., Liu, L., Pu, J., Zhao, J., Sun, Y., Shen, G....Liu, J. (2013). Risk Perceptions for Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Poultry Workers, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 313-316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120251.
  • High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania PDF Version [PDF - 18.00 MB - 4 pages]
    T. Dill et al.
        View Abstract

    Rickettsioses caused by typhus group rickettsiae have been reported in various African regions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,227 participants from 9 different sites in the Mbeya region, Tanzania; overall seroprevalence of typhus group rickettsiae was 9.3%. Risk factors identified in multivariable analysis included low vegetation density and highway proximity.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dill T, Dobler G, Saathoff E, Clowes P, Kroidl I, Ntinginya E, et al. High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):317-320. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120601
    AMA Dill T, Dobler G, Saathoff E, et al. High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):317-320. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120601.
    APA Dill, T., Dobler, G., Saathoff, E., Clowes, P., Kroidl, I., Ntinginya, E....Heinrich, N. (2013). High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 317-320. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120601.

Letters

  • Acute Schmallenberg Virus Infections, France, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 376 KB - 2 pages]
    C. Sailleau et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Sailleau C, Bréard E, Viarouge C, Desprat A, Doceul V, Lara E, et al. Acute Schmallenberg Virus Infections, France, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):321-322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121281
    AMA Sailleau C, Bréard E, Viarouge C, et al. Acute Schmallenberg Virus Infections, France, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):321-322. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121281.
    APA Sailleau, C., Bréard, E., Viarouge, C., Desprat, A., Doceul, V., Lara, E....Zientara, S. (2013). Acute Schmallenberg Virus Infections, France, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 321-322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121281.
  • Toscana Virus Isolated from Sandflies, Tunisia PDF Version [PDF - 521 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Bichaud et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Bichaud L, Dachraoui K, Piorkowski G, Chelbi I, Moureau G, Cherni S, et al. Toscana Virus Isolated from Sandflies, Tunisia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):322-324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121463
    AMA Bichaud L, Dachraoui K, Piorkowski G, et al. Toscana Virus Isolated from Sandflies, Tunisia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):322-324. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121463.
    APA Bichaud, L., Dachraoui, K., Piorkowski, G., Chelbi, I., Moureau, G., Cherni, S....Zhioua, E. (2013). Toscana Virus Isolated from Sandflies, Tunisia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 322-324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121463.
  • Seroprevalence of Dengue in American Samoa, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 324 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Duncombe et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Duncombe J, Lau C, Weinstein P, Aaskov J, Rourke M, Grant R, et al. Seroprevalence of Dengue in American Samoa, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):324-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120464
    AMA Duncombe J, Lau C, Weinstein P, et al. Seroprevalence of Dengue in American Samoa, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):324-326. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120464.
    APA Duncombe, J., Lau, C., Weinstein, P., Aaskov, J., Rourke, M., Grant, R....Clements, A. (2013). Seroprevalence of Dengue in American Samoa, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 324-326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120464.
  • Delayed Diagnosis of Dirofilariasis and Complex Ocular Surgery, Russia PDF Version [PDF - 984 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Ilyasov et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ilyasov B, Kartashev V, Bastrikov N, Morchón R, González-Miguel J, Simón F, et al. Delayed Diagnosis of Dirofilariasis and Complex Ocular Surgery, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):326-328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121388
    AMA Ilyasov B, Kartashev V, Bastrikov N, et al. Delayed Diagnosis of Dirofilariasis and Complex Ocular Surgery, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):326-328. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121388.
    APA Ilyasov, B., Kartashev, V., Bastrikov, N., Morchón, R., González-Miguel, J., & Simón, F. (2013). Delayed Diagnosis of Dirofilariasis and Complex Ocular Surgery, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 326-328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121388.
  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infections among American Indians PDF Version [PDF - 499 KB - 2 pages]
    B. Knust et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Knust B, Holman RC, Redd J, Mehal JM, Grube SM, MacNeil A, et al. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infections among American Indians. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):328-329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120888
    AMA Knust B, Holman RC, Redd J, et al. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infections among American Indians. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):328-329. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120888.
    APA Knust, B., Holman, R. C., Redd, J., Mehal, J. M., Grube, S. M., MacNeil, A....Rollin, P. E. (2013). Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infections among American Indians. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 328-329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120888.
  • Streptococcus suis Meningitis in Swine Worker, Minnesota, USA PDF Version [PDF - 278 KB - 2 pages]
    H. N. Fowler et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Fowler HN, Brown P, Rovira A, Shade B, Klammer K, Smith K, et al. Streptococcus suis Meningitis in Swine Worker, Minnesota, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):330-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120918
    AMA Fowler HN, Brown P, Rovira A, et al. Streptococcus suis Meningitis in Swine Worker, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):330-331. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120918.
    APA Fowler, H. N., Brown, P., Rovira, A., Shade, B., Klammer, K., Smith, K....Scheftel, J. (2013). Streptococcus suis Meningitis in Swine Worker, Minnesota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 330-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120918.
  • Streptococcus suis and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Vietnam PDF Version [PDF - 462 KB - 3 pages]
    N. Hoa et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hoa N, Chieu T, Do Dung S, Long N, Hieu T, Luc N, et al. Streptococcus suis and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):331-333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120470
    AMA Hoa N, Chieu T, Do Dung S, et al. Streptococcus suis and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):331-333. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120470.
    APA Hoa, N., Chieu, T., Do Dung, S., Long, N., Hieu, T., Luc, N....Bryant, J. E. (2013). Streptococcus suis and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 331-333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120470.
  • Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom PDF Version [PDF - 353 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Payne et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Payne B, Medhi M, Ijaz S, Valappil M, Savage EJ, Gill O, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):333-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121174
    AMA Payne B, Medhi M, Ijaz S, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):333-336. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121174.
    APA Payne, B., Medhi, M., Ijaz, S., Valappil, M., Savage, E. J., Gill, O....Schwab, U. (2013). Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence among Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 333-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121174.
  • Imported Hepatitis E Virus, Central African Republic, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 379 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Bouscaillou et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Bouscaillou J, Komas N, Tricou V, Nakouné E, Sélékon B, Fontanet A, et al. Imported Hepatitis E Virus, Central African Republic, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):336-337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120670
    AMA Bouscaillou J, Komas N, Tricou V, et al. Imported Hepatitis E Virus, Central African Republic, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):336-337. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120670.
    APA Bouscaillou, J., Komas, N., Tricou, V., Nakouné, E., Sélékon, B., Fontanet, A....Kazanji, M. (2013). Imported Hepatitis E Virus, Central African Republic, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 336-337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120670.
  • Clustered Cases of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, France PDF Version [PDF - 347 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Edouard et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Edouard S, Parola P, Socolovschi C, Davoust B, La Scola B, Raoult D, et al. Clustered Cases of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):337-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120863
    AMA Edouard S, Parola P, Socolovschi C, et al. Clustered Cases of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):337-338. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120863.
    APA Edouard, S., Parola, P., Socolovschi, C., Davoust, B., La Scola, B., & Raoult, D. (2013). Clustered Cases of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 337-338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120863.
  • Rickettsiae in Ticks, Japan, 2007–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 378 KB - 3 pages]
    Gaowa et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Gaowa, Ohashi N, Aochi M, Wuritu N, Wu D, Yoshikawa Y, et al. Rickettsiae in Ticks, Japan, 2007–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):338-340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120856
    AMA Gaowa, Ohashi N, Aochi M, et al. Rickettsiae in Ticks, Japan, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):338-340. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120856.
    APA Gaowa., Ohashi, N., Aochi, M., Wuritu, N., Wu, D., Yoshikawa, Y....Kishimoto, T. (2013). Rickettsiae in Ticks, Japan, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 338-340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120856.
  • Tropheryma whipplei Genotypes 1 and 3, Central Europe PDF Version [PDF - 659 KB - 2 pages]
    N. Wetzstein et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Wetzstein N, Fenollar F, Buffet S, Moos V, Schneider T, Raoult D, et al. Tropheryma whipplei Genotypes 1 and 3, Central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):341-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120709
    AMA Wetzstein N, Fenollar F, Buffet S, et al. Tropheryma whipplei Genotypes 1 and 3, Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):341-342. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120709.
    APA Wetzstein, N., Fenollar, F., Buffet, S., Moos, V., Schneider, T., & Raoult, D. (2013). Tropheryma whipplei Genotypes 1 and 3, Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 341-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120709.
  • Yersinia pestis Plasminogen Activator Gene Homolog in Rat Tissues PDF Version [PDF - 306 KB - 3 pages]
    I. Janse et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Janse I, Hamidjaja RA, Reusken C. Yersinia pestis Plasminogen Activator Gene Homolog in Rat Tissues. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):342-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120659
    AMA Janse I, Hamidjaja RA, Reusken C. Yersinia pestis Plasminogen Activator Gene Homolog in Rat Tissues. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):342-344. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120659.
    APA Janse, I., Hamidjaja, R. A., & Reusken, C. (2013). Yersinia pestis Plasminogen Activator Gene Homolog in Rat Tissues. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 342-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120659.
  • Coxiella burnetii in Ticks, Argentina PDF Version [PDF - 3.19 MB - 3 pages]
    R. C. Pacheco et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pacheco RC, Echaide IE, Alves RN, Beletti ME, Nava S, Labruna MB, et al. Coxiella burnetii in Ticks, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):344-346. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120362
    AMA Pacheco RC, Echaide IE, Alves RN, et al. Coxiella burnetii in Ticks, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):344-346. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120362.
    APA Pacheco, R. C., Echaide, I. E., Alves, R. N., Beletti, M. E., Nava, S., & Labruna, M. B. (2013). Coxiella burnetii in Ticks, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 344-346. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120362.
  • Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Brocket Deer, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 2.22 MB - 3 pages]
    C. Favero et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Favero C, Matos A, Campos F, Cândido M, Costa É, Heinemann M, et al. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Brocket Deer, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):346-348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120551
    AMA Favero C, Matos A, Campos F, et al. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Brocket Deer, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):346-348. doi:10.3201/eid1902.120551.
    APA Favero, C., Matos, A., Campos, F., Cândido, M., Costa, É., Heinemann, M....Lobato, Z. (2013). Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Brocket Deer, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 346-348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120551.

Books and Media

  • Spillover: Animal Infection and the Next Human Pandemic PDF Version [PDF - 399 KB - 1 page]
    C. Brown
            Cite This Article
    EID Brown C. Spillover: Animal Infection and the Next Human Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121694
    AMA Brown C. Spillover: Animal Infection and the Next Human Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):349. doi:10.3201/eid1902.121694.
    APA Brown, C. (2013). Spillover: Animal Infection and the Next Human Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121694.

About the Cover

  • The Iconography of Vermin PDF Version [PDF - 1.93 MB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. The Iconography of Vermin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):350-351. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.AC1902
    AMA Potter P. The Iconography of Vermin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):350-351. doi:10.3201/eid1902.AC1902.
    APA Potter, P. (2013). The Iconography of Vermin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 350-351. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.AC1902.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Quarantine PDF Version [PDF - 2.11 MB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Etymologia: Quarantine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.ET1902
    AMA Etymologia: Quarantine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(2):263. doi:10.3201/eid1902.ET1902.
    APA (2013). Etymologia: Quarantine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.ET1902.
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