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Volume 20, Number 4—April 2014

Volume 20, Number 4—April 2014   PDF Version [PDF - 10.30 MB - 223 pages]


  • Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine and Reporting of Doses Administered, New York, New York, USA PDF Version [PDF - 937 KB - 7 pages]
    R. Marcello et al.
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    Mandating reporting of all doses administered during an influenza pandemic was feasible.

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    In 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene delivered influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) vaccine to health care providers, who were required to report all administered doses to the Citywide Immunization Registry. Using data from this registry and a provider survey, we estimated the number of all pH1N1 vaccine doses administered. Of 2.8 million doses distributed during October 1, 2009–March 4, 2010, a total of 988,298 doses were administered and reported; another 172,289 doses were administered but not reported, for a total of 1,160,587 doses administered during this period. Reported doses represented an estimated 80%–85% of actual doses administered. Reporting by a wide range of provider types was feasible during a pandemic. Pediatric-care providers had the highest reporting rate (93%). Other private-care providers who routinely did not report vaccinations indicated that they had few, if any, problems, thereby suggesting that mandatory reporting of all vaccines would be feasible.


  • Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 493 KB - 8 pages]
    B. Meyer et al.
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    Camels were infected with this virus >10 years before the first human cases.

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    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract infection in humans in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. Dromedary camels have been implicated as possible viral reservoirs. We used serologic assays to analyze 651 dromedary camel serum samples from the United Arab Emirates; 151 of 651 samples were obtained in 2003, well before onset of the current epidemic, and 500 serum samples were obtained in 2013. Recombinant spike protein–specific immunofluorescence and virus neutralization tests enabled clear discrimination between MERS-CoV and bovine CoV infections. Most (632/651, 97.1%) camels had antibodies against MERS-CoV. This result included all 151 serum samples obtained in 2003. Most (389/651, 59.8%) serum samples had MERS-CoV–neutralizing antibody titers >1,280. Dromedary camels from the United Arab Emirates were infected at high rates with MERS-CoV or a closely related, probably conspecific, virus long before the first human MERS cases.

  • Ciprofloxacin Resistance and Gonorrhea Incidence Rates in 17 Cities, United States, 1991–2006 PDF Version [PDF - 480 KB - 8 pages]
    H. W. Chesson et al.
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    Antimicrobial drug resistance can lead to increases in gonorrhea incidence rates.

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    Antimicrobial drug resistance can hinder gonorrhea prevention and control efforts. In this study, we analyzed historical ciprofloxacin resistance data and gonorrhea incidence data to examine the possible effect of antimicrobial drug resistance on gonorrhea incidence at the population level. We analyzed data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project and city-level gonorrhea incidence rates from surveillance data for 17 cities during 1991–2006. We found a strong positive association between ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates at the city level during this period. Their association was consistent with predictions of mathematical models in which resistance to treatment can increase gonorrhea incidence rates through factors such as increased duration of infection. These findings highlight the possibility of future increases in gonorrhea incidence caused by emerging cephalosporin resistance.

  • Active Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus, Egypt, 2010–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 799 KB - 10 pages]
    G. Kayali et al.
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    Continued circulation of influenza virus A subtypes H5N1 and H9N2 highlights the need for a revised intervention plan.

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    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.

  • Contact Investigation for Imported Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Germany PDF Version [PDF - 359 KB - 6 pages]
    A. Reuss et al.
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    No evidence was found for nosocomial transmission of this coronavirus.

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    On March 19, 2013, a patient from United Arab Emirates who had severe respiratory infection was transferred to a hospital in Germany, 11 days after symptom onset. Infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was suspected on March 21 and confirmed on March 23; the patient, who had contact with an ill camel shortly before symptom onset, died on March 26. A contact investigation was initiated to identify possible person-to-person transmission and assess infection control measures. Of 83 identified contacts, 81 were available for follow-up. Ten contacts experienced mild symptoms, but test results for respiratory and serum samples were negative for MERS-CoV. Serologic testing was done for 53 (75%) of 71 nonsymptomatic contacts; all results were negative. Among contacts, the use of FFP2/FFP3 face masks during aerosol exposure was more frequent after MERS-CoV infection was suspected than before. Infection control measures may have prevented nosocomial transmission of the virus.

  • Efficiency of Points of Dispensing for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccination, Los Angeles County, California, USA, 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 462 KB - 6 pages]
    S. Saha et al.
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    Placing vaccine clinics in high population density areas could be an effective strategy to reach large numbers of people.

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    During October 23–December 8, 2009, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health used points of dispensing (PODs) to improve access to and increase the number of vaccinations against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. We assessed the efficiency of these units and access to vaccines among ethnic groups. An average of 251 persons per hour (SE 65) were vaccinated at the PODs; a 10% increase in use of live-attenuated monovalent vaccines reduced that rate by 23 persons per hour (SE 7). Vaccination rates were highest for Asians (257/10,000 persons), followed by Hispanics (114/10,000), whites (75/100,000), and African Americans (37/10,000). Average distance traveled to a POD was highest for whites (6.6 miles; SD 6.5) and lowest for Hispanics (4.7 miles; SD ±5.3). Placing PODs in areas of high population density could be an effective strategy to reach large numbers of persons for mass vaccination, but additional PODs may be needed to improve coverage for specific populations.

  • Epidemic of Mumps among Vaccinated Persons, the Netherlands, 2009–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 694 KB - 6 pages]
    J. Sane et al.
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    Mainly vaccinated students were affected, indicating inadequate vaccine effectiveness, but vaccination reduced risk for complications.

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    To analyze the epidemiology of a nationwide mumps epidemic in the Netherlands, we reviewed 1,557 notified mumps cases in persons who had disease onset during September 1, 2009–August 31, 2012. Seasonality peaked in spring and autumn. Most case-patients were males (59%), 18–25 years of age (67.9%), and vaccinated twice with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (67.7%). Nearly half (46.6%) of cases occurred in university students or in persons with student contacts. Receipt of 2 doses of vaccine reduced the risk for orchitis, the most frequently reported complication (vaccine effectiveness [VE] 74%, 95% CI 57%–85%); complications overall (VE 76%, 95% CI 61%–86%); and hospitalization (VE 82%, 95% CI 53%–93%). Over time, the age distribution of case-patients changed, and proportionally more cases were reported from nonuniversity cities (p<0.001). Changes in age and geographic distribution over time may reflect increased immunity among students resulting from intense exposure to circulating mumps virus.

  • Rapid Increase in Pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 566 KB - 8 pages]
    C. Lam et al.
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    This pattern is consistent with continuing evolution in response to vaccine selection pressure.

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    Acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis were introduced in Australia in 1997. By 2000, these vaccines had replaced whole-cell vaccines. During 2008–2012, a large outbreak of pertussis occurred. During this period, 30% (96/320) of B. pertussis isolates did not express the vaccine antigen pertactin (prn). Multiple mechanisms of prn inactivation were documented, including IS481 and IS1002 disruptions, a variation within a homopolymeric tract, and deletion of the prn gene. The mechanism of lack of expression of prn in 16 (17%) isolates could not be determined at the sequence level. These findings suggest that B. pertussis not expressing prn arose independently multiple times since 2008, rather than by expansion of a single prn-negative clone. All but 1 isolate had ptxA1, prn2, and ptxP3, the alleles representative of currently circulating strains in Australia. This pattern is consistent with continuing evolution of B. pertussis in response to vaccine selection pressure.

  • Underdiagnosis of Foodborne Hepatitis A, the Netherlands, 2008–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 380 KB - 7 pages]
    M. Petrignani et al.
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    Routine typing of virus from serum from reported patients is useful for detection of foodborne outbreaks.

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    Outbreaks of foodborne hepatitis A are rarely recognized as such. Detection of these infections is challenging because of the infection’s long incubation period and patients’ recall bias. Nevertheless, the complex food market might lead to reemergence of hepatitis A virus outside of disease-endemic areas. To assess the role of food as a source of infection, we combined routine surveillance with real-time strain sequencing in the Netherlands during 2008–2010. Virus RNA from serum of 248 (59%) of 421 reported case-patients could be sequenced. Without typing, foodborne transmission was suspected for only 4% of reported case-patients. With typing, foodborne transmission increased to being the most probable source of infection for 16%. We recommend routine implementation of an enhanced surveillance system that includes prompt forwarding and typing of hepatitis A virus RNA isolated from serum, standard use of questionnaires, data sharing, and centralized interpretation of data.

  • Regional Variation in Travel-related Illness acquired in Africa, March 1997–May 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 558 KB - 10 pages]
    M. Mendelson et al.
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    Travel-related illness acquired in Africa varies markedly by the geographic region visited on the continent.

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    To understand geographic variation in travel-related illness acquired in distinct African regions, we used the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network database to analyze records for 16,893 ill travelers returning from Africa over a 14-year period. Travelers to northern Africa most commonly reported gastrointestinal illnesses and dog bites. Febrile illnesses were more common in travelers returning from sub-Saharan countries. Eleven travelers died, 9 of malaria; these deaths occurred mainly among male business travelers to sub-Saharan Africa. The profile of illness varied substantially by region: malaria predominated in travelers returning from Central and Western Africa; schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and dengue from Eastern and Western Africa; and loaisis from Central Africa. There were few reports of vaccine-preventable infections, HIV infection, and tuberculosis. Geographic profiling of illness acquired during travel to Africa guides targeted pretravel advice, expedites diagnosis in ill returning travelers, and may influence destination choices in tourism.

  • Large Outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis Infection Transmitted through the Public Water Supply, Sweden PDF Version [PDF - 1.03 MB - 9 pages]
    M. Widerström et al.
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    Use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious public health consequences.

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    In November 2010, ≈27,000 (≈45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens.

  • Gnathostoma spinigerum in Live Asian Swamp Eels (Monopterus spp.) from Food Markets and Wild Populations, United States PDF Version [PDF - 642 KB - 9 pages]
    R. A. Cole et al.
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    Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis.

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    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Travel-associated Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, 2004–2009 PDF Version [PDF - 669 KB - 9 pages]
    R. S. Barlow et al.
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    Providers should evaluate patient travel history and bacterial serotype when considering antimicrobial therapy.

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    To evaluate trends in and risk factors for acquisition of antimicrobial-drug resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella infections, we searched Oregon surveillance data for 2004–2009 for all culture-confirmed cases of salmonellosis. We defined clinically important resistance (CIR) as decreased susceptibility to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Of 2,153 cases, 2,127 (99%) nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates were obtained from a specific source (e.g., feces, urine, blood, or other normally sterile tissue) and had been tested for drug susceptibility. Among these, 347 (16%) isolates had CIR. The odds of acquiring CIR infection significantly increased each year. Hospitalization was more likely for patients with than without CIR infections. Among patients with isolates that had been tested, we analyzed data from 1,813 (84%) who were interviewed. Travel to eastern or Southeast Asia was associated with increased CIR. Isolates associated with outbreaks were less likely to have CIR. Future surveillance activities should evaluate resistance with respect to international travel.

  • Rotavirus Surveillance in Urban and Rural Areas of Niger, April 2010–March 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 460 KB - 8 pages]
    A. Page et al.
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    The emergence of G12P[8] warrants close attention to the characteristics of associated epidemics and possible prevention measures.

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    Knowledge of rotavirus epidemiology is necessary to make informed decisions about vaccine introduction and to evaluate vaccine impact. During April 2010–March 2012, rotavirus surveillance was conducted among 9,745 children <5 years of age in 14 hospitals/health centers in Niger, where rotavirus vaccine has not been introduced. Study participants had acute watery diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration, and 20% of the children were enrolled in a nutrition program. Of the 9,745 children, 30.6% were rotavirus positive. Genotyping of a subset of positive samples showed a variety of genotypes during the first year, although G2P[4] predominated. G12 genotypes, including G12P[8], which has emerged as a predominant strain in western Africa, represented >80% of isolates during the second year. Hospitalization and death rates and severe dehydration among rotavirus case-patients did not differ during the 2 years. The emergence of G12P[8] warrants close attention to the characteristics of associated epidemics and possible prevention measures.

  • Novel Betacoronavirus in Dromedaries of the Middle East, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 749 KB - 13 pages]
    P. Woo et al.
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    Continuous surveillance is needed to understand the potential for virus emergence in camels and subsequent transmission to humans.

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    In 2013, a novel betacoronavirus was identified in fecal samples from dromedaries in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Antibodies against the recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the virus, which we named dromedary camel coronavirus (DcCoV) UAE-HKU23, were detected in 52% of 59 dromedary serum samples tested. In an analysis of 3 complete DcCoV UAE-HKU23 genomes, we identified the virus as a betacoronavirus in lineage A1. The DcCoV UAE-HKU23 genome has G+C contents; a general preference for G/C in the third position of codons; a cleavage site for spike protein; and a membrane protein of similar length to that of other betacoronavirus A1 members, to which DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is phylogenetically closely related. Along with this coronavirus, viruses of at least 8 other families have been found to infect camels. Because camels have a close association with humans, continuous surveillance should be conducted to understand the potential for virus emergence in camels and for virus transmission to humans.

  • High Rates of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Gene Acquisition after International Travel, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 1.23 MB - 9 pages]
    C. von Wintersdorff et al.
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    The metagenomic approach used might detect resistance genes in more species than culturing bacteria does.

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    We investigated the effect of international travel on the gut resistome of 122 healthy travelers from the Netherlands by using a targeted metagenomic approach. Our results confirm high acquisition rates of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase encoding gene blaCTX-M, documenting a rise in prevalence from 9.0% before travel to 33.6% after travel (p<0.001). The prevalence of quinolone resistance encoding genes qnrB and qnrS increased from 6.6% and 8.2% before travel to 36.9% and 55.7% after travel, respectively (both p<0.001). Travel to Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent was associated with the highest acquisition rates of qnrS and both blaCTX-M and qnrS, respectively. Investigation of the associations between the acquisitions of the blaCTX-M and qnr genes showed that acquisition of a blaCTX-M gene was not associated with that of a qnrB (p = 0.305) or qnrS (p = 0.080) gene. These findings support the increasing evidence that travelers contribute to the spread of antimicrobial drug resistance.




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